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Ingolstadt, University of, Jesuit edu- Scotland, 506. See Legal Educa-
cation at, cxxxvii. 535

tion
Inkermann, battle of (1854), heroism Inquisition, the, in Spain, promoted
of the Guards at, cxl. 483

by Ferdinand and Isabella, cxvii.
Innes (Mr. A. Taylor), his Law of

383
Creeds in Scotland, cxxviii. 251; Insane, the, early maltreatment of,
his theory of the formation of cxxxi. 418; Mr. Darwin's cir-
Churches, 276 note

cular swing,' 419; cage in Beth-
Innocent IV. (Pope, d. 1254), his lehem Hospital, 420; good re-

assistance to bridge-making in sults of the Committee of 1815,
France, cxix. 344

421; progress of improved ideas,
Innocent VII. (Pope, d. 1406), bis 422; introduction of the non-

attempt to revive literature at restraint system, 423; reforms at
Rome, cxxxvi. 121

the Lincoln Asylum, ib. 425;
Inns of Court and of Chancery, Pinel at Bicêtre, 426; Conolly at

cxxxiv. 483; origin of, 486; tur- Hanwell, 428; unnatural isola-
bulent conduct of inmates, ib.; tion at asylums, 431 (see Lunatic
progress of, under the Plantage- Asylums); colony of, in Belgium,
nets, 487; Fortescue's account of, 438; influence of 'family life,
in his time, ib.; condition of early 441; need of greater liberty,
students, ib.; Apprentici and 442; proposed treatment of harm-
Readers, 488; origin of Barristers, less cases, 444; question of cura-
489; Inns of Chancery appropri- bility, 446; need of psychological
ated by attornies, ib.; 'course of study, 447
study, ib. ; attornies excluded from Insanity, curative effects of early
Inns of Court, 490; contests be- treatment of, cxii. 527 ; imperfect
tween the two Inns, 491 ; Orders cerebral tests of, 535; change of
of 1630 and 1665 never since re- habits a cause for suspicion, 537;
voked, 492; reign of Elizabeth, imperfection of the Lunacy Laws,
493; Inner and Outer barristers, 538; its intimate connexion with
ib.; exercises described, ib.; Moot- dreaming, 539
ings, 495; changes under the Inscriptions, Christian and Jewish,
Puritans, ib.; benchers chosen by cxx, 217; discovery of, in the
the Council, 496; their lethargy, Roman catacombs, 219.

See
497; neglect of libraries, ib.; Christian Inscriptions
want of discipline, ib.; mode of | Inspiration, Scriptural, various theo-
preparation for the bar, 498; in- ries of, cxiii. 483; silence of the
ertness of benchers to legal educa- Articles on, 491. See Scriptures
tion, 500; four lectureships estab-

popular view of, cxvii. 502;
lished in 1845, ib.; the Council idea of, compatible with textual
of Legal Education, ib.; Com- errors, 506; does not include in-
mission of 1855, 501; evidence fallible scientific accuracy, 508;
thereat, ib.; a joint University inspired does not mean faultless,510;
recommended in the Report, 502 ; feedom of inquiry vindicated, 512
the plan agreed to at Lincoln's Inn,

issues respecting, raised in
ib.; Consolidated Regulations of the Essays and Reviews' case,
1869 as to barristers, 503; posi- cxx. 273; doctrine of the Church
tion and etiquette of the bar, of England thereon, judicially de-
505; solicitors in England and clared, 289; pastorals of the two

archbishops on, ib. 290; authority division of labour, 601; develop-
of the canon, 291; silence of ment of, in manufactures, 606;
ancient creeds and councils re- introduction of foreign, 607; ob-
specting, 298, 299

jections to official scrutiny of,
Inspiration, limited application of the 609

term, cxxi, 54, 55; test of science Intoxicating liquore, influence of, on
applied to, 68; Christian faith not labour, cxxxviii. 344
weakened by historical inaccu- Iodine, Sir H, Davy's experiments
racies, 70 ; cautious language of

on, cxxxii. 184
the Articles respecting, 160; real Ionia, the term applied to the By-
issue involved in the dispute on, zantine Empire, cxii. 145
564; M. Guizot's views on, 566 ; Ionian Islands, British road-making
wrongly identified with infalli- in, cxvii. 588 ; the annexation
bility, 568; recent judgment of movement, 602
the Privy Council concerning, 569; Ipecacuanha, medicinal value of,
views of the early fathers, 570 ; cxxxviii. 533; cultivation of, at
edom of inquiry vindicated,

Kew, ib.
572 ; inductive and deductive Ireland, emigration ascribed by Sir
principles of, 573

A. Alison to free trade, cxi. 140;
Instinct, nature of, cxv. 96

deplorable state of, in 1807, 395;
affinity of, to reason in ani- electioneering corruption, ib. 403;
mals, cxxxiii. 172; peculiar kinds impudent claims of the Protestant
of, not attributable to organisation, clergy to patronage, 404. See
174

Irish Church
in man and animals, com-

Silurian discoveries in, cxii.
pared, cxxxiv. 218

94
Intellectual greatness, two types of,

new materials for history of,
cxxx. 165

cxiv. 370; savage state of, in the
International,' the, Working-men's eleventh century, 372 ; land

Association so called, cxxxiv. 526 ; tenures of the Septs, ib.; contests
secretaries of, ib.; protest against after death of Brian Boroimhe,
the French war with Prussia, 527; 373; decline of the Pale in the
their principles of social revolu- sixteenth century, 375; wise
tion,' ib. 528; origin of the society, policy of Henry VIII., 377; dis-
529; organisation of, ib.; hos- union under Elizabeth, 380; mis-
tility of congresses to, 530; their government before the rebellion
first success in Paris, 531; their of 1641, 382; injurious effects of
share in the Commune,' ib.

the Settlement on the Protestant
International Law. See Law, Inter- colony, 389; growth of Whig
national

Opposition in the middle of the
Intoxicating liquors, annual expendi- last century, 390
ture on, cxxxvii. 399; consumption

ancient lake-fortresses in,
of, by the working classes, 400; cxvi. 173
evils of free trade in, 403 ; oppo-

English notions of crime in,
site policy of the Alliance, ib.

cxvii. 249; good results of the
Inventions, simultaneous, cxxi. 586 ; Penal Servitude Act of 1853, 250;

difficulty of apportioning merit in, supervision of criminals in, 251;
589 ; protections to inventors, the intermediate prison system,
597 (see Patents); promoted by ib.; objections to the convict sys-

tem in, 255; its applicability to

England, ib.
Ireland, survey of, by Colonel Colby,
cxviii. 389; Ordnance survey

used
as the basis of local assessment, 399

the “Scoti' in, cxix. 176;
misgovernmentof, under Elizabeth,
269; continual emigration from,
279; not due to recent misgovern-
ment, ib.; modern legislative re-
forms in, 280; effects of educa-
tion in promoting emigration in,
282; state of manufactures in the
seventeenth century, 284 note ;
condition of the people in 1834,
285; alleged proselytism in na-
tional schools, 285 note; home
remittances of emigrants from,
286; density of its population com-
pared with parts of England, 287;
advance in wages, 290; relations
of peasants and proprietors, 291;
benefits of the Landed Estates
Court, 292; sale of encumbered
estates, 293 ; recent increase both
of estates and proprietors, 294 ;
substitution of capitalist farmers
for cottiers, 295 ; changes in
agriculture, ib.; alleged deteriora-
tion of the soil, 296; decline in
the productiveness of crops other-
wise explained. ib.; succession of
bad seasons, 297; effects of free-
trade on farming, 298 ; causes of
decrease in live stock, 299; in-
crease in area of arable land, 300 ;
railway property and banks, 301;
assimilation of agricultural system
with that of England, 302;
• heroic remedies' deprecated,
303 ; evils of long leases of farms
at low rents, 304; need of an en-
lightened public opinion, ib. See
Irish Land

conveyance of mails to,
cxx. 89; advantages of, for horse-
breeding, 116; Whately's objec-
tions to the office of Lord-Lieu-
tenant, 402, 404

Ireland, desolate appearance of, in
1690, cxxi. 516

hostility to England wrongly
ascribed to the Reformation, cxxii.
519; papal introduction of tithes,
ib.; neglected materials for his-
tory of, 520 ; the massacre of
1641, 521; the Newry massacre,
522; desperate character of the
Rebellion, ib. ; Cromwell's cam-
paign in, 524; Act of 1653, ib.;
provision for the adventurers, 525;
transplantations, 526; difficulties
of the commissioners, 527 ; settle-
ment of soldiery, 528; restrictions
on intermarriage, ib ; scheme of
replanting, 529; rapid growth of
prosperity, 530; defect of Crom-
well's plantation, 531; Scotch
settlers, ib.; prompt suppression
of recent Fenianism, 532

a broad field for social and
political problems, cxxvi. 524 ;
disordered state of, in 1835, 532 ;
salutary administration of Lord
Normanby, 534 ; reform of the
constabulary, 536 ; prosecutions at
Quarter Sessions by responsible
officials, 537; abolition of pe-
remptory challenging of juries in
criminal trials by the Crown, ib.;
Railway Commission of 1836, 538

-Ultramontane Church gover-
ment in, cxxviii. 280; concurrent
endowment proposed by Duke of
Wellington, 281; the scheme re-
jected by the Roman Catholics,
ib.; disruption in 1846–8 of the old
landed system, 328; insecurity of
tenant-right by small farmers,
329; the Ribbon Code, 330; Lord
Rosse's views of coercion, 332;
remediary land legislation pro-
posed, 333; religious antipathies
in society, 334; recent general
causes of disaffection, 335; sedi-
tion fomented by the priests, 337;
stipendiary and local magistrates,
345; national schools neglected

by Protestants, 346 ; anecdote of recent lawlessness, 347 (see Senior, Mr. Nassau); Mr. Maguire's motion of 1868 on the state of, 566; Lord Mayo's statement of policy, 568; he announces denominational education and Catholic

endowment, 571 Ireland, importance of studying

social life in, for legislative purposes, cxxix. 103 (see Trench, W. Steuart); need of firmness and justice in policy to, 125; absurdity of governing by 'Irish ideas,' ib. ; State Papers respecting, 419; changes in the seventeenth century, 421 ; contests with representatives of English settlers, 425; state of, in 1600, ib. ; reforms of James I., 426 ; introduction of feudal tenures, ib. (see Ulster, Settlement of); reconquest of, after 1688, 435; inequality created by ancient settlements, 452 ; unfair distribution of offices and honours, 453

marriage laws in, cxxx. 276, 282. See Marriage Laws

the Coercion Bill of 1834, cxxxiii. 311, 314; viewed as a field for novelists, 501, 502; native ideas of property in land, 507, öll; recent agitation for homerule, ib.; the movement ascribed to a knot of discontented Irish Torier, 512; Mr. Butt's plan of federalism, 513; obstacles to a local Parliament, 16, 515; question of taxation, ib.; classes of homerulers,' 516; federal union would lead to separation, ib.; probable constitution of a home-Parliament, 517 ; Ultramontanism and Nationalism, ib.; want of healthy public opinion among laity, 519; the Ballot would increase existing evils,520; probable course of homelegislation, ib.; in Church matters, 521; in regard to England, 522 ;

invectives of the national press, ib.; Fenian teaching of the Christian Brothers, 524; no basis for nationality in, ib.; Federalist complaints against the Union, 525; question of native industry and Repeal, 526; of taxation, ib.; the Union too long delayed, 527 ; Scotch Union compared, ib.; Repeal would be a surrender of empire and duty, 528; lawlessness must be crushed, 529; unscrupulous misrepresentation of English po

licy, ib.; hopeful prospects, ib. Ireland, influence of the legal pro

fession on the history of, cxxxiv. 45 ; origin of the Lord Chancellorship, 47 (see Chancellors, Irish); revival of English ascendency in the fifteenth century, 51 ; influence of Tudor conquest on the law, 52; obstacles to improvement under James I., 53; causes of the rising of 1641, 54; disastrous period after 1688, 60; condition of, under the House of Hanover, 62; Tory government after the Union, 76

past history of, distorted by party rancour, cxxxvii. 122; recent improvements in English policy, ib.; reforms discouraged by Irish animosity, 123; Mr. Froude's work on, 124; immorality of the doctrine of force as a plea for English domination, 125; anarchy of home-rule in the fifteenth century, 130; hostility to England at the Reformation, ib.; disloyalty of Catholics to Elizabeth, 132 ; the massacre of 1641 described, 136; storming of Drogheda, 138; past neglect of primary education, 143; restrictions on trade and manufactures, 144; smuggling, ib.; exactions of tithes, 146 ; universal cultivation attempted by Irish Parliament of the Volunteers, ib.; rule of oligarchical faction, ib.;

English maladministration in last
century, 147; struggle for free
trade, 148; the demoralising pen-
sion list, 149; discontent due to
delay of the Union, ib.; ingrati-
tude of present Nationalists, 150;
home-rule cry probably short-

lived, 151
Ireland, new agitation of Repeal,

cxxxix. 468; absurd claims of the
Nationalists, 469; evils of the
native Parliament, ib.; despotism
not the only alternative, 478; the
Union should have been a century
earlier, ib. ; two classes of Catho-
lics after the Revolution, 479;
absenteeism, ib. ; Presbyterian
emigration to America, 481 ;
change from tillage to grazing in
Munster, ib. ; atrocities of the
Whiteboys, 482, 484; disorgani-
sation of society, 485; sympathies
of Catholics with England at the
American rebellion, 487 note ;
movement for independence early
in the century, 488; protectionist
policy of home Parliament in
1782, 489; fallacies of present
home-rulers, ib.; reform agitation
of the United Irishmen, 490; Pitt
and Emancipation, 491; spies and
informers, 492; insurrection of
1798, 496; atrocities of troops to
the peasantry, ib. note; outbreak
of the rebellion, 499; Catholic
atrocities, 501, 504; the rebellion
crushed, ib.; services of the Irish
Yeomanry, 506; national resist-
ance in England to the cry of

home-rule, 553
Irish, the, their triumphs in other

countries, cxxvii. 502 ; instances
of their military genius, 503; bene-
fits of emigration, 504; stream of
emigrants to America, 505; ad-
vantages of change of country,
506; their position in America,
509; low condition of, in the
cities, 511; their unpopularity,

512; political influence in New
York, 513; vices of Irish-Ameri-
can journals, 514; Fenianism, 5:6-
520; gradual disintegration of, in
America, ib.; their apostasy from
Catholicism, 521; their condition
in Canada, 523; in Australia,
524; in Great Britain, 525; crimi-
nal statistics in England, 526 and
note ; recent remedial legislation,
529; Mr. Maguire on their condi-
tion in America, 530; material
progress of, in Ireland, 531
Irish, their sympathy with agrarian
crime, cxxviii. 331

decline of gaiety in their
temperament, cxxxiii. 502; their
revolutionary passion for land, 507;
false notions of property and pos-
session, 509

the, recent symptoms of irre
concilability, cxxxvii. 123; their
military services to England, 129;
growing dislike of, in America,
152

their want of political know-
ledge, cxxxix. 468
Irish Church, corrupt system of

patronage in, early in the present
century, cxi. 404; rapacity of the
Protestant clergy, ib.

cxxiii. 454; absence of Pro-
testant sympathies at the Reforma-
tion, ib.; early neglect of education
by, 455; causes of present weak-
ness, 456; evils of tithe-system,
457; Tory sympathies, 458; re-
cent improvement in the clergy,
459; temporalities, 460; increased
aggressions of the Roman Catho-
lics, 462; numerical strength of
different denominations, 463; in-
comes of beneficed clergy, 464;
their unequal division, 465; his-
torical argument of its advocates,
467; argument for tithes, 469;
the Act of Union, 470; alleged
danger to British rule from dises-
tablishment, 471; fears for Pro-

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