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testantism therefrom, 472; what is to be done with the Church, 473; reduction and amalgamation of livings proposed, ib. 475; Church property to be handed over to Ecclesiastical Commission, 476 ; disposal of surplus after reductions, ib.; question of Roman Catholic Endowment, ib.; objections of Protestan's thereto, 477; doubtful acceptance thereof, by the priesthood, ib. 479; application of surplus to poor rates or intermediate schools, ib.; the latter plan preferred, 481; need of mutual con

cessions, 482 Irish Church, Lord Russell's pamph

let on, cxxvii. 535; alternative of disendowment recommended, 536

question of its temporalities, cxxviii. 281; its legal character should be retained, after disestablishment, ib. 282 ; evils of, exposed by Mr. Senior, 336; its territorial ascendency a source of jealousy,342; its rights of property not those of private freeholders, 343

- views of Mr. Bright on, cxxix. 293 ; Calvinistic character of, 295; Earl Russell's explanation of his views on, 302 note; State papers respecting, in the reign of Elizabeth, 419-421; origin of present ecclesiastical endowments, 442; effects of the Ulster plantation on, 445; its interests identified by settlements with the land, 451; the type of invidinus inequality, 452 ; an avenue to political preferment, 453; change of public opinion on, 454

persecutions of the Presbyterians by the bishops in the last century, cxxxvii. 140; opportunity lost by, 142; neglect of education,

143 Irish education, enlightened system of, cxix. 285

Catholic denominational

movement, cxxiii. 458 note; want

of intermediate schools, 480 Irish education, reform needed in

higher branches, cxxxv. 166; principle of equality, ib.; Roman Catholic demands, 167–174; their opposition to mixed education, ib.; their claims resisted abroad, 175; objections to a denominational system under priestly control, 177; Catholic school-books, 179; Roman Catholic University, 180; claims to charter and endowments, ib.; the proposal condemned, ib. 183; Mr. Fawcett's scheme of a new Irish University, ib.; alternative plans of affiliation, 184; the controversy centred on Dublin University, 185; Trinity College as affected by recent events, 186 ; question of emoluments and prizes, 189; difficulties to proposed settlement, viz., curriculum of study, 190, and constitution of University Senate, ib.; proposed solution, 192; position of Catholics in coming struggle, 194; Ultramontane policy of isolation, 195

(University), Mr. Gladstone's Bill of 1873, cxxxvii. 569; opposition to the measure, 570; its object, 571; unfounded complaints of, 572; Mr. Fawcett's Bill, ib. ; ecclesiasticism of Roman Catholic prelates, 573; principles of civil equality, 574 ; the principle thwarted by clerical aggression, 575; subservience of the Irish vote,' 576; question of civil allegiance, ib. 577; Ultramontane pre

tensions, ib. Irish land. Tenures by tanistry in the

Septs, cxiv. 372; introduction of
English tenures, 378

tenant compensation, cxxv. 187, ib. ; popularity of the Land Question, 188; Committee of 1865, ib. ; witnesses of Tenantright party, ib. 189; their recom

mendations, 190; divergent evi-
dence, 191; question of leases,
192; case of Lord Dufferin, 194;
definition of unexhausted improve-
ments, 196; origin of the Ulster
custom, 197 note; Mr. Pusey's
Committee of 1848, 198; custom
of Scotch leases, 199; rights of
landlords respecting unexhausted
improvements, 201; argument of
Mr. Fisher, ib.; views of Mr.
O'Connell on leases, 204 ; Mr.
Butt on the land laws, 205, 209;
he upholds fixity of tenure and
compulsory valuation, ib.; Mr.
Mill's later opinions, 210; Mr.
Bright's fallacious scheme for a
proprietary class, ib. ; Bill of Mr.
Fortescue, 211; need of effective
valuation, 215; question of retro-
spective legislation, 216; false dis-
paragement of tenant-right agita-

tion, 217
Irish land, recent works on, cxxxi.

256; recent change in Irish views,
ib.; Mr. Fortescue's Bill of 1866,
257; draft Bill of Mr. Dillon, ib.;
Lord Naas's Bill of 1867, 258; in-
perfect knowledge of landlord and
tenant relations, 260; Lord Gra-
nard and Bishop Keane, ib.; obso-
lete evidence of the Devon Com-
mission, 261 ; subsequent com-
mittees, ib.; proposed commission
in 1867, 262; present need of legis-
lation, 263; inquiry by land.
owners, 264; fixity of tenure re-
pudiated by O'Connell, ib.; failure
of Mr. Shee's Bill, 265; state of
popular feeling in 1867, ib.; pro-
mises of Liberal Ministers misin-
terpreted, 266 note; early pro-
gramme of the Tenant-right party,
ib.; Mr. Butt's proposals, ib.; Eng-
lish revival of doctrine of Fixity of
Tenure, 267; speech of Sir J.
Gray, ib. ; views of Mr. Mill and
Mr. O'Brien, 268, 271 ; present
popular demands defined, ib. ; re-

cent statistics of ejectments, 273
note; charges against landlords ex-
amined, ib. ; security of tenure not
a panacea, 276; scheme of Sir G.
Campbell, 277; amateur investi-
gations, 278; “Philocelt's' propo-
sals, 279; Master Fitzgibbon's
plan, 280; pamphlets by Members
of Parliament, 281, 285; objec-
tions to exceptional legislation, ib.;
question of re-valuation, 286;
opinions on a peasant proprietary,
288; plan of State Land Banks,
289; landlords favourable to re-
form, ib.; Lord Portarlington and
Dr. Taylor, 290; sympathy of pro-
prietors with tenant-farmers, 292,
293 ; promising attitude of Con-
servatives, 295 ; leading principles
of future legislation, 296; con-
ditions of security of tenure, 299;
and of valuation, 300; duties of
landlords, 301 ; forthcoming Bill,

303; Irish irreconcilables,' 304
Irish land, sentimental delusions of

peasantry as to recovery of forfeited

estates, cxxxiii. 507, 510
Iron, scarcity of, in ancient times,

cxvi, 204; discovery of pig-iron,'
205; depression of the trade in
1740, 206; employment of, in
bridges, 207; insecurity of cast-
iron, 212 ; superiority of wrought-
iron, 213; use of, in fire-proof
buildings, ib.; the first iron steam-
boat, 217; introduction of chain-
cables, 219; dangers of iron ship-
building, 220; boiler-plates and
boat-plates, 221; armour-plating
for war-vessels, 222; quality of,
the test of its resistance to ord-
nance, 223; deterioration in
quality of, 224 ; invention of the
hot-blast, 225; varieties of British
iron, 226; foreign competition in
manufacture of, 236

Government standard of
quality in, for ship-building,
cxviii. 206

Iron, its relative importance to man, Irving (Mr. Joseph), his History of

cxx. 482; statistics of manufacture Dumbartonshire, cxii. 513 of, in Great Britain, ib.

Isabella (Queen, the Catholic), her comparative qualities of, will, cxxxi. 348 cxxix, 368; revolutions in manu- Isidore Mercator (8th century), Mr. facture of, 369. See Paris Exhi- Ffoulkes on the alleged Decretals bition

of, cxxx. 313 and note results of late increase in Islington, etymology of, cxxxi. 164 price of, cxxxvii. 461

Italy, antiquity of local names in, Iron Age, the, in Europe, cxxxii. 477 cxi. 357; good results of the war Iron-clads, American origin of the of 1859, 533; moderation and word, cxviii. 172.

See Navy,

loyalty of the people, ib.; prosBritish

pects of permanent settlement, ultimate superiority of heavy

534 ordnance over, cxix. 512

the kingdom of, cxiji. 253; Iron Plate Committee (1860), Re- anomalous exclusion of Rome and

port of their experiments, cxviii. Venice, 256; triple bond of 192, 193

national unity, 263; early process Irrawaddy River, controversy as to of aggregation, 265; fatal system its source, cxxxvii. 318.

of centralisation, 271; choice of a Irvine (Christopher), his . Medicina metropolis, 275

Magnetica,' cxxxi. 208, 209 Italy, Church reformation in, cxiv. Irving (Dr. David), his character and 233; alleged decline of clerical inhabits, cxxxi. 213, 214

fluence, ib.; views of Gioberti and Irving (Edward, 1792–1834), early Rosmini, 237, 244; vacillation of

influences on his life, cxvi. 429; Pius IX., 245; the Benedictines his school-days, 430 ; enters Edin- and Capuchins, 250; problem of burgh University, 431; his apti- the temporal power, 260 (see Patude for mathematics, 432; career pacy); separation of Church and as a schoolmaster, ib.; his youth- State, 261, difficulties relating to ful air of grandeur, 434; his first marriage, 265; defiant attitude of sermon, 435; unpopularity of his Pius IX., 267 ; ominous prospects early preaching, 436; his mission- of schism, ib. ary life at Glasgow, 438 ; his bril- Mendelssohn's impressions of, liant reception in London, 440;

cxv. 133 character of his Orations,' 441;

introduction of Renaissance his personal advantages, 442; in- architecture, cxviii. 72, 75; church tensity of his character, 443; his building in, unchecked by the Remarriage unfortunate, ib.; his formation, 77; native Gothic arviews on the Incarnation, 445; his chitecture in, 78 relations with Coleridge, 447 ; his co-operative societies in, cxx. millenarianism, ib.; his unhappy 423; anti-Papal movement in, 460; devotion to prophetical study, 449; French scheme of Italian unity, his ideal of missionary life, 451; 572 lengthiness of his sermons, 452 ;

modification of the silver expelled from the Scotch Churcb, currency, cxxiv. 387; Papal edict 454; on the gift of tongues, 456; of 1866 on the coinage, 390 condemned for heresy, 458; his

codification of law in the last death, 460

century, cxxvi. 359

Italy, territorial schemes of Leo. X.,

cxxx. 9; lawless state of the Ro-
magna, 11 ; miserable condition of,
under Clement VII., 13; popular
superstitions in the sixteenth cen-
tury, 32. See Guicciardini, Fran-

cesco

restrictions on intermarriages
in, cxl. 180; iypes of ancient eth-
nology, 181; tenacity of classic

rites, ib.
Italy (South), Mussulman settle-

ments in, cxvi. 367
Italian literature, voluminous treat-

ment of, cxxi. 290; paganism in,
300

the Humanist movement,
cxxxvi. 116 (see Humanists) ; re-
vival of Latin, ib. 119; later Greek
revival, ib. ; the Poggian age,'
130; new epoch under Biondo
Flavio, 137; the philosophical

epoch, 144
Italian painting, the Bolognese

school, cxxii. 75; change of opin-
ions thereon, ib. 77; growth of
pictorial conception, 78; early
Florentine painters, 80; the

Sienese school, 86
Italian painting, proper period of its

commencement, cxxxv. 128; diffi-
culties of an early historian,ib.; loose
nomenclature of artists, 129; con-
fusion of names and pictures, 130;
religious character of the revival,
ib.; influence of St. Francis of
Assisi, ib. ; Giotto and his imita-
tors, 131, 132 ; growth of the early
Florentine school, 133; varieties
of style owing to states and free
cities, 134 ; changes due to na-
tional character, 135; Pietro della
Francisca, 136; Melozzo di Forli,
138; oil-painting introduced from
Flanders, 139; bistory of art at
Padua, 141; Squarcione, 142;
Mantegna, 143; Jacopo Cellini,
144

J
JACOBINISM, Coleridge on its mis-

chievous principles, cxviii. 462
Jacobites, the, threatening aspect of

the rising of 1715, cxii. 333;
military incapacity of the insur-
gents, 355; ideal notions of their

chivalry, 358
Jacobite

poems, their superiority over
English political ballads, cxiii.
107 ; long preserved by memory
only, 110; critical sifting required,

112
Jacquemont (Victor, 1801-1832),

familiar letters and biography of,
cxxx. 57; individuality of his
writings, 58; the previous series
of letters, ib.; his Parisian cha-
racter, 59; his hatred of bores,
60; education by his father, 6l;

accident to, in early life, ib.; his
love-dreams, 62; visits America,
ib.; antipathy to Americans, 63;
bis sketch of American society,
65; disgust of Protestantism, 67;
his scientific expedition to India,
69; criticisms of Anglo-Indian
life, 70; admiration of British
rule, 71, 72; his friendly reception
at Calcutta, 73; his character im-
proved by travel, 74; his literary
merits, ib. ; residence at the court
of Runjeet Singh, 75; on the
prospects of Christianity in India,
77 note; his delight at the French
Revolution of 1830,78; geological
explorations in India, 81; his death
and last words, 82; his scientific la-
bours, ib.; interest of his letters, 84
Jacquerie, the, insurrection of (1358),

compared with Tyler's insurrec

tion, cxxvi. 65 Jadejas (Rajpoot tribe), suppression

of female infanticide amorg, cxix. 405; census of families instituted,

408 Jaffa, massacre of the Turks by

Bonaparte at, cxxvi. 324 Jamaica, conditions of labour in,

cxv. 45; effects of emancipation, ib.; labour of immigrants required, 47; prosperity of planters, 49

recent anarchy produced by native corruption, cxxxi. 103 ; rigorous reforms of Sir J. P.

Grant, 104 James I. (of England and VI. of

Scotland, 1566–1625), his arbitrary power, cxiii. 329; profligacy of his court, 330

his temporary leaning to Presbyterianism in Scotland, cxiv. 410; his conversion to Episco

persecution against Vorstius, 123; letter of, to Cecil, proposing to divide the Netherlands with France, 124; his imprudent Church

policy, 439 James II. (of England, 1633–1701),

his pilgrimages to La Trappe, cxxxvi. 53; his Autograph Momoirs, 56; his letter to the Scotch College at Paris, 57; documents of, 6:3 (see Stuart Papers) ; bis directions for his burial disregarded by Louis XIV., 65; bis obsequies, 66 ; distribution of his remains, 67 ; epitaph at St. Germains, iba; interment ordered by George IV., 68; his present tomb, 69 ; relation with the Ho'lse of Hanover, ib.; death of his first wife, 71 ; projects for his second marriage, ib.; mission of Peterborough, 73; Papal remonstrances on his Catholic zeal, 82; his naval tactics as Lord High Admiral, 569;

his Fighting Instructions,' ib. James III. (of Scotland, d. 1488),

his attempts to establish a middle

class, cxx. 327 James IV.(of Scotland, 1472–1513),

his intimate relations with the town of Dumbarton, cxii. 519

Pedro de Ayala's account of, cxxxi. 212; his death at Flodden, ib., note; abandons Warbeck's

pacy, ib.

English hatred of Spain during the reign of, cxx. 6; the Protestation of the Commons, ib.; negotiations for the Spanish marriage, 7; his pursuit of hunting in Scotland, 328

his reforms in Ireland, cxxix. 426; his plantation of Ulster, 427 ; his support of Irish Presbyterianism, 447

approach to his palace at Theobalds, cxxxi. 179

his treatment of the Church in Scotland, cxxxiv. 110, 114; his capricious theology, 179; bis conduct at the Hampton Court Conference, ib.; his . Book of Sports,'

cause, 214

James (Saint), apocryphal Gospel

of, cxxviii. 87, 93 ; its incredi

bility, 101 James (Sir Henry R. E.), director of

the Survey Office, cxviii. 380; his triangulation of Great Britain, ib.; his invention of photozincography, 396

his photozincographic process studied abroad, cxxxiii. 349,

351 Jameson (Mrs.), her • History of

our Lord in Art,' cxx. 94; her work completed by Lady East

186

his hatred of the Netherlands, cxl. 118; infatuation for Spain, ib.; his conduct exposed by Mr. Motley, ib.; his reception of Barneveldt's embassy, 119; his

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