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The British tariff alone yielded nearly double the sum ordinarily required for the expenses of the United States, viz. : Duties on sugar,.
. £ 6,094,000 or $ 30,470,000 Duties on tobacco,
5,674,000 28,370,000 Duties on tea,.
5,444,000 57,220,000 Duties on spirits,
2,531,000 or 12,655,000 Duties on wines,..
1,174,000 or 5,870,000 All other articles, .
2,248,000 or 11,240,000
. £ 23,165,000 or $ 115,825,000 We reduce the sterling values to five dollars per pound, for convenience of calculation. The real results will vary only about three per cent.
France, with a population of 35,781,628, has an annual revenue of 1,824,000,000 francs, or nearly ten dollars per head. Great Britain, with a population of 29,000,000, including Ireland and the Channel islands, has a revenue of seventy millions sterling, or nearly twelve dollars per head.
The United States, with a population of 31,429,891, had an aggregate revenue of $565,489,840 for the ten years, 1849—1858, or an average of a little exceeding fifty-seven millions annually, or less than two dollars
head. The sources of revenue in France last year were as follow:
BUDGET OF FRANCE FOR YEAR 1860.
Francs. Contributions directes,... or Direct tax,..
469,935,648 Enregistrement, timbre et domaines, Recording and government stamps, 358,677,000 Produits des forets et de la peche,.. Revenue from forests and fisheries, 37,755,500 Douanes et sels,.....
Custom-House and salts,.
228,051,000 Contributions indirectes,
485,489,000 Produits des Postes,
Revenue of the Post-Office,. 57,654,000 Divers revenus,
Product of sundry revenues, 146,672,856 Produits divers, Divers productions,.
Francs, 1,825,854,379 EXPENDITURES.
Francs. Dette Publique,..
or Int, and expenses of public debt,.. 560,148,676 Dotations,....
Dotations and pensions,... 41,979,394 Service des ininisterès,..
Services of the ministers,. 866,932,356 Frais de regie des impots, .
Expenses of collection of duties,.. 199,747, 104 Remboursements et restitutions,.... Reimbursements and restitutions, 124,580,248 Travaux extraordinaires,.... Public works,...
Francs, 1,824,957,778 The enormous sum of 866,932,356 francs, or about one hundred and sixty-four millions of dollars, expended for the service of ministers, is divided as follow: Minister of War,.
fcs. 339,458,744 Minister of the Interior,..
158,003,575 Minister of Marine,...
123,503,143 Agriculture, commerce and “travaux publics," 71,360,100 Algiers and the Colonies,.
38,727,510 Minister of Instruction,..
67,430,736 All others,
Thus the government of France, in a time of peace, maintains an army of 400,000 men, at an expense of about sixty-three millions of dollars, and a navy costing twenty-four millions.
These enormous taxes are freely paid by the French people. They are necessary to the support of government. The people accommodate themselves to the burdens, which, in fact, fall mainly upon those most able to bear them, both in England and France. For instance, the licenses paid to the British government are, by bankers, £30 each; pawnbrokers, £15; auctioneers, £10; brewers, £2 to £78; wine dealers, £10; tobacco and snuff manufacturers, £5 to £31.
£ s. Appraisers, each,.. 2 0 Malt roasters,..
20 Attorneys,.. 6 0 to 9 0 Carriages,..
7 10 Bankers,
0 Distillers of spirits, Auctioneers,.. 10 0 Retailers of spirits,.
4 to 14 Pawnbrokers,
7 6 to 15 0 Tobacco and snuff manuPlate dealers, 2 6 to 5 15 facturers,.....
5 5 to 31 10 Brewers,.. 1 0 to 78 0 Dealers in foreign wines,.
10 10 Sellers of beer, &c.,. 6 to 4 4 Marriages,...
10 to 5 0 Malsters,..
0 to 4 14 | Vinegar makers,. The British income tax is, in time of peace, much heavier than that levied by our Congress for war purposes, viz., seven to ten pence in the pound. Incomes of £100 to £150 pay seven pence per pound.
We have not received the census returns of 1860; but those for 1850 are sufficient to demonstrate that a land tax may yield a larger sum than hitherto estimated. By the census of 1850, there were in the United States Horses,..
4,335,358 Asses and mules,..
659,229 Milch cows,...
6,392,044 Working oxen,
1,699,241 Other cattle,
10,268,856 Making a total of.....
23,354,728 These, no doubt, amount now to thirty millions in number, every one of which should be taxed one dollar per head annually. Bank notes, bills of exchange, promissory notes and deeds might be taxed under a stamp law. A poll tax would also be equitable, so that the
of government should fall in part upon every one, rich and poor. Thus, it our necessities should be so great, a revenue of two hundred millions of dollars might be realized without being a burden upon any special class, viz. : From custom-house duties,...
$50,000,000 Tax on real and personal property,,
30,000,000 Tax $1 per head on cows, horses, &c.,.
23,000,000 Income tax,..
30,000,000 Poll tax,...
30,000,000 From stamps, .
20,000,000 Tax on watches, gold and silver,.
10,000,000 Tax on distilleries,..
$ 203,000,000 Stamps are another considerable source of revenue in Great Britain, bringing in eight millions sterling. Bankers' checks or drafts pay from a penny to twenty-five shillings each; foreign bills of exchange, from
one penny to thirteen shillings each; leases, from six shillings to six pounds each; wills, from ten shillings to £270 each; dogs are taxed twelve shillings each; packs of hounds, £9 to £39; horses, ten to twentyone shillings each. In fact, for the present emergency, we might with great advantage draw upon England and France for lessons on taxation.
COFFEE AND THE COFFEE TRADE.
I. DIMINISHED PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL.-II. CAUSES OF DECLINE.—III. COFFEE MARKETS OF
EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES.
To June 30th.
The upward tendency of the prices of coffee has been in consequence of the increased consumption of it both in Europe and the United States, by which the stocks that formerly were equal to five or six months consumption are now reduced to barely ten weeks, and are steadily diminishing, thus proving that the supplies from producing countries are diminishing instead of increasing to supply the demand.
Brazil for many years has supplied one-half of the production of the world, but, from the following statement of the crop exports, it will appear that the maximum of production has been reached there, and that it is now on the decline.
From 1845 to 1858 the average increase for each four years was about 5 per cent. per annum; since then the decrease has been 24 per cent. per annum, although the crop now finishing has been a very large one. The crop of 1861 will be a short one, considerably below the average of the three preceding years. EXPORTS OF COFFEE FROM RIO DE JANEIRO DURING THE CROP YEARS, JULY 1ST TO
Total. Average of 4 yrs.
1,817,927 1853, 826,782 757,181
2,343,248 1855,. 1,134,389 1,396,254
2,530,643 1856, 1,218,315 1,208,761
Estimated, 1,800,000 The decrease of the crop export from Rio de Janeiro is entirely owing to the effectual stoppage of the slave trade since 1850, by which the effective labor has been greatly diminished. Previous to 1850 it was estimated that the coffee estates required 5 per cent. per annum of new blacks to keep their stock good. "Daily slave labor, which was 500 rs. per day, has risen to 21,000 per day, or 300 per cent. Slaves have also risen nearly in proportion, in consequence of the supply being wholly cut
off, and foreign immigration being yet on a very limited scale, notwithstanding it is very liberally encouraged by the government. Free European labor will never mix freely with slave labor, especially in a tropical climate and an entirely new cultivation.
The supply of coffee from Brazil is entirely a question of labor, and unless they can receive an adequate supply, the export will gradually diminish.
No more slave labor will be admitted. Coolie labor has been tried and will not answer. Free labor is only desired, but as yet the supply has been
limited. The Secretary of the Treasury having recommended a duty on coffee, and Congress having levied a duty of four cents per pound, it may be well to refer to the present condition of the coffee trade of the United States :
First. The stock on hand is now larger than for many years, being 9,235 tons, or 174 per cent. beyond that of July, 1860, viz. :
891 481 1,557
1859. 5,314 1,535 1,874
Total tons 1st July,.......... 14,675 5,350 11,866 7,602
Second. The imports of coffee for the past six months are forty per cent. beyond the same period of 1860, viz. :
1858. 15,490 3,506 4,596 5,997 9,632
1859. 20,654 4,789 8,073 7,673 16,143
1860. 16,090 2,788 2,906 5,692 10,853
1,740 4,766 7,466 9,620
Total tons six months,....... 29,221 57,332 37,729 51,070
Compared with the stocks of coffee in the six principal ports of Europe, the results are as follows:
1858. Arerage. Holland,
19,800 32,750 34,600 44,850 33,000 Antwerp,
3,900 3,300 3,300 6,700 4,300 Hamburg,
8,500 7,500 6,000 11,500 8,375 Trieste,
4,850 3,200 2,500 4,200 3,687 Havre, 7,350 4,500 2,800 5,650
5,075 Great Britain,
5,750 7,950 6,400 10,550 7,663
Total tons June 1,.. 50,150
59,200 55,600 83,450 62,100 The ordinary consumption of coffee in the United States is from fortyfive to fifty thousand tons every six months, so that there was on 1st July a stock on hand equivalent to about two months' consumption.
T'he variations have been remarkable for some years. The lowest and highest prices, and lowest average and highest average, since 1846, having been as follows per pound for Rio coffee in the New-York market:
YEAR. 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849,. 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857,
Lowest average. $ 7 04 6 88 6 08 6 84 10 25 8 84 8 12 9 08 9 40 9 52 10 24 10 52 10 29 10 95 13 16
Highest average. $ 7 60
in 72 7 13 7 88 11 40 10 04
9 52 10 40 11 48 11 12 12 00 11 72 11 52 12 21 14 21
9 84 97
97 104 114
ACTS OF THE THIRTY-SEVENTI CONGRESS.
SPECIAL SESSION, JULY—August, 1861. I. THE COLLECTION OF DUTIES ON Imports. II. An Act to PROVIDE INCREASED REVENUE FROM
IMPORTS, TO PAY THE INTEREST ON THE Public DEBT, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. III. AN ACT TO INCREASE THE CONSCIAR REPRESENTATION OF THE UNITED STATES DURING THE PRESENT INSURRECTIOX.
AN ACT FURTHER TO PROVIDE FOR THE COLLECTION OF DUTIES ON IMPORTS
AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That whenever it shall, in the judgment of the President, by reason of unlawful combinations of persons in opposition to the laws of the United States, become impracticable to execute the revenue laws and collect the duties on imports by the ordinary means, in the ordinary way, at any port of entry in any collection district, he is authorized to cause such duties to be collected at any port of delivery in said district until such obstruction shall cease; and in such case the surveyors at said ports of delivery shall be clothed with all the powers and be subject to all the obligations of collectors of ports of entry; and the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approbation of the President, shall appoint such number of weighers, gaugers, measurers, inspectors, appraisers and clerks as may be necessary, in his judgment, for the faithful execution of the revenue laws at said ports of delivery, and shall fix and establish the limits within which such ports of delivery are constituted ports of entry as aforesaid ; and all the provisions of law regulating the issue of marine papers, the coasting trade, the warehousing of imports and collection of duties shall apply to the ports of entry so constituted in the same manner as they do to ports of entry established by the laws now in force.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That if, from the cause mentioned in the foregoing section, in the judgment of the President, the revenue from duties on imports cannot be effectually collected at any port of entry in any collection district, in the ordinary way and by the ordinary means, or by the course provided in the foregoing section, then and in that case he may direct that the custom-house for the district be established in any secure place within said district, either on land or on