« EdellinenJatka »
REGULATIONS.-A copy of the manifest, attested and translated by the Government interpreter, to be exhibited within ten hours after anchoring. If goods are not landed from the ship, it must sail again within six days. A consignee to be named within 48 hours, who is responsible for duties, which are payable by him in three equal instalments. A difference between the invoices and cargo is punished, if remarkable, with confiscation; if inconsiderable, with double duty on the excess.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The bread at Lima is particularly excellent; the mutton and beef are very good; poultry, pork, and fish are plentiful. At the Port of Callao watering is easy; but the wood is a mile or two distant.
ACAPULCO, a port in the South Sea, about 210 miles from the City of Mexico, is in latitude 17° 22' N., longitude 99° 53′ W. It has one of the deepest, securest, and most commodious harbours in this sea, and almost the only good one on the W. coast of New Spain. The only inconvenience is, that ships must enter by the sea-breeze in the day-time, and go out by the land-breeze at night, which generally succeed alternately, so that vessels are often blown off to sea, after several attempts to make the harbour. The entrance is guarded by a castle. The town is ill-built, and makes a poor appearance. The climate is unhealthy, especially for strangers. The trade with the Philippines passed through this port. The East India commodities are carried by mules from hence to Mexico, and thence by landcarriage to Vera Cruz. Within a league to the E. of Acapulco is PORT MARQUIS, a tolerable harbour.
TRADE.-There has been no direct trade between this port and England. A direct traffic with India is commencing, chiefly on account of the precious metals. (See the Article MANILLA, in Section XXVI.) Some cochineal is brought for Indian consumption. Bengal and Madras cotton cloths are in request.
VERA CRUZ, in latitude 19o 5′ N., longitude 96° 26′ W., is a considerable town of Mexico; the houses built with stone and lime, the streets wide, and in excellent order. The harbour is good, and might furnish anchorage for 40 and even 60 ships of war, in 4 to 10 fathoms; but the N. winds are terrible, and often drive vessels on shore. Vera Cruz, as well as Acapulco, is extremely unhealthy to foreigners during the rainy season, from April to October. Earthquakes are frequent here. The town of Vera Cruz has been nearly destroyed during the recent civil conflicts: many of the inhabitants have sought shelter in the small town of ALVARADO, which is occasionally visited; but the bar of its harbour is dangerous. Two vessels were last year totally lost on it.
DUTIES AND CHARGES.-Cargoes from Europe pay 8 per cent. at the
Spanish Castle of St. Juan de Uloa, and 27 to the town. A dollar per package is charged for the hospital, and 4 dollars per ton on the ship. The charge for water is 3 reals per ton; 8 dollars are paid to the Captain of the Port; and 32 dollars per trip are charged for the use of large boats, for landing the cargo. Porterage is extremely expensive. The aforegoing are the chief expences at the Port, to which the removal of goods to Mexico adds much, as they pay a further duty of about 12 per cent. on their arrival ; and the carriage of every horse or mule load, of 2 to 3 cwt., is from 18 to 22 dollars. The goods sold in Mexico pay again another duty on being removed to the provinces; but if they are designed, when landed, for the cities beyond Mexico, an arrangement to save expence may be made at the Port Custom House. The harbour dues at Alvarado are 20 reals per ton; pilotage and other charges in proportion.
TRADE. This was one of the most considerable ports for Spanish American trade, it being the natural centre of the treasure, and the magazine of merchandize between New Spain and Europe. A very convenient commercial report is annually published here, alphabetically arranged, and the average market price affixed to each article. There were no goods exported or imported between Vera Cruz and Great Britain in the year 1821, according to the official books. This place is resorted to by Indian merchants, for the sake of bullion. The produce of this article has diminished, though it is now increasing again; the annual coinage of silver and gold, which was formerly 28 millions of dollars, was, in 1819, 12 millions only.
COINS. The accounts are kept in Spanish America generally in pesos, or dollars, of 8 reals, each real divided into half and quarter, or into 16 parts, and sometimes into 34 maravedis of Mexican plate. The gold coins are doubloons of 8 escudos d'oro, worth 16 pesos, (with a premium of about 8 per cent.); halves, quarters, &c. in proportion. The quarters are called in Spain, Pecetas Mexicanas. There are also eighths, or reals, valued in Spain at 214 quartos.
To express the fineness of gold, the Castellano is divided into 24 carats or quilatas, each of 4 grains, each grain into 4 parts. In silver the mark is divided into 12 dineros, each into 24 grains.
WEIGHTS.-The Spanish commercial weights are thus divided :-The pound consists of 2 marks, or 16 ounces; each ounce is divided into 8 drams, 16 adarmes, or 576 grains. The quintal of 4 arobas is equal to 101.44 lbs. avoirdupois.
MEASURES. The dry measure is the cahiz of 12 fanegas; the fanega contains 12 celemins, and is equal to 1.599 English bushel, and 5 nearly equal 1 quarter. Of liquid measures, the moyo of wine contains 16 arobas, or cantaras, each 8 azumbras, or 32 quartillos. The aroba of wine con
tains 4.245 English wine gallons; the aroba of oil is divided into 4 quartillos, or 100 quarterones or panillas, and equals 3.33 English gallons. In long measure, the foot consists of 12 pulgadas, or 144 lines, and equals 11.128 English inches. The palmo of 9 pulgadas, or 12 dedos, equals & English inches. The palmo de Ribeira, for measuring masts, &c. is only 3 inches. The vara, for cloth, &c. is 3 feet, or 4 palmos, equal to 33.384 English iches. The braza, or toesa, is 2 varas; the passo, 1 vara; the estadal, 4 varas; the cuerda 84 varas.
** Whilst this sheet was passing the press, a decree of the Mexican Government was received, which is to take effect in Europe from November 1824, for prohibiting the importation of the following merchandize: FIRST CLASS-Provisions, Liquors, and other Articles.-Spirits from the cane, or any other than from the grape; vegetables, roots, and gardenstuffs of all kinds; anise, cummin, and carraway seeds; starch; rice, sugar, and molasses; coffee; salted and smoked meats. Grain-wheat, Indian corn, rye, barley; pulse of all kinds, beans, peas, &c.; green fruit of all kinds, nuts; flour, except into the State of Yucatan, conformably to province decrees; fowls and eggs; soap, hard and soft; hogs' and bears' lard; vernicelli and macaroni; ship-bread and biscuit; common salt; tallow, rough and manufactured; manufactured wax; chocolate.
SECOND AND FIFTH CLASS-Flax and Cotton.-Cotton-wool, from any foreign port whatever; cotton thread, No. 60, or above; ready-made clothing of all kinds and descriptions, and parts thereof; ready-made quilts, curtains, table and other household linen, &c.; shawls, or panos de Rebora, of cotton; tape, white and coloured; mattresses and bed-hangings, curtain cords, bed-linen, &c. ; linen bags.
THIRD CLASS-Woollen and Hair.-Ready-made clothing of every description; table-covers (carpets); bear-skins (esalaeinas); common cloths, second and third qualities; cloaks, called sanaps fesadas.
FOURTH CLASS-Manufactured Silk and other Articles.-Ready-made clothing of all kinds; embroidery, lace, open work, in metal or in mixtures thereof, &c. Common hides and skins in the hair, tanned, or untanned and prepared; fine skins of all kinds in the hair, tanned or prepared, and manufactures thereof; leather straps (agujetas) of all kinds; upper and sole leather of all descriptions; buck-skins, all colours and preparations; boots and shoes of all kinds, boot-patterns; buckskin breeches, &c.; upper shoes, clogs, &c.; saddles and bridles, and horse furniture; portmanteaus of all kinds; parchment; leather hats and caps.
Manufactures of Clay.-Glazed or unglazed earthen vessels; bricks and tiles of all descriptions; very common queen's ware, glazed or unglazed,
with or without common prints; earthen jars, new or old, of all kinds and sizes.
Metals-Copper in pigs or sheets; lead ditto, in shot; silver and gold plate; epaulettes of all kinds; embroidery of all kinds.
Woods-Wood of all kinds.
COLOMBIA.-The ports of this new Republic, comprehending the N. provinces of South America, are not at present frequented by East India Traders; but the precious metals, and other products of the country, may attract them. It may therefore be proper to subjoin the new tariff of duties, which took effect on the 1st January, 1824.
DUTY ON IMPORTS.-First Class.-Iron in bars, sheets of tin, the same of copper, and paper of all kinds; every sort of medicine, and of surgical instruments; ropes, canvas, tar, cables, cordage, and anchors.
2. Every kind of merchandize, of cotton, wool, linen, hemp, flax, with the exception of those which are mentioned separately, and under other heads.
3. Hats of beaver, wool, cotton, or silk; wax or spermaceti, manufactured or in gross; wines, vinegars, and acids, of all kinds; gold and silver watches, laces (galonés), saddles, cards, and all kinds of European earthenware, and crystal and glass of all kinds.
4. Silks, and all kinds of silk which may be manufactures and productions of Europe; jewels and precious stones, and tanned hides; lace (encaje) of thread or silk, wrought handkerchiefs or shawls (paneulos de punto), artificial flowers, ornamental feathers, mirrors, perfumes, essences, and scented waters, dried or preserved fruits, olives, capers, and all kinds of pickles.
5. Ready-made men's and women's shoes, boots; all kinds of household furniture; clothes, ready-made linen; all utensils of copper, brass, iron, steel, and tin; tallow, in gross or manufactured; meal, salted meats, and all kinds of foreign provisions.
The effects in the First Class, from Colonies in national bottoms, shall pay 15 per cent., and if they proceed from Europe or the United States, shall pay 7 7 per cent.
The same effects, imported in foreign bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 30 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 15 per cent.
The effects in the Second Class, imported in national bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 17 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 10 per cent.
The same effects, imported in foreign bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 221 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 174 per cent.
The effects in the Third Class, imported in national bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 20 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 121 per cent.
The same effects, imported in foreign bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 25 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 20 per cent.
The goods in the Fourth Class, imported in national bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 221 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 15 per cent.
The same effects, in foreign bottoms, from the Colonies, 27 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 22 per cent.
The goods in the Fifth Class, imported in national bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 25 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 171 per cent.
The same goods, imported in foreign bottoms from the Colonies, shall pay 30 per cent., and from Europe or the United States, 25 per cent.
The other kinds of merchandize, not comprised in the classes above expressed, shall pay 25 per cent., if the importation be in national bottoms and from the Colonies; if from Europe or the United States, in the same national bottoms, 17 per cent.
All kinds of merchandize in general, not comprehended in the classes particularly expressed, shall pay 30 per cent., if in foreign bottoms from the Colonies; if from Europe or the United States, in the same foreign vessels, they shall pay 25 per cent.
Merchandize, of whatever quality or class, the natural fruits of the Asiatic nations, and European establishments in Asia, not dependent on the Spanish Government, shall pay 12 per cent., if in national vessels from those countries, and 20 per cent. when not from Asia direct. If in foreign vessels, direct from Asia, they shall pay 20 per cent.; and if not directly from Asia, 25 per cent.
Merchandize, the produce of the American Continent heretofore dependent on the Spanish Government, directly from the independent nations of this Continent, imported in national or foreign vessels, shall enjoy the abatement of duty respectively granted to those which proceed from Europe or the United States; but merchandize in general, not the produce of this country, if imported in national or foreign vessels proceeding from this same American Continent, are subject to the payment of the duties respectively payable on goods from the Colonies, unless there be particular treaties of commerce which stipulate otherwise, as well with respect to these States, as to the other independent nations of the earth.