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zil, at Liverpool, to hold a meeting for the purpose of adopting a memorial to the Brazilian government praying for a revision of the system of formalities required for clearances. The proceedings resulted in the appointment of a committee to wait on the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, with the view of eliciting the opinion of that body on the subject, and of taking such steps as might seem most advisable towards procuring the repeal of the regulations in question. How far the efforts of these gentlemen have been successful we are not informed, but it can hardly be that a representation made to the Brazilian minister here, and forwarded to his government,would be entirely disregarded. If, however, the merchants and ship-owners of Liverpool fail to produce the desired effect on the Brazilian government, they should be joined in their representations by those connected with the Brazilian trade in London, and not only in London but in every port in the country which has any trade with Brazil
. We had hoped that the advent to power of a new government at Rio would have been marked by a change in the regulations which have occasioned these remarks, and that we should have heard ere this that the Brazilian Custom-House system, so far as it relates to clearances, would have been revised. In this expectation we have been so far disappointed, but we can hardly believe that the government of Rio will continue to pursue a course which has already had, and must continue to produce, a most injurious effect upon the foreign trade of Brazil.”
Our principal export to Brazil consists of flour, domestics and lumber, all easily described; but when any of our vessels have a general cargo the difficulties complained of by the British are also felt by us; we are, therefore, to a certain extent, a party interested in having them removed. Lately many American vessels have loaded in England for Rio Janeiro, but we suppose their cargoes were coal; nevertheless, everything which impedes commerce we ought to do our part in having removed or modified. We hope our government will call the attention of the Brazilian authorities to the Custom-House regulations of which foreigners have so much cause to complain.
FOREIGN TARIFFS. The Statistical Department of the English Board of Trade has issued a parliamentary paper on the subject of tariffs. It is a return of the new and old rates of duty upon the several articles (so far as the same can be given) levied by the tariffs of foreign countries, in which alterations have been made, and showing the per centage increase or decrease of duties, and the date of their alteration, from the 31st December, 1859, to the 25th February, 1861. The list of countries included in the return are Russia, the Zollverein, France, Spain, Portugal, Cape Verde Islands, Sardinia, Naples, Greece, Morocco, Brazil
, the Argentine Confederation, Venezuela, the Sandwich Islands and China. Upon pig-iron imported into the Grand Duchy of Finland, the reduction has been 82 per cent., viz., from 20s. 1 d. to 1s. 6d. per 33 lbs. Great reductions have taken place in the duties hitherto levied on metals and hardware imported into Naples. On all kinds of old iron the reduction is 89 per cent., or from about 15s. 10d. to ls. 9d. ; on iron wire the reduction is 24 per cent., or from about 7s. 11d. to 6s; on common wrought-iron upwards of 72 per cent., or from about 15s. 10d. to about 4s. 4d. On old tin and tin in blocks the reduction is upwards of 71 per cent., or from £1 4s. 9d. to about
7s., and on wrought-tin the fall is over 72 per cent., viz., from about £3 3s. 7d. to about 17s. 7d. On lead, in pigs, the reduction is 85 per cent, the old duty being 8s. 10d., whilst the new is nearly 1s. 4d., and on wrought-lead the new duty stands at a fraction over 7s., whereas the old duty was 17s. 8d., a reduction of 60 per cent.—all in 220:40 lbs. avd. On machinery the new duty is 1 per cent. ad valorem. Under the old duties steam engines for national vessels, and some other machines, might be imported duty free, under permission of the Minister of Finance. Hardwares are reduced from £3 10s. 8d. to £2 4s., or upwards of 37 per cent. in some descriptions, and from £10 12s, to £4.8s. in others, or 58% }. cent. per 220:45 lbs. avd. The new import duties adopted by the razilian government show that iron, in pig or ingots, has been reduced one-half since the period before the 3d of last November, but on filings the duty has been increased 334 per cent. The duty on pig-iron is about 13, on a little over 32 lbs., and that on filings is a little over 10%d. on the same Quantity. A very slight reduction has taken place in sewing and packing needles, on the former of which the present duty is about 1s. 8%d., and on the latter about 1s. 33d., on a fraction over 1 lb.; polished spars now pay 6s. 3}d, the dozen pairs; common locks about 2%d.; common buckles nearly 2d.; steel pens nearly 3s. 2d.; nails and tacks (common) up to 2 in., about 14d. ; above 2 in. somewhat over 14.d.; and nails with brass heads nearly 24d., all per about 1 lb. In locks the new rates are an increase of 5 per cent., and in steel pens an increase of 1334 per cent. Buckles are a decrease of upwards of 22 per cent. Nails are an increase ranging from 15 per cent. to 174 per cent. The duty on horse-shoes is now somewhat over 2s. 44d. for somewhat over 324 lbs., or a decrease of 124 per cent. On the same quantity of copper mixed with zinc tinned the present duty is 6s. 9d., a decrease of upwards of 16% per cent. Tin in bars, sheets, &c., and common utensils, the duty now is a little over 1s. 9%d., against the old duty of 1s. 84d.; and zinc, in bars, sheets, &c., and common utensils, it is 2s. 8d. against 1s. 8}d., all on the same quantity last mentioned. The cutlery imported into Brazil is charged at per dozen instead of, as before, according to weight. The duty on pen, fruit and garden-knives ranges from about 1s. 1d. to about 8s. 14d. per dozen. On scissors the new duty, as compared with the old, is an increase of 211 per cent., the prevailing duty being over 1s. 3d., whilst the former tax was not 5d. In the Argentine Republic the import duty on unworked brass and steel, copper in lumps, or sheets and bars, iron in bars, pigs, or sheets, tin plates and articles of soldered tin, the old duty of 20 per cent. ad valorem is reduced to 5 per cent. ad valorem, a decrease of 75 per cent. Works in metal, except gold and silver, are now charged 15 per cent instead of 20 per cent, or a decrease of 25 per cent. These duties were dated from the 14th of last September. Since the 24th of last October cutlery has gone into China free. Yellow metal sheathing and nails now pay 6s., and Japan copper 4s. per 1834 lbs., instead of 10 per cent. ad valorem as before. Iron, manufactured, as in sheets, rods, bars, hoops, the new duty 10d. instead of 1s. ; unmanufactured, as in pigs, 6d. instead of 8d.; on iron wire the new duty is 1s. 8d.; on lead, in pigs, it is 1s. 8d., a decrease of 374 per cent., and in sheets 3s. 8d., an increase of 374 per cent. ; on steel the new duty is 1s 8d. against 2s. 8d., a decrease of 374 per cent.; but on tin it is 8s. 4d. against 6s. 8d., an increase of 25 percent. ; and on unenumerated metals the duty is 5 per cent. ad valorem, against 10 per cent. ad valorem, all per 133; lbs.
JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE.
BRITISH WOOL. MR. CAIRD, M. P., read at a recent meeting of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society of England a very interesting paper upon British wool. He remarked that, although there had been an immense increase in the importation from foreign countries and the colonies during the last twenty years, the rearing of sheep for the production of British wool continued to be one of the most profitable branches of our industry. Within the period referred to there had been, no doubt, in the imports from Spain and Germany, a diminution of about 4,000,000 pounds, but at the same time, to compensate for this, there had been an increase from Russia, the Low Countries, Denmark and Portugal, of no less than 20,000,000 pounds. There had been an increase within this period, in round numbers, from Australia, of from 13,000,000 pounds to 54,000,000 pounds; from South Africa, of from 1,000,000 pounds to 14,000,000 pounds; from the East Indies, of from 4,000,000 pounds to 14,000,000 pounds. At home, the increase in the amount of wool produced was equally remarkable. In 1842 the home-grown wool did not exceed 100,000,000 pounds. It now amounted to 120,000,000 pounds. There had been, in short, an augmented supply of wool to the extent of nearly seventy-five per cent. It had not been followed by any diminution of price to the home producer. Now, the countries in which the production of wool is likely to increase most rapidly, viz., Australia, the East Indies, South Africa and South America, are all unsuitable to the production of the lustrous long wools, for which there is a great demand. The British islands supply this wool in the greatest quantity. They may be almost said to have a monopoly of it, and there are no countries which can enter into competition with them. Mr. Caird is, therefore, of opinion that the British wool-grower should develop its production as much as possible, and he thinks the supply may be increased by good farming and liberal feeding. The best cross that could at present be adopted on suitable soils would, he adds, be obtained by using the improved Lincoln or Leicester ram, in which the desirable qualities of length, lustre, strength and fineness of wool seemed to be best combined.
FRENCH BEET-ROOT SUGAR. According to an official return just published in France, concerning the manufacture of beet-root sugar from the commencement of the season 1860–61 to the end of the month of April, it appears that the number of establishments in activity were 334, being four more than in the corresponding period of the preceding year. The number of manufactories not at work, but having sugar still in stock, had diminished from twentyfour to fifteen. The quantity made was 97,900,000 kilogrammes, being 27,000,000 less than in the corresponding period of 1860. The quantity delivered for consumption had increased from 6,000,000 to 18,500,000 kilogrammes.
Dr. Eights, of Albany, has received a fragment of the silken cloth woven from the threads of one of the tussah, or wild silk worms of India. He says:
I send you samples from three distinct species, which are to be found in all the western forests, extending from Ramghur to Midnapore; the cocoons of each are collected in the month of September. The first of these (which, in the language of the country, is termed the mooga) is the most common and plentiful; the thread is coarse in its texture, but can be wound with the greatest facility. The cocoons are obtained directly from the trees of the forest, and are sold in an unprepared state to the purchasers. The caterpillars are to be found freely feeding upon the leaves of the ashan, saul and sejah trees, being frequently placed on their branches when found elsewhere for that purpose. These larvae commence spinning their cocoons about the middle of the month, and complete the process near its close; they are then collected and placed in boiling water to destroy the grub. The teerah is the second species. It furnishes a much smaller cocoon, and is supposed by many to be the male of the former. The thread is represented as being much finer in texture, but not so easily reeled. The third is the bonbunda, the largest of the wild silk worms in the country, and from which the present specimen of silk cloth was obtained. This is the species that bears so close an alliance to the saturnia cecropia of this country, spoken of in a former article. In its wild state, the cocoon is of much larger size than any of the cultivated species. In some seasons it is to be found in considerable quantities, but it is generally scarce. This is supposed to be owing to the depredations of many of the feathered races, who esteem them highly as an article of food. These three species, belonging to the same genus, are termed by the natives, the “rainy weather” varieties; but there are others peculiar to the dry months, which, by way of distinction, are called the dabbo and the buggoy. The former of these yields a fine thread and an excellent cocoon. The chrysalis begins to eat its way through the pod from the 8th of June to the termination of the month, and spins its mantle from the middle to the end of August. The buggoy is of a light drab color, giving out a fine thread, and very soft; so much so as almost to equal in value the cocoon of the mulberry silk-spinning moth, particularly those reared in the vicinity of Singhboom. It approaches so near to the pure silk that the weavers are said to mix it frequently with the real, in the proportion of one thread to three, at their manufactories. The seed is procured in August and September. Spinning begins in the middle and is completed by the end of November. There is another inferior species gathered in December, called the */arroy. It is a small cocoon, and difficult to wind; the thread, also, being exceedingly harsh. The seed is procured in the month of October, and the caterpillars spin their cocoons from the 15th to the close of December. It is held in less estimation than any of the other species. The natives, in preparing the silk for use, boil the cocoon in an alkali until it shells off and the threads appear to separate.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF IOWA FOR 186 1. The presence at the capital of members of the legislature from nearly every county in the State during the past week, presented an excellent opportunity for obtaining important information in regard to the present agricultural position and prospects of Iowa for the year 1861. After careful inquiry the subjoined facts have been elicited. They are believed to be correct, and the increase indicated is within rather than above the real condition of things. Yet, as the members had not prepared themselves to give positive information, it must only be received as a pretty fair approximation to the true condition of our probable agricultural resources for the present year. Should the season continue favorable, however, it is believed the general aggregate will be sustained.
It appears from the returns the breadth of wheat sown in the State is about one-fourth more; of corn nearly one fifth more, and of pork for market there will be at least one-third more an in 1860. And of the crop of corn of 1860 there appears to be over one-third, and of wheat over one-fourth on hand. That the indications for a good crop of wheat were never better, and that the yield would fully equal that of last year, 16 bushels
per acre as the average of the State; and that about one-half of the corn was planted by the 11th of May.
In addition to the above, I learn that all the cereal crops indicate an excellent yield ; that preparations are making for a greater breadth of sorghum and imphee than in any previous year; that much of the land has been seeded with clover and timothy, probably double that of any previous year. In short, that our farmers are working and seeding as much land, and perhaps more, than they may find force enough to secure the yield therefrom.
As published last year, the yield of wheat was upwards of 19,000,000 bushels, or an average of 16 bushels to the acre; add for the additional breadth of land sown last fall and this spring, at the same average per acre, at least 4,000,000 bushels, and we have the probable amount of 23,000,000 bushels for 1861—all of which can be spared out of the State, as we have about 5,000,000 bushels on hand for home consumption for a year. This, if sold at 50 cents per bushel, will give us $11,500,000.
The corn goes into beef and pork. The published estimate of last year from this office was $7,000,000 worth for both these items. This sum is nearly equally divided between them. From the data obtained we have a pretty sure prospective increase of one-third for pork over 1860, and from extensive inquiry and the known average increase, one-fourth may be safely put down as the probable increased product of beef cattle. This will give the aggregate value $9,375,000 for 1861, for beef and pork, beyond our own consumption; but as the prices may range lower, it would be altogether safe to place the amount at eight millions of dollars.
The result of all the above is, that the present prospective product of this State for the year 1861, beyond our home consumption, for wheat, hogs and beef, will be worth $19,500,000.
Wm. DUANE Wilson, Sec. Ag. Col.