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CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
THIS Colony, situated at the S. extremity of Africa, extends above 500 miles from W. to E., and about 315 from N. to S.; on the W. side to latitude 29° 50′ S., and on the E. side to Great Fish River, or Rio d'Infanta, latitude 33° 25' S., longitude about 27° 37' E. The places most frequented by East India shipping, are Saldanha Bay and Table Bay, on the W. side of the Peninsula; and False Bay on the E. side.
SALDANHA BAY is an excellent harbour sheltered from all winds. The entrance is in latitude 33° 6' S., longitude 17° 58' E., about 16 leagues N. N. W. of Table Bay, between two small islands. A little farther in is another, which may be passed on either side. On the left going in is Hoetje's Bay, where the ships from the Cape, and American whalers, heave down at a natural pier of granite, and have every facility for repairing.
REGULATIONS. Before communication with the inhabitants, it is necessary to obtain the Resident's permission to land goods, or procure supplies. At his house accommodations may be had during a ship's stay in harbour.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Bullocks are poor and dear; sheep are plentiful and good. Poultry, fruit, and vegetables are to be had. Wood is scarce, as well as good water, especially in the dry season. Fish is plentiful. Reet's Bay is the best place for the net.
TABLE BAY is large, but open to winds from the W., which throw in a heavy swell, though it is now said to be less insecure than is supposed. The Bay takes its name from the Table Mountain directly over Cape Town, at the S. side. The N. front of the mass of rock facing the town is nearly a horizontal line, 2 miles long; the face, rising almost at right angles to this line, is 3582 feet above the level of the Bay. The Devil's Mountain, broken into irregular points, on one side is 3135 feet high; the Lion's Head, a more compact mass, on the other, is 2160 feet high small rivulets descend into Table Bay and False Bay. The proper anchorage is abreast of Cape Town, the Table Mountain bearing S. W., in 5 to 7 fathoms, about a mile distant from the town. On the projecting
point of land between the great Mouille or Moulin battery, and Three Anchor Bay, under the Lion's Rump, at the entrance of Table Bay, is a lighthouse with a double light. The following directions are given for sailing into the Bay by night. Ships coming from the S. and W. with a leading wind, not making the lighthouse before night, may steer along the coast to the N. E., until they open the lights of the arising land about the Lion's Head, when the two lights will be their breadth open of each other, and bear about E. by N.; they may then haul in towards them, taking care, as they approach, to keep them well open on the starboard bow: steer to the eastward, until the lights come on with each other, i. e. are one, or until they bear S. W. S.; they will then be abreast of the N. W. extremity of Table Bay, and may haul in S. by E. or S. S. E., according to circumstances, for the anchorage. When the lights are shutting in by the rising land of the upper Moulin battery, bearing N. W. by W., they will be approaching the outer anchorage, where they may safely anchor for the night, in 7 or 8 fathoms water, fine sand. Care should be taken not to run into less than 5 or 6 fathoms, unless well acquainted.—Ships from the N. and W. should observe the same directions with respect to passing the lights, &c.-Ships working in with the wind from the S. and E., after being abreast of the lights, should not stand to the E. farther than 2 or 3 miles, or until they shoal the water to 8 or 71⁄2 fathoms.-N. B. The bearings are all by compass, variation 27 W.
The non-existence of a supposed dangerous shoal, called the Télémaque, is now ascertained by survey, 1822.
CAPE TOWN, the capital, is at the head of Table Bay, in latitude 33° 58′ S., longitude 18° 35′ E., on a plain sloping from the mountains. The houses are regular, and the streets intersect at right angles. In one of the squares the market is held; in another the peasants resort with their waggons; a third is used as a Parade for the troops. The Castle is a regular pentagon. The Barracks and most of the Public Offices are within the walls of the Fort, to the body of which there is but one entrance on the town side. The Commercial Exchange is a large and handsome building on the W. extremity of the Parade. The number of inhabitants in Cape Town in 1821, was 18,422.
TRADE. The principal product of the Cape is wine, which of late has greatly increased in quantity. In 1821, the number of bearing vines in the colony was computed to be 22,400,100; and the produce 21,333 pipes. The other articles are oil, aloes, hides, ivory, ostrich feathers, argol, barilla, &c. The exports of merchandize from the Cape to all parts of the world amounted in 1821 to upwards of two millions of rix-dollars, and that of bills to nearly 3 millions; the imports were 6,666,244. The colo
nists have a great taste for India goods, but have no acceptable returns, except bills. Some traffic is carried on with South America, the West Indies, New South Wales, and the Netherlands; and Chinese goods are imported in foreign vessels.
DUTIES.-All imports are liable to duty. English produce is rated at 3 per cent. on the invoice price: foreign and eastern goods are charged with 10 per cent on the value, whether in a British ship, or in one belonging to a nation in amity. No credit is given to the merchants; nor are fees of any description received by the Officers of Customs, for their own use. The wine-taster charges (but repays to Government) 3 rix-dollars as his fee on each pipe of wine exported, and one rix-dollar for gauging.
CHARGES.-Both English and foreign vessels pay 2 schillings per ton measurement for the use of the port, if they land the whole or any part of the cargo; if not, 1 schilling per ton. The wharf-charges, for landing or shipping, are as follow: for a horse, 5 rix-dollars; other cattle, 1 rixdollar; sheep and pigs, rix-dollar; a pipe, or half a ton, 1 rix-dollar; rix-dollar.
half a pipe, or other cask,
PORT REGULATIONS.-1. The exact place of the ship, when moored with bower anchor, heavy stream anchor, and buoy ropes, to be taken by bearings and depth of water; and should an accident occur, whereby the ship may drift, or lose anchors, good bearings and depth must be taken at the time, and notified to the Port Office in writing. 2. Within 24 hours after giving security at the Colonial Secretary's Office, lodge the certificate at the Port Office, with your address when on shore. 3. A permit from the Custom-house must authorize shipment or landing of goods, the latter only at the public wharf; and when landed, the goods must be removed within 24 hours. 4. No deserter to be harboured on board: penalty 500 rix-dollars. 5. No seaman to be received on board, without certificate from the King's Chief Naval Officer, nor landman without certificate from the Port Captain, countersigned by the Fiscal ; nor any person without due certificate. 6. No person to be left behind without permission from Colonial Secretary; deserters to be notified to the Port and Fiscal's Offices. 7. No specie to be taken out of the Colony without permission; penalty, confiscation of the craft used, and the property, with three times the amount, and imprisonment for 12 months. 8. Boats to leave the shore after gun-fire at night, except on exigencies. 9. Notice to be given at the Custom-house, 2 days previous to sailing from Table Bay, and 3 days from Simon's Bay; and ship's ensign to be hoisted at the main-top-gallant mast-head, 48 hours previous to departure. 10. For violation of any one of the foregoing, a penalty of 500 rix-dollars, in addition to any other penalties.
The Deputy Port Captain, attended by the Health Officer, visits a vessel on its arrival in harbour, to learn particulars; it is his duty to assign situations for anchoring and mooring ships, and to take care that the regulations are duly observed.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS are abundant and at moderate prices, consisting of beef, mutton, and poultry, fruits of many kinds, and excellent vegetables. The seeds of the latter are often carried to India for presents, or as an article of trade. The water, which is good, is brought to the pier by pipes, where boats may lay and fill with a hose, or country boats will bring water to the ship. Firewood is scarce and dear. Fish is abundant in the town during fine weather.
COINS.-Accounts are variously kept: occasionally the English mode is adopted; sometimes they are kept in Guilders or Florins of 20 Stivers, or 320 Pennings; also in Rix-dollars, divided thus:
2 Stivers equal to...........................................................1 Dubbeltjee.
The Rix-dollar is a paper currency, generally reckoned at 3s. 4d., but varying according to the quantity of specie in the Colony. There is no metallic currency except English Penny-pieces. Bills on England, at 30 days' sight, are generally considered equal to cash, particularly Government Bills. The following are the rates at which foreign coins pass: Sterling. Schil- Sti£8. d. lings.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.-The English are mostly used, except for Wines. These are sold by the Aum and Leager. One Leager is 4 Aums, or 388 Kannes.
HOUT BAY has been pronounced the safest and most commodious harbour in South Africa, except that of Saldanha, and described as being 14 miles from Cape Town, as affording beef, vegetables, and plenty of water, with clear ground and good anchorage; but, in opposition to these
advantages, which are somewhat highly coloured, it has been proved, upon a regular survey, ordered by the late Commissioner, Sir Jahleel Brenton, and taken by Mr. Goodridge, the able and well-informed Master Attendant of His Majesty's Naval Yard at Simon's Town, that the bay could not be land-locked till the water was too shoal even for a vessel of 100 tons; that it was fully exposed to the fury of a S. W. gale, the worst known on this part of the coast; and that a strong S. Easter brought down such flurries from the mountains, as to make at times all entrance into, or return from it, equally difficult and dangerous.
FALSE BAY is formed by the Cape of Good Hope on the West side, and Cape False, or Hanglip, on the East; distance between them about 5 leagues, and to the sandy beach at the North end, a mile or two more. Four leagues, about N. N. W. from Cape Point, and two from the N. W. corner of False Bay, or Muysenburg, near the foot of the highest mountain on the coast, called Simon's Berg, is situated
SIMON'S BAY, in latitude 34° 15′ S., longitude 18° 28′ E., an excellent harbour for ships during winter, when Table Bay is unsafe, and where, at all times of the year, if moored well in, they can be sheltered from all winds. The Bay and Town are protected by batteries from the N. W. and S. E., and both town and neighbourhood have considerably increased and improved within the last ten years, since becoming the principal, and indeed only naval station in South Africa. The Naval Yard is now equal to performing almost every service which His Majesty's ships may require, having been rendered so under the auspices and direction of the late Commissioner, Sir Jahleel Brenton, to whose unwearied zeal and perseverance, aided by excellent officers under him, not only the Yard, but Simon's Town and Bay in general are largely indebted. There are no docks; but ships can be hove down, and frequently have been so, with perfect ease, convenience, and security. Boats may communicate with shipping in the Bay in the worst of weather, from the general smoothness of the water, and the anchorage, which is very good, being so near the shore. They may likewise lay at all times with safety alongside the Wharf, to which an abundant supply of excellent water is brought by pipes, and conveyed into the casks with ease. The town is full of small warehouses or stores, supplied by the merchants of Cape Town, most of whom have agents here; and from many gardens to the S. E., as well as farms in the neighbourhood, behind the hills, there are now large quantities of vegetables grown, for the use of shipping. The hotels and inns in Simon's Town have lately much improved; ample means of conveyance are provided to and from Cape Town; and the road between the two places has been made so good under the administration of Lord Charles Somerset, the present Governor, that any sort of carriage may be used thereon with perfect ease and safety.