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ness at different Universities. This part of our analysis may therefore be regarded as a legitimate appendix to the foriner divisions of the preseut sketch.
NOTICES. 1. Qui. Ennii Medea, commentario perpetuo illustrata, cum fragmentis quæ in Hesselii, Merule, aliisque hujus Poetæ editionibus desiderantur. Accedit disputatio de origine atque indole veteris tragediæ apud Romanos. Auctore Henr. Plank. Gottingen 1807. 4to. pp. 134. The young scholar, who is author of this essay and son to the celebrated historian of the name, is of npinion that there never existed but a single Medea of Ennius, and that it was a kind of free translation of the Medea of Euripides. He has arranged the various fragments in an ingenious and satisfactory manner, and added a commentary with instructive reflections on the Paleography of the Romans, on their ancient tragedy, their metrical system and other points of antiquity.
The programmata of M. Gærentz, Rector of the Gymnasium of Plauen, are peculiarly interesting to the admirers of Latin literature. His recent productions are, “ On the first book de divinatione of Cicero,” and “ Critical Essay on some passages in the Poet Tibullus.”
3. In 1808, on the occasion of a school anniversary, M. Matthiæ, rector of the Gymnasium of Frankfort, gave in a Programma “Observationes nonnullæ in Senecæ epistolas." These important observations refer in a particular manner to the edition of Seneca's epistles published by M. Matthiæ himself, and which has not been mentioned under the head of Latin literature because it contains only the text of the original.
4. M. Moschè, director of the Gymnasium of Lubeck, has long made Cornelius Nepos the peculiar object of his studies. In 1802 while at Frankfort, he wrote a Programma “ De eo quod in Cornelio Nepote faciendum restat.” In 1807 and 1808, he wrote two others on the same author: “Corn. Nepotis liber, qui inscribitur Imperatorum excell. Vitæ, utrum opus integrum an vero operis majoris pars quædam sit habendus ?" and "Symbolæ ad crisin textus Corn. Nepotis: Particula 1ma.” In the first "piece M. Moschè gives it as his opinion that the lives of Cornelius Nepos, now extant, are only part of a larger work which is lost. The second production presents us with some valuable notes variorum taken from a MS. of Nepos in the Royal Library at Kiel.
5. M. Heinrich, Professor of Eloquence and Poetry in the University of Kiel, and the conimentator of Hesiod, as mentioned in a former page, published in 1808, a dissertation connected with the great question agitated by M. Wolf respecting Homer, “De Diasceuastis Homericis, veterunique monumentorum Diasceuasi.”
6. Professor Huschke of Rostock published in 1806 a Programma worthy of perusal: "Commentatio de Orphei Argonauticis." M. Huschke had already published at Jena in 1800 a work of great learning : “ Analecta critica in Anthologiam Græcam, cum Supplemento Epigrammatum, maximam partem ineditarum.” 1 vol. 8vo.
7. The following is a remarkable proposal for an edition of the Banquet of Plato: “Specimen Editionis Symposii Platonis. Įnest et quæstio, qua Acæo carmen vindicatur, quod vulgo Theocriti putaverunt. Auctor Frid. Thiersch, philosophiæ in Academia Literar. human. in Gymnasio Gottingensi Doctor.” 1808. pp. 48. 4to.
8. “De temporibus et modis verbi Græci, et de constructione particularum ex modorum significatione constituenda.” A disputation in 69 pages 4to printed at Gottingen in 1808, on the occasion of M. Dissen's assuming the degree of Doctor in Philosophy. The reader will here find some excellent philosophical notions on Greek Grammar, and more particularly with respect to the particles.
9. Among several small philological treatises on oriental literature, we ought to distinguish three by Dr. Bellerman, Director of the Gymnasium of Berlin, published successively in 1806, 7, 8, and which treat of the " Interpretatiou of the passage written in the Punic tongue in the Pænulus of Plautus." The author adopts for the first ten line3 the version of Bochart, but not for the rest; and as to the Latin version found in the editions of Plautus, le considers them as by 110 means of the composition of that poet. These three programmata have been reprinted in the form of an 8vo. vol. pp. 206.
10. By Professor Preutzer of Heideiberg, “ Commeutatio priina de causis rerum Bacchicarum et Orphicarum. Explicantur vasa sacra Bacchica Orphica, in his crater mundanus mysticus, apud Atheneum" Nov. 1807. and in Jan. 1808. “ Excursus de Cratere Liberi Patris sidereo itemque de tabula Indorum mirifica, mirificoque lapide in carminibus antiquioribus Germanorum.”. This second programma, which treats of a subject analogous to the first, has for its principal text a passage of Porphyry, “ De antro Nympharum.” Ch. 12 to 14.
In both of these small works the learned author opens an entirely new cycle of mythology and seizes some striking relations between the religious fables of Greece and those of Egypt; relations, by means of which he traces the origin of the myths and symbols which relate to Bacchus, Dionysius, Serapis, the astronomical Bell and the Cup, the Egyptian Phallus &c. It is dithcult to find any thing to equal the interest inspired by several of the ideas proniulgated in these two writings; as for example, those wlrich relate to the Cabiri, and the Mysteries of Samothrace. The above productions were afterwards printed together in one volume with plates under the title of " Dionysius, sive Commentationes Academica de rerum Bacchicarum Orphicarumque originibus et causis.” Vol. j.
11. M. Siebelis of Bautzen in Lusatia, who three years ago had given a very curious critical dissertation, “ De loco Euripideo, ubi Terra Somniorum mater vocatur," published in 1808 the first part of his researches into another point of antiquity, in a Programma intitled, “ Diss. de heroum Græcorum educatione, in qua quæritur, qui Græcorum dicti fere sint beroes a veteribus," a most important éssay, in which the different significations of the rows and gowes are clearly determined.
12. A series of programmata by M. Schwartz, of Gærlitz, has appeared within these few years under the general title of “ Commentationes Theophrastea.". The two parts which are dated in 1805 and 1806 bear the titles of “ De lapide Lydio veterum et recentiorum." The author thinks that this stone is a kind of Schistous Silex.
13. M. Eichstädt of Jená published in 1806 two of his programmiata in one volume, “ De imaginibus Romanorum” which have been translated into French by M. Henry. In these two essays the author developes and confirms in a manner, which seems to approach to certainty, an opinion as to the description of images in question, which was at first that of Xilander, Lesching, and Eschenbourg, and which M. Schweighauser had hinted at in a few words in his notes upon Polybius; viz. that these images were hollow masks in wax, moulded upon the faces of living or dead persons, and afterwards put over the faces of men who assumed this disguise at funerals and other public processions.
14. An essay filled with very curious résearches on the processes of the ancient Egyptians in embalming bodies, and particularly those of animals, is the following programma of M. Langguth, professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Wittenberg: “Prolusio prima, de bestiis Ægyptiorum studio conversis in Mumias.” 1808. 4to. pp. 42. The author had formerly published, “De Mumiis avium in Labyrintho apud Sacaram repertis” with two plates. In the first essay the Mummies of Ibis only were mentioned. In the latter, the author brings into notice the Muinmies of several kinds of quadrupeds, such as the sacred oxen, the dogs of Cynopolis, &c. It is desirable that M. Langguth should prosecute his inquiries. A learned Professor, who impresses a classical character on every thing which he touches, M. Blumenbach of Gottingen, has long been occupied with inquiries respecting the Mummies of Egypt. In 1780, he first treated the subject in the Gottingen Magazine. In 1794, he furnished a paper to the English Philosophical transactions on the same topic. In the volume of the Commentationes of the Royal Society of Gottingen printed in 1808, we find a memoir from his pen intitled: " Specimen Historiæ naturalis antiquæ artis operibus illustratæ eaque vicissim illustrantis.” This menoir will be perused with much delight.
15. Ancient Geography has been the subject of a good essay by M. Bredow intitled “Geographiæ et Uranologiæ Herodotæ Specimina.”
16. “Dissertatio de bistoriæ universalis argumento, auctore Christ. Frid. Ræsler prof. Hist. Tubingen,” 1806. pp. 40. in 4to.' 'This little work contains some excellent views by a veteran in Science, on the scope, method, and nature, of universal history. It is worthy of remark, that the inaugural dissertation of Professor Ræsler, when he took possession of his chair in 1777, treated of the same subject. so De historiæ universalis idea et methodo."
17. Within the few last years of the life of M. Hasse, Professor of Theology at Konigsberg, he published a series of remarkable programmata on various interesting points in the History of Religion. For instance in 1802, “ De Mohammede resurrectionis Christi teste," and afterwards,-“ Augustus Cæsar Christi nascituri forsan non ignarus, ad Lucan. 11. 1." and "Historiæ de Christo in vitam et coelumn redeunte evangelicæ, ex narratione Livii de Romuli vulgo credita divinitate, illustratio.” The singular opinions advanced in these essays are supported with great spirit and erudition.
18. As a thesis distinguished for eloquence and force of reasoning, we select that of Mr. Grave of Riga, a young gentleman who graduated at Gottingen in 1808. It is intitled, “ De Pythagoreorum et Essenorum disciplina et sodalitiis."
19. M. Deppoldt has published a learned disputation, “ De fontibus Historixe Caroli Magni et Scriptoribus eam illustrantibus.” The author announces in this short treatise an enlarged History of the reign of Charlemagne, of which we cannot but augur favorably from the present specimen.
20. In October 1806, on occasion of an Academical Solemnity of the University of Copenhagen, Professor 'Thorlacius read and published a very interesting piece on the state of the School of Bordeaux, and the Masters who florished there in the fourth century.” The author takes as the basis of his dissertation the work of Ausonius, “ Commemoratio Professorum Burdigalensium,” but he has added .considerably to the details. In 1807, a collection of Programmata by M. Thorlacius was published, intitled, “ Prolusiones et Opuscula Academica, argumenti maxumè philologici;” among these, several are distinguished for critical and historical research.
21. The Programmata of some eminent scholars have been saved from oblivion, by having been occasionally collected into distinct volumes. Within the last few years, several collections of this description have been made: the following have been the most remarkable.
Professor Pott of Helmstedt has published since the commencement of the present century, an interesting volume with the title of “ Sylloge commentationum theologicarum” which is now in its Sth volume
The collection of Programmata and other pieces of Valckenaer has been printed at Leipsic“ L. Casp. Valkenarii Opuscula, philologica, critica, oratorica, nunc primum conjunctim edita." The first volume appeared in 1808. This collection of writings, although by a Dutch author, has been published in Germany.
On the other hand, the following collection of the works of a celebrated German Professor, has been published in Holland.
“ Pauli Emesti Jablonski Opuscula, quibus lingua et antiquitas Ægyptioruin, ditticilia librorum sacrorum loca, et historiæ ecclesiasticæ capita illustrantur ; nagham partem nunc primum in lucem protracta, vel ab ipso auctore emendata ac locupletata. T. duo. Edidit atque animadversiones adjecit I. G. Te. Water.” 1806. LeydenHonkoop.
M. Eichstädt of Jena, whose name has been so often mentioned, has collected and published the detached pieces of criticism on the books of the New Testament, which were from time to time composed by the learned Dr. Morus who died in 1792. The third and last volume of this useful work has recently appeared.
The programmata and memoirs of the late M. Knapp, Professor of Theology in the University of Halle, some of which relate to criticism in general, and others embrace subjects of the history of religious opinions, &c. and all of them wriiten in very pure Latin, have been printed at Halle in 2 volumes, with this title: G. Christoph. Knappii Scripta varii argumenti, &c.
The celebrated Pulpit Orator at the Court of Saxony, M. Reinhaad, has lately had the satisfaction to see his Academical 'Theses reprinted in one volume, which is most eagerly sought after by the learned world. His editor is Professor Pælitz of Wittenberg, an estimable scholar, to whom the public is already under many obligations for editorial services.
We have now brought to a conclusion M. Villers' elaborate and elegant, though rapid sketch of the present state of German literature. The address in which he takes leave of the subject does so much honor to his zeal in the cause of learning and science, that it is but fair to present the greater portion of it to the readers of the Classical Journal.
“ Such," says M. Villers, “ is my feeble attempt at a sketch of the present state of the literature of Germany. I have only noticed those books which I have actually perused, and I bave brought those only before the public, which I considered as worthy their attention. It would have been easy to have swelled my report with a numerous catalogue of pompous titles, if I had not strictly adhered to certain principles of selection. On the other hand it may happen that some valuable works have escaped me, and niy sketch may be imperfect in many respects. I have designedly omitted the numerous editions of Greek or Roman Classics intended for the use of schools, and the great mass of learning usually contained in the periodical publications of Germany, besides the researches of the literati on the subject of the antiquity of their native tongue or national poets, considering these topics as savoring too much of locality.
“ Notwithstanding these omissions, if we consider how many eminent and valuable works have been brought under the view of my readers in the foregoing pages, some idea may be conceived of the immense and well-directed activity of the German literati. I have enumerated more than two hundred authors who have deserved well of the learned: classical erudition has been enriched with several excellent didactic performances, and several valuable editions of ancient authors: ancient mythology has been the subject of some most interesting inquiries, while our acquaintance with ancient Geography and History has been extended by researches of the first order.
“How voluminous would my present sketch have been, if I had included Philosophy and Legislation, the Belles lettres, the mechia