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Import Duties (Akassa). s. d.

2 The British Protectorate over the entire basin Spirits, per imperial gallon of the Lower Niger, including the Benin and Cross

Tobacco, per

06 lb.

1 0 Rivers, was formally assumed in July, 1884, when Salt, per cwt. regular treaties of protection were concluded by Consul Hewett with all the principal Chiefs. It War material (arms, powder, &c.), 100 per cent. ad

val. extends along the coast of Africa from the Benin River (where it joins the boundary of Lagos) to

All other merchandise, except coal, 2 per cent. ad the mouth of the Rio del Rey at 9° east longitude.

val. Inland the Protectorate includes the whole basins In addition, similar duties are payable at Lokoja of the Lower Niger and Binué up to and beyond (except that the ad val, duty is 10 per cent.), 80 the Boussa rapids on the former, and Jin on the that the total dues on imports above Lokoja are latter, in about 10° north latitude. The settlement more than double the above. of the Baptist Missionary Society at Victoria, Amboises (or Ambas) Bay was formerly British

Export Duties (Akassa). territory, having been formally annexed in July,

8. d. 1884. It was however ceded to the German Empire, Palm kernels, per cwt.

2 0 which has acquired by purchase the rights of the Palm oil and shea butter, gallon: 0 Baptist Missionary Society, the transfer of sove-Ivory, per lb.

1 0 reignty taking place on the 29th March, 1887. All other native produce, 20 per cent. ad val.

The whole of these vast districts are under the general supervision of the British Consul for the

There are no Customs duties at the other ports Bights of Benin and Biafra, but on the 10th of on the coast. July, 1886, a Royal Charter was granted to the

The amount of import duties levied in 1887 was Royal Niger Company (formerly the National | 24,0377., and the export duties 16,7811. African Company, Limited), by which extensive

Administration. powers of administration were conferred upon them in the territories over which they have treaty No interference in the domestic government of rights, including a belt of 30 miles on each bank of the native chiefs is contemplated, but disputes are the Niger and Binué. The operations of the Com- settled and much indirect influence is exercised by pany extend as far inland as Gando and Sokatoo, the British Consuls under the general direction of with the Sultans of which countries treaties have the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Civil been concluded. The Company's operations on and criminal jurisdiction over British subjects is the sea coast are mainly confined to Akassa, the exercised in the Consular Courts (under the West Nûn entrance to the Niger. The British Consular Africa Order in Council, 1885), subject to appeal jurisdiction is chiefly exercised in the river mouths to the Supreme Court of Sierra Leone or the Gold between the Benin, Brass, and the Old Calabar Coast Colony. Within the territories of the Royal Rivers.

Niger Company civil and criminal jurisdiction is exercised by the officers of that Company under

the powers given by the Charter. The judicial Means of Communication.

system was organised by Sir James Marshall,

C.M.G., during 1888. There are telegraph stations at Brass and Bouny, in cable communication with Lagos, and thus with

British Consular Establishment, Europe. Regular steamers arrive and depart from Liverpool and the South-West Coast of Africa Consul, Edward Hyde Hewett, C.M.G., F.R.G.S., every three weeks. Communication in the Niger Duke Town, Old Calabar, 1,2001., and 7201. allowBasin is mainly by the steamers of the Royal ance, with residence. Niger Company.

Vice-Consul, Hy. Hamilton Johnston, F.R.G.S.,

&c. (also Vice-Consul for the Ger

man Protectorate of the CameIndustry.

roons), Mondolé Island, Victoria, An enormous trade, wholly in the hands of

Amboises Bay, 5001., and 2001. English firms, is done in the Protectorate, mainly

allowances, with residence. with this country, Germany, and France. There are extensive depôts in all the river mouths of the

Royal Niger Company. delta, from which palm oil and kernels, with some Chief Depót, Akassa, Niger Delta. ebony, are exported. The internal trade of the London Office, 34-40, Ludgate-hill, E.C. Niger and Binué is almost entirely done by the Capital, 97,675 shares of 101. each. Royal Niger Company, whose chief depôt is Chairman, The Right Hon. Lord Aberdare, P.C., Akassa. Besides the articles already mentioned,

G.C.B. ivory, indiarubber, shea-butter and beni-seed are Deputy Chairman, Sir G. D. Taubman Goldie. exported by the Company, which has over 150 K.C.M.G. "factories."

Chief Local Officers of the Company, Messrs. David The imports consist of cotton goods, spirits, Mackintosh, Sergeant, Flint, and Wallace. hardware, guns, gunpowder, salt, silks, and coral. The steamers of the Company navigate the Niger

Foreign Consuls. up to the rapids of Boussa, 460 miles from the sea, and for 450 miles of the course of the Binué, which

Germany, Baron von Soden, Consul - General, falls into the Niger at Igbegbe, 290 miles from the

Cameroon River; H. H. Johnston, F.R.G.S.(Vice

Consul). sea. No statistics as to the amount of trade are available.

Customs Tariff of the Royal Niger Company (payable at Akassa and Lokoja):

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Capital, 1,000,0001., in 11. shares.

London Office, 14, George Street, Mansion
High Commission.

The office of High Commissioner in and for South President, Duke of Abercorn, C.B.
Africa, was created by Letters Patent in 1878, and

Vice-President, Duke of Fife, K.T. is filled by the Officer administering the Govern

Directors, Lord Gifford, 7.C., C. J. Rhodes, ment of the Cape Colony. The High Commissioner

M.L.A., Alfred Belt, Albert Grey, and George is charged with the conduct of British relations

Cawston. with the South African Republic (Transvaal), and Secretary, C. II. Weatherley. the Orange Free State, as well as those with Swaziland, Pondoland, and other native states and tribes outside the Cape Colony and Natal. In 1879, a second High Commissioner was appointed, to whom was assigned South-Eastern Africa, including Zululand and Amatongaland, but this arrangement ceased in 1881, when a Special Commissioner

WESTERN PACIFIC. for Zulu affairs was appointed, who is also Governor of Natal (and now of Zululand), and conducts

High Commission. the relations with Amatongaland.

The High Commissioner for South Africa is also Governor of

The office of High Commissioner in, over, and British Bechuanaland and Basutoland, and super- Orier in Council, cited as the Western Pacific

for the Western Pacific Islands, was created by an vises the affairs of the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Order in Council of 1877, for the purpose of better as well as the country within the recent extension of British influence as far north as the Zambesi. carrying out the provisions of the Pacific Islanders' The expenses of the High Commission are borne Protection Acts, 1872 and 1875, and to provide a by Imperial funds, under Vote 6 of Class V. The Civil Court for the settlement of disputes betwees Administrator of British Bechuanaland is also British subjects living in these islands. Deputy Commissioner; and in July, 1888, a Deputy The jurisdiction of the High Commissioner Commissioner was appointed for Pondoland, who extends over all islands in the Western Pacific not is paid by the Cape Government, the affairs of being within the limits of the Colouies of Fiji. that country being dealt with by the Cape Depart- Queensland, or New South Wales, and not being ment of Native Affairs. The correspondence with within the jurisdiction of any civilised power, and the South African Republic is carried on through includes the Southern Solomon Islands, the New a British Agent at Pretoria furnished with a letter Hebrides, the Tongan or Friendly Islands, the of credence to the President.

Samoan or Navigators’ Islands, and the various small High Commissimer, Sir H. B. Loch, G.C.M.G., Commission are met from Imperial funds, Class (',

groups of Melanesia. The expenses of the High K.C.B. (Capetown), 1,0001.. Secretary to the High Commission, Graham Bower,

vote 5, the total in 1889–90 being 2,3901. late Commander, R.N., 6201.

The Chief Justice of Fiji, and every other Judge Deputy Commissioner for Bechuanaland, Sir S. G. A.

for the time being of the Supreme Court, is by Shippard (Vryburg), 1,8001. (paid by Bechuana

virtue of his office a Judicial Commissioner, and land)

where the attendance of the Chief Justice or other Assistant Commissioner for the Protectorate and Judge of the Supreme Court is impracticable, the Resident with Lo Bengula, J. S. Moffat, 1,0001.

High Commissioner may appoint a Judicial ComDeputy Commissioner for Pondoland, J.' P. Scott, missioner for particular purposes or for a particular 6007. (paid by Cape Colony).

time. British Agent at Pretoria, Ralph Williams, 1,0001. High Commissioner on behalf of Her Majesty

Deputy Commissioners are appointed by the (including 3001. for office expenses).

The High Commissioner's Court consists of the British South Africa Company.

High Commissioner, the Judicial Commissioners.

and the Deputy Commissioners, and in it is vested A Royal Charter was granted on 15th October, exerciseable in the Western Pacific Islands.

all her Majesty's civil and criminal jurisdiction 1889, to this Company, conferring upon it powers to carry out any valid concessions that might be

The Court of a Judicial Commissioner has powers granted to it of administrative or commercial similar to those of the Superior Courts of England, privileges in the territory to the north of British and the Deputy Commissioners have jurisdiction Bechuanaland, west of the Portuguese dominions, civil and criminal analogous to that of Stipendiary and north and west of the South African Republic. Magistrates and Judges of County Courts, with The area of its operations thus includes the Bechu: certain limited powers in respect of probate and analand Protectorate, as well as most of the district letters of administration. declared to be within the sphere of British influence.

With some few exceptions all decisions of the The Tati district, now being worked by another High Commissioner's Court may be appealed company, is excluded from the sphere of the against to the Supreme Court of Fiji. chartered company's operations. The concessions

For the purpose of better carrying out the proalready acquired include valuable mining and visions of the Pacific Islanders' Protection Acts, commercial privileges from both Lo Bengula and

1872 and 1875, and in order to deal with cases Khama ; and steps are being taken to develop the occurring where there is no resident Deputy Comacountry as well as to acquire powers of adminis- missioner, certain officers in command of ber tration. A railway is about to be commenced be- Majesty's' ships of war on the Australian station tween Kimberley and Vryburg, British Bechuana- have been appointed Deputy Commissioners. land, which will be extended to Mafeking. The

In addition to the other means of preserving telegraph is being extended from Mafeking to order the High Commissioner has certain specia! Shoshong and Gubulowayo, and a police force is powers for the deportation of persons whose prit being raised.

ceedings endanger the peace of the Islands

High Commissioners.

ASCENSION. 1877 Sir Arthur Gordon, G.C.M.G.

The island of Ascension, 34 miles in area, 1878 John Gorrie (acting).

lying in the South Atlantic, lat. 7° 53' S. and 1879 Sir A. Gordon, G.C.M.G.

long. 14° 18' W., is under the supervision of the 1882 Sir G. W. Des Vaux, K.C.M.G. (acting).

Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, who main1883 J. B. Thurston, C.M.G. (Asst. High Com.).

tain a small naval station there. It was taken 1884 Sir G. W. Des Vaux (acting).

possession of in 1815, and is now garrisoned by 1885 W. Macgregor, C.M.G. (Act. Asst. High C.). | 100 marines. It is famous for its turtles, large 1885 J. B. Thurston, C.M.G. (Asst. High Com.).

numbers of which are caught between Dec. and 1887 Sir C. B. H. Mitchell, K.C.M.G.

May. The mail steamers from the Cape call 1888 Sir J. B. Thurston, K.C.M.G.

there once a month. It is a barren, rocky peak of

purely volcanic origin, and destitute of vegetation, Establishment.

except at the highest point, 2,870 feet high, but High Commissioner, Sir J. B. Thurston, K.C.M.G. has been cultivated to an extent permitting the Chief Judicial Commissioner, H. S. Berkeley, 3001. maintenence of 3,000 sheep. The transfer of the

(in addition to salary as Chief Justice of Fiji). naval station to St. Helena is under consideration. Registrar, J. Langford, 501. (in addition to Fiji The population is about 166. The imports from salary).

and exports to the United Kingdom in 1887 were Secretary to High Commission and Clerk in Charge 2,3181. and 78l. respectively. of Accounts, W. Collet, 4001.

Captain, Richard H. Napier, R.N. Deputy Commissioner in Tonga, R. B. Leefe, 4401. and quarters.

TRISTAN D'ACUNHA. Deputy Commissioner in Samoa, 100%. and 4501. as Consul.

Tristan d'Acunha and Gough Island are the Deputy Commissioner New Hebrides and Solomon principal of a group of islands lying in lat. 37° 6' Íslands, H. H. Romilly, C.M.G., 5001.

S. and long. 12° 2' W. It was taken possession of by a military force during the residence of Napoleon at St. Helena. Upon his death the garrison was withdrawn, with the exception of three men, who, with certain shipwrecked sailors, became

the founders of the present settlement. For a long OTHER MISCELLANEOUS

time only one of the settlers had a wife, but subse

ouently the others contracted with a sea captain to POSSESSIONS.

bring them wives from St. Helena. The popula

tion has since increased to about a hundred, and ADEN.

remains practically stationary, as the younger and

more ambitious settlers migrate in batches to the The peninsula of Aden is situated in lat. 12° 47' | Cape. The inhabitants practically enjoy their N. and long. 45° 10' E., about 100 miles east of the possessions in common, and there is no strong Straits of Bab el Mandeb, on the Arabian coast.

drink on the island, and no crime. It was at one Besides the peninsula a strip of territory stretch-time proposed to give them laws and a regular ing about three miles inland belongs to England, goverumont, but this was found unnecessary for the the whole area being about seventy square miles. above reasons, and they remain under the moral rule The rainfall never exceeds 7 inches in a year. of their oldest inhabitant, Governor Green, sucThe town of Aden is situated on the side of a cessor to Governor Glass, Corporal in the Royal rocky promontory, and is very strongly fortified. Artillery, and founder of the settlement. The It is a most important coaling station, and also an inhabitants are spoken of as long-lived, healthy, entrepôt for the trade with Arabia. The imports moral, religious, and hospitable to strangers. A in 1887 amounted to 1,870,5071., and the exports to supply of stores and provisions was provided out 1,507,7181. The exports consist of coffee, dyes, of a grant voted by Parliament, and sent out by a feathers, gums, spices, &c. The imports from man-of-war in 1886, nearly all the able-bodied Great Britain in 1887 were 155,6701., and the men having been drowned while attempting to exports to were 337,724. The settlement is subject board a vessel in December, 1885. There are 300 to the government of Bombay, being presided cattle and 200 sheep on the islands, and crops of over by a president, who is also commander of potatoes are raised. the troops in the garrison. (For further information see publications relating to India).

MISCELLANEOUS ISLANDS. PERIM, an island situated at the entrance of the Red Sea, is a dependency of Aden, and is admin- A number of islands and rocks throughout the istered from that port. It contains a lighthouse. world are British territory, or under British proSOCOTRA, an island situnted about 150 miles E.N.E. tection, but are not included in any Colony or of Cape Guardafui, in 12° 19'—12° 42' N. lat., and separate Protectorate. Among such may be men530 211–53° 30' E. long. and lying in the direct route tioned the Ashmore Group (Indian Ocean), Bird to India, has been since 1876 under the govern- Island (Tasmania), Sydney Island (4° 25' $. lat., ment of Aden, which pays a small subsidy to the 171° 13' W. long.), the Caroline and Flint Islands Sultan of Keshin, to whom it belonged. The area (Pacific Ocean, 9° 56' S. lat., 150° 6' W. long., and of the island is about 3,000 square miles, and it3 11° 26' . lat. and 151° 48' W. long.), Malden Island population about 4,000, of Arab descent. It is (off the coast of Victoria 4° 1' s. lat., 150° 57' W. 72 miles by 22 miles, mountainous, with peaks 200 long.), the Purdy Group (New Guinea), Sombrero feet high. It was formally annexed in October, (West Indies, with a Board of Trade Lighthouse 1886.

costing 5201. annually) Cato Island, Raine Island, In 1887 also a Protectorate was established over Bell Cay, Bramble Cay, Pilgrim Island, Ducie the Somali coast, extending from Berbera round Island, Bauman Island, Roggewein Island, TeinCape Guardafui to Ras Hafauri.

hoven Island, Coral Island and Dudosa, Starbuck Island, Little Scrub Island, Palmerston, connection with the projected telegraph cable from Island, Surprise Island, Vostoc, Willis's Islets Vancouver to Australasia. Christmas Island (all in the Pacific Ocean), and there are many | (1° 57' N. lat., 157° 27' W. long.) is an atoll 91 others. Most of these have no permanent inhabi- miles in circumference, barren, with only brackisb tants, but are, or have been, leased by the Lords water. A trading firm collects mother of parl Commissioners of the Treasury for guano collec- shells. J'anning Island (3° 51' N. lat., 1393 tion, or for cocoanut planting. The rents are paid W. long.) is a small atoll 9 miles by 4, covered into the Exchequer

with cocoanut trees, copra and guano being erThe Cook or Hervey Islands, a group lying ported. Penrhyn Island (9° S. lat., 158 Ž' W. about 160° W. long. and 20° S. lat., were formally long.) is an atoll 30 miles in circumference, partly placed under British protection on 27th September, covered with cocoanut trees, and having a propala1888. The principal island is Rarotonga (popula- tion of 300. Mother of pearl is exported. Suwartion 1,800; imports, 1888, about 1,5001., exports, row Island (13° 13' S. lat., 163° 9' W. long.) #2s 13,5007.) There are three principal Queen rulers, annexed for a similar reason, 22nd April, 18*; a Makea, Tinomana and Pa, who are also the chief protectorate was established over Jarvis Islandi, landowners. The London Missionary Society has Phoenix group (six islands), Union group (three a training college at Avarna, and there are several islands), Washington or New York Islami, and trading firms, exporting fruit, copra, cotton, and Palmyra Island. coffee, principally to New Zealand. The chief The Mushahh Islands, a group of coral reefs on other islands are Mangaia, 108 miles S.E. of the coast of Abyssinia, were ceded by the Sultan Rarotonga, population 1,600; Atin, 106 miles north of Tejureh, and taken possession of on the 31st of Mangaia, population 850; Mitiaro (300); August, 1840. By agreement with France in July, Manke (620); Mannae or Hervey Island, and 1887, they were recognised as being under French Aitutaki (population 1,400). The total population protection, and they now belong to the French of the group (which does not include Hull Island, Colony of Jobock. or the Tubuai or Austral Islands) is about 9,000. The Kuriyan-Muriyan Islands, five in number, Humphrey and Rierson Islands, and the Manihiki off the south-east coast of Arabia, were ceded by group, lying to the north of the Cook Islands, the Imam of Muskat for the purpose of landing about 160° W. long. and 10° S. lat., were also the Red Sea telegraph cable. On one of them, annexed in 1888. Christmas, Fanning, and Pen- | Hallaniyah, is the signalling station maintained by rhyn Islands were annexed in March, 1888, in the Telegraph Company. The whole group is view of the possibility of their being utilised in leased for the purpose of guano collection.




Conferred on persons (now living) for Serrices in and for the Colonies.

'The Right Hon. Viscount Monck, P.C., G.C.M.G., 1866.
The Right Hon. Baron Knutsford, P.C., G.C.M.G., 1888.

Privy Councillors.
The Right Hon. The Earl of Derby, K.G., 1858. The Right Hon. Lord Brabourne, 1873.
The Right Hon. Lord Carlingford, K.P., 1864. The Right Hon. Sir John Alexander Macdonald,
The Right Hon. The Earl of Carnarvon, 1866.

G.C.B., 1879. The Right Hon. The Earl of Belmore, K.C.M.G., The Right Hon. Sir Hercules George Robert 1867.

Robinson, G.C.M.G., 1883. The Right Hon. Sir James Fergusson, M.P., Bart., The Kight Hon. Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., O.I.E., 1868.

G.C.M.G., 1886. The Right Hou. Viscount Monck, G.C.M.G., 1869. The Right Hon. Baron H. de Worms, M.P., 1889.

Baronets. Sir John Francis Davis, K.C.B., 1845.

Sir George Stephen, 1886. Sir Charles Nicholson, 1859.

Sir Charles Clifford, 1887. Sir Daniel Cooper, K.C.M.G., 1863.

Sir Charles Tupper, G.C.M.G., C.B., 1888. Sir William John Clarke, 1882.


Knights Grand Cross.
The Right Hon. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, 1884.
The Most Honourable the Marquis of Normanby, P.O., G.C.M.G., 1885.

The Right Hon. Baron Stanley of Preston, P.C., 1886.

Knights Commanders. Sir George Grey, 1848.

Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, D.C.L., Sir Henry Barkly, G.C.M.G., 1853.

1882. Sir John Francis Davis, Bart., 1854.

Sir Francis Philip Cunliffe-Owen, K.C.M.G.,

C.I.E., 1886.

Companions. Colonel George De Rottenburgh, 1857.

Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley, K.C.M.G , 1867. Sir Rawson William Rawson, K.C.M.G., 1858. Sir Hector Louis Langevin, K.C.M.G., 1868. Sir Adriano Dingli, G.C.M.G., 1859.

The Hon. Robert Henry Meade, 1885. Colonel Sir Stephen John Hill, K.C.M.G., 1860. Major-General John Soame Richardson, 1885. Major Matthew Richmond, 1860.

John Bramston, Esq., D.C.L., 1886.
Sir Alfred Stephen, G.C.M.G., 1862.

Sir Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., 1886.
Charles Saint John Septimus Herbert, Esq., 1863. Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C.M.G., 1886.
Sir George Frederic Verdon, K.C.M.G., 1866. Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., 1886.
Sir William Pearce Howland, K.C.M.G., 1867. Sir Charles Mills, K.C.M.G., 1886.
William MacDougall, Esq., 1867.

Edward Wingfield, Esq., M.A., B.C.L., 1889. Sir Charles Tupper, Bart., G.C.M.G., 1867.

KNIGHTS BACHELORS. Sir Alfred Stephen, G.C.M.G., C.B., 1846.

Sir Francis Murphy, 1860. Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 1852.

Sir Narcisse Fortunat Belleau, K.C.M.G., 1860. Sir Peter Benson Maxwell, 1856.

Sir Charles Sargent, 1860.
Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine, K.C.M.G., 1856. Sir Patrick MacChombaich de Colquhoun, LL.D..
Sir Daniel Cooper, Bart., G.C.M.G., 1857.

Q.C., 1861.
Sir William Montagu Manning, LL.D., 1858. Sir Francis Smith, 1862.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart., 1858.

Sir John Iles Mantell, 1867.
The Right Hon. Sir Hercules George Robert Sir James Cockle, 1869.
Robinson, G.C.M.G., 1859.

Sir John Morphett, 1870.

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