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TREATY

Of Amity and Commerce between their High Mightinesses the

States General of the United Netherlands, and the United
States of America, to wit: New-Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Vir-
ginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia. (a)

Oct. 8, 1782.

Their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands, and the United States of America; to wit: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-York, New Jersey, Pensylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, desiring to ascertain in a permanent and equitable manner, the rules to be observed relative to the commerce and correspondence, which they intend to establish between their respective states, countries and inhabitants, have judged that the said end cannot be better obtained, than by establishing the most perfect equality and reciprocity for the basis of their agreement, and by avoiding all those burthensome preferences, which are usually the sources of debate, embarrassment and discontent; by leaving also each party at liberty to make, respecting commerce and navigation, such ulterior regulations as it shall find most convenient to itself; and by founding the advantages of commerce solely upon reciprocal utility, and the just rules of free intercourse, reserving withal to each party the liberty of admitting at its pleasure other nations to a participation of the same advantages.

On these principles their said High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands, have named for their plenipotentiaries, from the midst of their assembly, Messieurs, their deputies for the foreign affairs; and the said United States of America, on their part, have fure nished with full powers, Mr. John Adams, late commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, heretofore delegate in Congress from the state of Massachusetts-Bay, and chief justice of the said state, who have agreed and concluded as follows, to witt:

Peace and friendship between the two nations.

ARTICLE I.
There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal peace and sincere
friendship, between their High Mightinesses, the Lords the States Gene-
ral of the United Netherlands, and the United States of America, and
between the subjects and inhabitants of the said parties, and between the
countries, islands, cities and places, situated under the jurisdiction of
the said United Netherlands, and the said United States of America,
their subjects and inhabitants, of every degree, without exception of
persons or places.

ARTICLE II.
The subjects of the said States General of the United Netherlands,

(a) This treaty was ratified on the 22d January, 1783.

TRACTAAT

Van Vriendschap en Commercie, tusschen Haar Hoog Mogende

de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staten van America, te weeten, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island en Providence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-York, New-Jersey, Pensylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginien, Noord-Carolina, Zuid-Carolina, en Georgia.

HAAR Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden en de Vereenigde Staten van America; te weeten: New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island en Providence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-York, New-Jersey, Pensylvanien, Delaware, Maryland, Virginien, Noord-Carolina, Zuyd-Carolina, en Georgien, geneegen zynde op een bestendige en billyke wyze te bepalen de regelen, die in acht genomen moeten worden, ten opzigte van de correspondentie en commercie, welke zy verlangen vast te stellen tusschen haare respective landen Staten, onderdanen en ingezeetenen, hebben geoordeelt, dat het gezegde einde niet beeter kan worden bereikt, dan door te stellen tot een bazis van haar verdrag, de volmaekste egaliteit en reciprociteit, en met vermyding van alle die lastige præferentien, dewelke doorgaans de bronäders zyn van twist, verwarring en misnoegen; door aan iedere party de vryheid te laten, om weegins de commercie en navigatie, verder zulke reglementen te maken, als die voor zig zelven het gevoeglykst zal oordeelen; en door de voordeelen van commercie, eeniglyk te gronden op weederzyds nut, en de juiste regels van vrye handel over en weer; reserveerende by dat alles aan iedere parthy de vryheid, om, na des zelfs goedvinden andere natien te admitteeren tot het participeeren aan dezelfde voordeelen.

Op deeze grondbeginzelen hebben voorgemelde Haar Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, tot hunne Plenipotentiarissen, uit het midden hunner vergadering benoemd, de Heeren Derselver gedeputeerden tot de buitenlandsche Saaken; En de gemelde Vereenigde Staten van America van hunne zyde, met volmagt voorsien den Heer John Adams, laatst commissaris van de Vereenigde Staten van America, aan het Hof van Versailles geweezen afgevaardigde op het Congres weegens de staten van Massachusetts-Baay, en opper-regter van den gemelden staat, dewelke zyn overeengekomen,

en geaccordeert :

ARTL I. Daar zal een vaste onverbreekelyke en universeele vreede, en opregte vrienschap zyn, tusschen Haar Hoog Mogende de Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staten van America, en de onderdanen en ingezeetenen van de voornoemde parthyen, en tusschen de landen, eilanden, steeden en plaatsen, geleegen, onder de jurisdictie van de gemelde Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de gemelde Vereenigde Staten van America, en derselver onderdanen en ingezeetenen van allerley Staat, sonder onder scheid van persoonen en plaatsen.

ARTL II. De onderdanen van de gemelde Staten Generaal der Vereenigde NeSubjects of shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities or places, United Nether- of the United States of Ainerica, or any of them, no other nor greater lands shall have duties or imposts, of whatever nature or denomination they may be, than the same privileges in the those which the nations the most favoured, are or shall be obliged to United States, pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, priviledges, immunias the most fa. voured nation.

ties, and exemptions in trade, navigation and commerce, which the said nations do or shall enjoy, whether in passing from one port to another, in the said states, or in going from any of those ports 'to any foreign port of the world, or from any foreign port of the world to any of those ports,

ARTICLE III. Citizens of U. The subjects and inhabitants of the said United States of America, S. shall have shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities or places the same privi; of the said United Netherlands, or any of them, no other nor greater leges in United Netherlands as duties or imposts of whatever nature or denomination they may be, than the most favour. those which the nations the most favoured, are or shall be obliged to ed nations.

pay: And they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, priviledges, immunities and exemptions in trade, navigation and commerce, which the said nations do or shall enjoy, whether in passing from one port to another in the said states, or from any one towards any one of those ports, from or to any foreign port of the world. And the United States of America, with their subjects and inhabitants, shall leave to those of their High Mightinesses, the peacable enjoyment of their rights, in the cou tries, islands and seas, in the East and West-Indies, without any hindrance or molestation.

Liberty of con. science, &c. secured to the citizens of each party in the other's dominions.

ARTICLE IV. There shall be an entire and perfect liberty of conscience allowed to the subjects and inhabitants of each party, and to their families, and no one shall be molested in regard to his worship, provided he submits as to the public demonstration of it, to the laws of the country: There shall be given moreover, liberty, when any subjects or inhabitants of either party shall die in the territory of the other, to bury them in the usual burrying places, or in decent and convenient grounds to be appointed for that purpose, as occasion shall require; and the dead bodies of those who are burried, shall not in any wise be molested. And the two contracting parties shall provide, each one in his jurisdiction, that their respective subjects and inhabitants may henceforward obtain the requisite certificates in cases of deaths, in which they shall be interested.

ARTICLE V. Both parties to

Their High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherprotect vessels lands, and the United States of America, shall endeavour, by all the of the other in

means in their power, to defend and protect all vessells and other effects, their dominions, to restore them belonging to their subjects and inhabitants respectively, or to any of when captured, them, in their ports, roads, havens, internal seas, passes, rivers, and as and to convoy in certain cases.

far as their jurisdiction extends at sea, and to recover, and cause to be restored to the true proprietors, their agents or attornies, all such vessells and effects, which shall be taken under their jurisdiction : And their vessells of war and convoys, in cases when they may have a common enemy, shall take under their protection all the vessells belonging derlanden, zullen in de havens, rheeden, landen, eilanden, steeden of plaatsen van de Vereenigde Staten van America, of eenige van dezelve, geen andere of grootere regten of impositien van wat natuur, die ook mogen zyn, of hoedanig dezelve ook genoemt mogen werden, betaalen, dan die welke de meest gefavoriseerde natien, zyn of zullen worden verpligt aldaar te betaalen. En zy zullen genieten alle de regten, vryheeden, privilegien, immuniteiten en exemptien in handel, navigatie en commercie, het zy in het gaan van eene haven in de gemelde Staaten na eene andere, of gaande van eenige van deeze havens na eenige vreemde haven van de wereld, of van eenige vreemde haven van de wereld, na eenige van deeze havens, welke de gemelde natien reeds genieten of zullen genieten.

ARTL III. Insgelyks zullen de onderdanen en ingezeetenen van de gemelde Vereenigde Staten van America, in de havens, rheeden, landen, eilanden, steeden of plaatsen van de gemelde Vereenigde Nederlanden of eenige van dezelve, geen andere of grootere regten of impositien, van wat natuur, die ook mogen zyn of hoedanig dezelve ook genoemt mogen worden, betaalen, dan die, welke de meest gefavoriseerde natien, zyn of zullen worden verpligt aldaar te betalen. En zy zullen genieten alle de regten, vryheeden, privilegien, immuniteiten, en exemptien in handel, navigatie en commercie, het zy in het gaan van eene haven in de gemelde Staaten na eene andere, of gaande na en van dezelve, van en na eenige vreemde haven van de wereld, welke de meest gefavoriseerde natien reeds genieten of sullen genieten. En zullen de Vereenigde Staten van America, beneevens haare onderdanen en ingezeetenen, aan die van Haar Hoog Mogende laten het gerust genot van haare regten, omtrent de landen, eilanden en zeeën, in Oost en West-Indien, sonder haar daar in eenig belet of hindernis te doen.

ARTL IV. Er zal eene volle, volkomene en geheele vryheid van conscientie worden toegestaen aan de onderdanen en ingezeetenen van iedere parthy, en aan derzelver familien, en zal niemand ter zake van den Godtsdienst worden gemolesteert, mits hem omtrent publique de monstratie onderwerpende aan de wetten van het land. Daar en boven zal vryheid worden gegeeven aan de onderdanen en ingezeetenen van iedere parthye, die in des anderen's territoir overlyden, om begraven te worden in de gewoone begraafplaatsen of gevoeglyke en decente plaatsen, daar toe te bepaalen, zoo als de geleegendheid zal vereisschen, nogte zullen de doode lighaamen van die geene, die begraven zyn eenigzints werden gemolesteert. En zullen de beide contracteerende de mogendheeden, ieder onder hun gebied, de nodige voorsieninge doen, ten einde de respective onderdanen en ingezeetenen van behoorlyke bewyzen van sterfgevallen, waar by dezelve zyn geinteresseert voortaan zullen kunnen worden gedient.

ARTL V. Haar Hoog Mogende, de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden en de Vereenigde Staten van America, zullen tragten zoo veel eenigzints in haar vermogen is, te beschermen en defendeeren alle scheepen en andere effecten toebehoorende aan wederzydsche onderdanen en ingezeetenen, of eenige van dezelve, zynde in haare havens of rheën, binnenlandsche zeeën, stroomen, rivieren, en zoo verre haare jurisdictie zeewaards strekt, en wederom te bekomen, ente doen restitueeren aan de regte eigenaers, húnne agenten of gevolmagtigden, alle zodanige scheepen, en effecten die, onder haare jurisdictie, zullen genomen worden : en haare convoyeerende oorlog scheepen zullen, voor to the subjects and inhabitants of either party, which shall not be laden with contraband goods, according to the description which shall be made of them hereafter, for places, with which one of the parties is in peace and the other at war, nor destined for any place blocked, and which shall hold the same course or follow the same rout; and they shall defend such vessells as long as they shall hold the same course or follow the same rout, against all attacks, force and violence of the common enemy, in the same manner as they ought to protect and defend the vessells belonging to their own respective subjects.

Citizens of either party may dispose of estale by will or otherwise.

ARTICLE VI. The subjects of the contracting parties may, on one side and on the other, in the respective countries and states, dispose of their effects, by testament, donation, or otherwise ; and their heirs, subjects of one of the parties, and residing in the country of the other, or elsewhere, shall receive such successions, even ab intestato, whether in person or by their attorney or substitute, even although they shall not have obtained letters of naturalization, without having the effect of such commission contested, under pretext of any rights or prerogatives of any province, city, or private person; and if the heirs, to whom such successions may have fallen, shall be minors, the tutors or curators, established by the judge domiciliary of the said minors, may govern, direct, administer, sell and alienate the effects fallen to the said minors by inheritance, and in general, in relation to the said successions and effects, use all the rights, and fullfill all the functions which belong, by the disposition of the laws, to guardians, tutors and curators: Provided nevertheless, that this disposition cannot take place, but in cases where the testator shall not have named guardians, tutors, curators, by testament, codicil, or other legal instrument.

Regulations concerning the same.

Subjects of each party may employ such advocates, &c. as they think proper.

Vessels, &c. not to be de. tained.

ARTICLE VII. It shall be lawfull and free for the subjects of each party, to employ such advocates, attorneys, notaries, solicitors, or factors, as they shall judge proper.

ARTICLE VIII. Merchants, masters and owners of ships, mariners, men of all kinds, ships and vessells, and all merchandizes and goods in general, and effects of one of the confederates, or of the subjects thereof, shall not be seized, or detained in any of the countries, lands, islands, cities, places, ports, shores, or dominions whatsoever of the other confederate, for any military expedition, publick or private use of any one, by arrests, violence, or any colour thereof; much less shall it be permitted to the subjects of either party, to take or extort by force, any thing from the subjects of the other party, without the consent of the owner; which, however, is not to be understood of seizures, detentions and arrests, which shall be made by the command and authority of justice, and by the ordinary methods, on account of debts or crimes, in respect whereof, the pro ceedings must be by way of law, according to the forms of justice.

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