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put upon the occasion) to support his vain tried various expedients to extirpate authority.
them. Possibly sonie herb, with the qualities, This detachment was halted out of of which he is unacquainted, or some chesight of the place of execution, and
mical process which has escaped his notice, the governor attended only by two aid. might be applied with success. de-camps, rode up, and issued his man
March 14th, 1820.
II. date in the following terms, “ Prisoner, you have been legally tried for the crime give me sufficient authority for the following
Can any of your numerous correspondents of murder, found guilty, and sentenced passage in Walker's Gazetteer, 5th ed. Lonto be hanged :-officer, do your duty,” don, 1810. and drawing his sword,
66 Now let me
“Wraysbury, Bucks, on the Thames, opsee who dares to prevent it.”
posite Egbam. An island in the river, and was instantly hanged without further in this parish, is still called Charter Island; opposition. This is a plain and cor
for in this island, it is said, the Great Charter reet statement in regard to Mason.
was signed by King John, although his con: The other transaction, with which
sent was extorted in Runny-Mead.”
will much gratify Mr. Waller's account is blended, refers
A NATIVE OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. no doubt to the case of Mr. Hodges of
III. Tortola, an opulent planter, who had
It is laid down by Euclid, B. 13. Prop. I. long been notorious for cruelty, and that “ If a right line be cut into extreme and was about four years ago executed on mean ratio, the square of the greater segment that Island, after considerable opposi- plus half the original line (taken as one line) tion, for the murder of his slaves under is five times the square of the balf of the circumstances of unprecedented bar. original line.” barity.
Q. Again, Prop. IV. “If a right line be di
vided into mean and extreme ratio ; then the QUERIES.
squares of the whole and lesser part togeI.
ther are three times the square of the greater To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. part.”
Can any of your mathematical corresponA Nakdividuethe Months for some rear deats interesmes what numbers will produce feel greatly obliged if some of your cor
IV. respondents would recommend, through the Can any of your readers prize an enmedium of your valuable publication, an quirer after truth, where a full and impartial effectual method of dislodging ants from account can be met with in the English lanbuildings. His dwelling-house is much in- guage of the physical philosophy of Descommoded by these insects, and he has in cartes?
BY JOHN DILLON. Written at Hertingfordbury, near Hertford,
DEEP and alone all feeling lies, formerly the Residence of Hughes, the Poet, and where he wrote the Tragedy of in anger's frown --in passion's start
It dwells not in brief agonies ;the SIEGE OF DAMASCUS.
But the whole impulse of the heart; TITH pleasing awe I pace tdy bowers It may not stoop to talk with men among,
Of thoughts they will not think again;
Conceive not, or would fear to say ;
Their joy, a smile !- their woe, a tear!
And as by pleasing sympathy I'm led, The thought like lightning passes still.
I see the rose neglected droop its head, The flash is o'er, 'tis placid now.
Does Joy light up the giddy mien ?-ad bere a sweeter songster lov'd to stray. The bubble bursts por more is seer.
This is not feeling ;~--'is the play
By the Author of the EMPIRE OF THE NAIRS.
ENGLAND, this tolerance deserves a praise
To no Republic due in ancient days; Where darkness and where silence sleep ;
We, when both priests and laymen fill'd the Where waters, massy waters, dwell,
ball, Yet no wild waves, nor billows swell;
Have heard one* voice protest against them
all. Where, in a world of loneliness, The liquid weight of waters press-
Not to a sceptre that such powers belong, One vast-o’erpowering, whelming weight; That only he were right, and others wrong ; Such is the wretch ;-so dark his state
But this alone can make and keep us free, Where feeling dwells;—the sea may glide
To speak our sentiments whatė'er they be; Above bim with a placid tide,
Truth is at first in the minority. And men may mock him, and deride
But ere ten millions in a truth believe, The weakness of the mind that seems
A vnit must a paradox conceive. As wav'ring as an ideot's dreams;
Cun fickle France, of guilty triumphs vain, His wandering words that, light and vain, Or France still pure, as when she burst her Are rayless as the ideot's brain;
chain, But in his bosom's lowest deep,
Still full of visions of Utopian bliss, Where darkness and where silence sleep ;
In all her annals show a day like this, There, in his mind of loneliness,
When a mere citizen his thoughts express'd, o Where heavy thoughts of sorrow press ;
And the same freedom left to all the rest. There may he seek for refuge,--dweil
No-her light sons, a race to different eyes Alone,—and to himself may tell
Exceeding frivolous, or passing wise, All his dark, lowering thoughts, and brood
From this extreme to that will gaily pass, In joyless, unmixed solitude.
And now believe, now disbelieve en masse, And should the laugh of human kind
Now faith, now doubt the order of the day, Taunt at the madness of his mind,
Compell’d to worship, or forbid to pray, He views them with an unchanged eye ;
They greet each idol with respectful mien, Not his to answer, or defy ;
And kiss the band of lazy capucbin, Content within himself to live,
Now staggering home from patriotic feast
Pollute the altar, and insult the priest.
A second Constantine with martial air
Proclaimed, Be Papists, and they Papists
And welcomed both the Pontiff and his mule; On Mrs. Campbell's sayiny she never saw a
And should a bigot but express the wish, real Beauty till Mrs. Buller walked past They'd fast on Fridays, or they'd dine on fish.
her in a Drawing-Room at Calcutta. On Fridays fast! what superstitious slaves ! TRUE Beauty Campbell never saw
On Sundays dance! what sacrilegious kpaves !
So cry our Saints, who in themselves can find
Wbo drag a Sunday taylor from his board,
Who cry, Perdition! on each jaunting car,
strong, Aspiring northward ;-hail! I love thee
This creed is found too short, and that too still,
long. For the delights which thou hast given to me.
We call Religion what ourselves believe, Thy spire conspicuous and melodious bells,
But Superstition what the rest receive. Thy river, uncient tower, where England's In sable cassoc, or in surplice white, queen
All Sects proclaim their magpie is the right.
For Eaton pillard, as for Stephen stoned. Peace to thy village !-- plenty to thy pour !
To every bosom comfort and content! For sorrow, joy; th’industrious, merri- • Mr. Owen, who avowed his religious ment;
tenets, at the meeting convened in 1817, to And all, sufficiept:--Heaven! I ask no more. consider bis system for the support of the Jan. 1920. J. R. PRIOR. poor.
Such horrors were-but martyrdom must Thus all opinions, that in evil hour cease,
Have been invested with despotic power, When every man may speak his thoughts in May fatal prove, tho'none can dang'rous be, peace.
But truth must triumph, where the mind is That may be error, which is truth believed;
free. The wisest here is but the least deceived;
BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT PERSONS.
ACCOUNT of M. WERNER, late Pro- the comprehensive nature of its illus
fessor of Mineralogy at Freiberg, trations, became extensively and Author of the WERNERIAN known and adopted; and in 1780, SYSTEM.*
Werner, in the translation of the sysBROFESSOR WERNER was born
tem of Cronstedt, which he then pubPRO on Sept. 25, 1750, at Wehran am
lished, explained, in a connected shape, Quiess, in Upper Lusatia. Endowed his method of classification, and liis by nature with unusual quickness of opinions in general, illustrated, and understanding, and with the power of improvedl, since their first origin, by extensive observation, he was also gift- many alterations and additions. He ed with a happy faculty of arrangement, published in 1791, a second account of a lively imagination, and a retentive his doctrines, after having received memory. In conformity to the wish considerable additions to Iris mineraloof his father, who had become the gical knowledge, from his being emfactor of a Count Solmischen Eisen- ployed in drawing up a catalogue of hammer, Werner devoted himself from the collection of minerals formed by early youth to the same occupation.
Mr. Pabst, of Ohain. He received the rudiments of his elu
In the year 1775, not long after he cation at the school of the Orphan had commenced his career as an author, Hospital at Buntzlau, in Silesia, and Werner obtained a permanent situation was afterwards. placed at the Academy in the Academy of Freiberg, the earliof Freiberg; and from the last men
est cradle of mineralogical science in tioned place he went to study at Leip- with renewed life in consequence of
Germany; and destined to flourish zig. Here, and during his whole life; luis labours. He was appointed, in adWerner struggled to acquire scientific information ; and while he gained for dition to a professorship, superintendent himself reputation for his proficiency of the museum; and here his active in general literature and the languages, temper for investigation and observahe continued severe in judging of him- tion obtained a wide field, and by his self, and lenient and indulgent towards unrestrained and enthusiastic exertions, others; mild, affectionate, and gene
in spite of much opposition, he raised rous; he was a true patriot, and a citi
in his favour a strong party feeling, and zen of the world in the most honourable general admiration. The attempts to sense of the word.
persecute Werner, and to impede the It was at Leipzig, in the year 1774, introduction of his doctrines, had quite that Werner, already more distinguish- the contrary effect to what their authors eal for his study of natural history, than intended, and contributed essentially for that of the law, laid the firm foun
to hasten the result so favourable and dation of those opinions relative to
so brilliant to him. The boundaries' oryctognosy, of which he was the con
of the science were soon enlarged by triver. He supplied, instead of the the effects of his favourite labours; confused mass of which this species of geognosy, reduced to an intelligible knowledge had hitherto consisted, those shape, a work entirely the creation of compendious descriptions, delivered in
Werner, being considered henceforth happily chosen, expressive, scientific
as a part of the science. His theory of language, which have accomplished the the periods in the formation of moundifficult end of placing in an intelli- tains, his researches respecting rocks, gible point of view the principles of and the nature of their aggregation into this science. The new method, from the masses of which the crust of the
earth is composed, his reflections upon * Translated by Dr. Thomson, from “A
the internal structure of mountains, Tribute to the Memory of Werner, by Charles his theory respecting veins, his doctrine Cæsar Ritter. Von Leonhard,” read before of the formations, and of the origin of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Munich. the later traps and volcanoes, will con.
vey the name of Werner to the latest
many other proselytes from the estaposterity. Geognosy, as he formed it, blished system. Hawkins, Mitchell, may be considered the philosophy of and Weaver, formed part of the new mineralogy, the fairest, and most per- school, and the latter published a merifect half of the philosophy of unorga- torious translation of his work upon nised nature. Every question which is the external characters of minerals; started on this subject, all objects con- and lastly, Prof. Jameson, of Edinnected with the structure of the earth, burgh, received his education at Freiand which relate to the masses of which berg. it is composed, are an appropriate exer- On the side of Italy, Napione excise for an enlightened mind. Leibnitz, tended the doctrines of his master; and Descartes, Bacon, Burnet, Laplace, and in Denmark, the labours of Wad and all illustrious men of ancient and Esmark procured him approbation and modern times, have respected this labo- followers. rious species of research.
Brochant came from France to reWerner laboured more by his lectures ceive instructions from Werner, and than by his writings, for he considered returned loaded with knowledge to his that the numberless works on minera- country; and while he attained the logical science which he had consulted, praise of founding a new school, had had misled, rather than instructed him; nearly received the punishment of exile their authors appearing as if certain from his native land. that the utmost extent of what was After Brochant, other advocates of known on this subject was too imperfect the school of Werner arose in France; for his attention. Science, however, but their services to the cause will not has cause to rejoice, that among the here detain us, with the exception of finished papers of Werner, which he d’Aubuisson, who was the first who begueathed at his death to the Academy communicated to the public a just acof Freiberg, many well-arranged manu- count of several of Werner's doctrines. scripts have been found, the publica- In order to be as concise as possible tion of which fine legacy remains anxi. relative to the progress of the Werneously to be hoped for.
rian doctrines in other foreign countries, While the science which Werner had I shall only relate that in Spain and imposed upon himself as a law, conti- America they made progress in consenued on his part, his doctrines, so far quence of the assertions of Herrgen and as they were known, were pirated by Del Rio; and that in Portugal, the others; and (unchecked by the circum- disciples of this school were headed by stance of Werner continuing, by fre- Andrada; and the system extensively quent changes and improvements, to published and adopted. separate still further his opinions from Hitherto in speaking of Werner, we theirs) we have seen ourselves inun- have only noticed his labours in geogdated with works relative to his theory, nosy and oryctognosy, the sciences in the authors of which did not follow the which he was destined to render himideas of their preceptor, however nume- self immortal, and have spoken of his rous and enlarged they might be, but opinions on these subjects, through permitted themselves to indulge in spe- which, and his researches relative to culations of their own, with the most the structure of the globe, he so anxiunrestrained freedom; so that along ously endeavoured to direct the attenwith what is useful of Werner's, we tion of his followers to the different possess much of what is foreign to him; branches of the science of mineralogy, and as none of these authors have fol- The most remarkable incident, howlowed Werner's doctrines in their entire ever, in the later years of Werner, was and original purity, none of them pos- his journey to Paris in 1802; occasioned sess great value, nor bear the absolute by his zeal in the cause of science, and marks of his authority; while, on the the wish to confer with the naturalists contrary, he had opposed the opinions of the French capital most devoted to contained in many of them by strong his cause. This modest and fine-feeland decided arguments.
ing learned man, although not insenIn England and Italy, where, pre- sible to the value of external honours, vious to the time of Werner, mineralo- found himself on this occasion overgical researches had been less ardently whelmed with multiplied proofs of the prosecuted than in Germany, the new most flattering distinction, inspired by doctrines - very soon found advocates. the disinterested knowledge of his Kirwan adopted his method, as well as worth.
The estimable King of Saxony, the Werner belonged to most of the friend and patron of merit in wliatever learned societies both of his own and of situation it may be found, distinguished foreign countries. Our Royal Acahim as a rare example of worth. Wer- demy of Sciences possessed him as a ner received a particular proof of this member since the year 1808. A society distinction, in being decorated with the founded in Edinburgh assumed his Grand Cross of the Royal Saxon Order name as an honourable distinction," of Merit. His birth has of late also and not long before his death he was been celebrated in public; and we are constituted president of a society allowed to hope, that through the exer- founded in his native country for the tions of the Prussian Chevalier Gerard, encouragement of that science, which we shall possess, in a well executed bust lay under such obligations to him.t of Werner, by Posch of Berlin, a monu- Thus lived Werner, and thus he lament of him in a durable shape. In boured : his sacrifices, on account of order to form a calculation of what may science made him renounce the happibe the price of this bust, which will be ness of becoming a husband and a sold for prime cost, the number of those father, although from his amiable diswho wish to be possessed of a cast is position, his cheerful and serene temper, anxiously waited for, and it is hoped he seemed particularly former for the that the admirers of Werner will con- pure enjoyments of domestic life. Sursider this invitation as opportune. The rounded by a numerous circle of his bust will be cast at the foundery of friends and scholars, previous to his Gleiwig, in Silesia.
approaching dissolution, he freely comThe cabinet which Werner left be- municated the whole of his knowledge: hind him,* (the result of a life spent in and intimately and confidentially laid the laudable pursuits attending the open his whole mind. Steadily true to formation of this collection, and the the fulfilment of his duties, he was seen, sacrifices which had attended its for- at the extremity of old age, possessed of mation, afford convincing proofs of his continued youthful vigour, full of the earnest exertions in the cause of science), clearest views, and the brightest concephas a double value, derived in the first tions. instance from the great merit of the Posterity will form a just and true individual who made the collection, conception of his high worth, and manand in the second, from the scientific kind will experience a great loss in his knowledge displayed in the arrange- death. Werner did not exclusively ment of the whole. This valuable col- belong to Saxony; he was, as a minelection is now in the possession of the ralogist, the benefactor of the world at Academy of Freiberg, to whom Werner large. left it in the most disinterested manner.f
List of his Writings.
Werner published at Leipzig, in 1774, An * The collection is divided into six parts;
Essay on the External Characters of Mine
rals. This work was translated into French, viz. precious stones, oryctognosy, a collection of show, one of petrefactions, and one
and published at Paris in 1790, by the trans
lator of the Memoires de Chimie de Scheele illustrative of the external characters of mi. nerals. The collection of precious stones is
(Mlle. Picardet). one of surprising value and rarity. We have
In 1780, he published at Leipzig a Trans
lation of Cronstedt's Essay on Mineralogy had only, a very imperfect account of these collections, but it is to be hoped that we
from the Swedish, with Notes, and an Ac
count of the External Characters of Minerals. shall soon be put in possession of an ample description of them by some experienced in
In 1791 and 1792, he published A Full
and Systematic Catalogue of the Cabinet of dividual. t An offer of 50,000 dollars was made
Mr. R. E. Pabst, of Ohain, which he drew from England for 100,000 of these speci- up, and edited in two volumes.
At Dresden, 1787, he published A Short mens, but the patriotic proprietor left them
Classification and Description of Mountains. for 40,000 dollars to the Academy of Freiberg. Of this sum he sunk 30,000 dollars in
At Freiberg, in 1791, he published The an annuity for bimself, and an only sister; The Wernerian Natural History Society. neither of them had any family ; and the re- The seal of this Society has engraved upon it mainder of the money 'received from the a likeness of Werner. Academy for his minerals, he left to it at
+ The Mineralogical Society established the death of himself and his sister. He also at Dresden in the course of the winter of left kis exquisite collection of books and 1816 and 1817. The King of Saxony bas in medals to the Academy for 5,000 dollars. every way given encouragement and protec. This contained 6,000 Greek and Roman tion to this Society, and has granted it a parmedals.
ticular seal and diploma.