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SERM. reason had required, have set him in the head of all; XXXIV. which if they had done, they would have exempted
us from these scruples and errors in so high a point: but they could not do it, because indeed the Holy Spirit is not in the order of creatures: the which we do seem sufficiently to have proved.
To all the premised points no small accession of weight doth come from the authority of so many holy fathers and councils; and from the consent of the church, running down through so many ages; to oppose which, without very weighty and manifest reasons, doth as much recede from prudence, as it is far from modesty.
The next point we shall consider is the original of the Holy Spirit; the which we do assert to be in way of procession jointly from God the Father and God the Son; meaning hereby, that to this divine Person in a peculiar manner (incomprehensible indeed, and ineffable, but which in some manner by this term procession may be signified) the divine essence which he hath is communicated from the Father and the Son.
That the Holy Spirit is not from himself, as the Father is, is plain; for that being supposed, there would be more first principles than one, and consequently more Gods than one; which is contrary to the whole tenor of scripture: neither did any ever affirm so much.
That he proceedeth from the Father, appeareth Trin. 31. from that the Father is the fountain and first principle of all essence; and by our Saviour the Spirit is John xv. 16. said exπoρeveσbai, to go out from the Father; and he 1 Cor.ii. 12. is called Tò IIveμa Tò EK TOU Oecu, The Spirit that is
out of God (the Father) by St. Paul: and this is SERM. generally confessed.
That also he doth proceed from the Son (which is
by the modern Greeks denied) may be proved.
Gal. iv. 6.
1. Because as he is called the Spirit of the Father, Matt. x. 20. so he is also often styled the Spirit of the Son; which signifies he is in a like manner related to the Son as to the Father; and that both therefore in a like manner conspire to his production.
2. He is said to be sent, as from the Father, so also from the Son. But mission and procession do not seem to differ, except in manner of speech, (one more especially denoting the name whence, the other the act or effect of the same thing;) nor doth it agree to the Holy Spirit, who (as we have shewed) is God, to go out, or be sent, otherwise than by reception of
I Pet. i. II.
3. The Son saith of the Holy Spirit, èk To Eμoũ Anetaι, He shall take of mine, and shall shew it John xvi. unto you; and, to the same purpose, Whatsoever he shall hear, he shall speak; by which saying it is intimated that the Holy Spirit doth receive knowledge from the Son; the which, being God, he cannot otherwise do, than by receiving his essence from the Son.
4. The Holy Spirit is a Person third in order: seeing then the Son before him in order (in order, I say, not in time) obtaineth the divine nature, so that when the Holy Spirit doth proceed, it is common to both Father and Son, he cannot receive it from the Father separately, or without also deriving it from the Son. Thus our Lord himself seemeth to have argued, when he saith, All things that the Father John xvi. hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take 15. xvii. 10. of mine, and shall shew it unto you.
5. Lastly, our Saviour, as St. Augustine and Cyril conceive, did signify this procession from himself, John xx.22. When breathing on his disciples he said, Receive ye the Holy Ghost.
Deus Pater 6. To these arguments may be added the connum sibi. sentient authority of the Latin Fathers, Hilary, Amrios, y brose, Austin, and the rest; which explicitly teach VμT. this doctrine. Also the more ancient Greeks, Athatra Apol. nasius, Basil, both the Gregories, Epiphanius, Cytom.i. p. rillus Alexandrinus, do (although seldom expressly in terms, yet equipollently, and according to sense) say the same.
Eph. i. 17.
We proceed now to the peculiar offices, functions, and operations of the Holy Spirit: many such there are in an especial manner attributed or appropriated to him; which, as they respect God, seem reducible to two general ones; the declarations of God's mind, and the execution of his will: as they are referred to man, (for in regard to other beings, the scripture doth not so much consider what he performs, it not concerning us to know it,) are especially the producing in us all qualities and dispositions, the guiding and aiding us in all actions requisite or conducible to our eternal happiness and salvation to which may be added the intercession between God and man, which jointly respecteth both.
I. First, it is his especial work to declare God's John xv. 26. mind to us; whence he is styled the Spirit of truth, Rev.xix.to.the Spirit of prophecy, the Spirit of revelation; for that all supernatural light and wisdom have ever a Spiritu proceeded from him. He instructed all the proLuke i. 70 phets that have been since the world began to know, he enabled them to speak, the mind of God
concerning things present and future. Holy men SERM. (that have taught men their duty, and led them in XXXIV. the way to bliss) were but his instruments, speaking 2 Pet. i. 21. as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
By his inspiration the holy scriptures (the most full and certain witness of God's mind, the law and1 Tim. iii. testimony by which our life is to be directed and regulated) were conceived. He guided the apo- John xvi. stles into all truth, and by them instructed the world in the knowledge of God's gracious intentions toward mankind, and in all the holy mysteries of the gospel; That which in other ages was not made Eph. iii. 5. known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit: Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have en- 1 Cor. ii.10. tered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him: but God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit, saith St. Paul. All the knowledge we can pretend to in these things doth proceed merely from his revelation, doth wholly rely upon his authority.
2. To him it especially belongs to execute the will of God, in matters transcending the ordinary power and course of nature. Whence he is called the power of the Most High, (that is, the substantial Luke i. 35. power and virtue of God,) the finger of God, (as Luke xi.zo. comparing the expressions of St. Matthew and St. Matt. xii. Luke may appear ;) and whatever eminent God hath Psal.xxxiii. designed, he is said to perform by him. By him Gen. i. 1. he framed the world, and, as Job speaketh, gar-13. nished the heavens. By him he governeth the world, so that all extraordinary works of providence, (when God beside the common law and usual course of nature doth interpose to do any thing,) all mira
SERM. culous performances, are attributed to his energy. By him our Saviour, by him the apostles, by him the prophets are expressly said to perform their wonderful works; but especially by him,
3. God manages that great work, so earnestly designed by him, of our salvation; working in us all good disposition, capacifying us for salvation, directing and assisting us in all our actions tending there
We naturally are void of those good dispositions. in understanding, will, and affection, which are needful to render us acceptable to God, fit to serve and please him, capable of any favour from him, of any true happiness in ourselves: our minds naturally are blind, ignorant, stupid, giddy, and prone to error, especially in things supernatural, spiritual, and abstracted from ordinary sense: our wills are froward and stubborn, light and unstable, inclining to evil, and averse from what is truly good; our affections are very irregular, disorderly, and unsettled: to remove which bad dispositions, (inconsistent with God's friendship and favour, driving us into sin and misery,) and to beget those contrary to them, the knowledge and belief of divine truth, a love of goodness and delight therein, a well composed, orderly, and steady frame of spirit, God in mercy doth grant to us the virtue of his holy Spirit; who first opening 1 Cor. xii. our hearts, so as to let in and apprehend the light of
divine truth, then by representation of proper arguments persuading our reason to embrace it, begetteth divine knowledge, wisdom, and faith in our minds, which is the work of illumination and instruction, the first part of his office respecting our salvation. Then by continual impressions he bendeth our in