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: They abuse the Servants that their Mafter fent. 329 and built a Tower, and let the Grapes (a); and he also built a Tower in it, Sect. 152 it out to Husbandmen, and for the accommodation and D

and for the Accommodation and Defence of the La-! went into a far Country

Mat, XXI. (Luk. for a long Time.' bourers.; and then he let it out to Husbandmen. (MARK XII.-I. LUKE who were to pay him a certain Acknowledgment XX.–9.]

out of the Produce of it; and he himself departed
thence, and took a Journey for a long Time into

a distant Country.
· 34 And [at the Season] And at the proper Season, when the Time of 34
when the Time of the Fruit gathering in the Fruit approached, be sent his Sera
drew near, he sent his Ser-
vants to the Husbandmen, vants to the Husbandmen who had farmed it, that
that they might receive he might receive from the Husbandmen that Pro-
[from the Husbandmen of portion of the Fruit of the Vineyard which was
the Fruit of the Vineyard.]

due to him for the Rent. And the Husband- 35 (MARK XII. 2. LUKE XX, 10.-)

men wickedly conspiring to keep the Vineyard to
35. And the Husbandmen themselves, instead of receiving them with due
[caught] his Servants, and Respect, and returning the appointed Payment,
beat one, (and sent him away
empty,) and killed another, seized bis Servants, and beat ane of the Chief of
and stoned another. [MARK those who arrived first, and sent him empty away;
XI. 3. LUKE XX.-10.] and as the Demand grew more pressing, they

took up the Weapons, with which their Lord him-
self had furnished them for very different Pur-
poses, and new another, and stoned another till

they had driven him away.
36 [And) again, he fent And when their Lord heard the Report of 36
[unto them) other Servants, this their Injustice, he did not immediately arm
more than the first; and they
did unto them likewise: sand himlelf against them, but fent again
at him who was the Chief vants to treat with them, more in Number, and
they caft Stones, and wound- higher in Office than the first : But still persisting
ed him in the Head, and sent :
him away shamefully hans in their Wickedness, they did the same unto them ;
dled,] [Luk. and empty.] and particularly at bim (who was the Chief ] Per-.
[MARK XII. 4. LUKE son employed to account with them, they threw
XX, 11.)

Stones, and wounded bim dangerously in the Head,
and sent him away not only empty, but very dis-

honourably and shamefully treated. MARK XII. 5. And a- And again the third Time] be sent another of Mark XII.5. gain he sent another (the his principal Servants; and him also they wounded, third Time ;] and him they (wounded alto, and cast him as they had done the former, and cast him out of out, and ] killed : and many the Vineyard, [and] killed him : And in like others, Manner they affaulted many others, who came

with,

but fent again lately arm

wants to treat with

(a) A Fat for the Wine.] Matthew uses the Word anvov, and Mark utoa nurov. The former fignifies the Wine-press, the other the Cavity under it, in which the Vessel was fixed, which received the Liquor pressed from the Grapes. The one of these naturally implies the other ; but our Lord might without any Impropriety mention both. Vol. II.

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(b) I will

330

RK

And when at last be sent his Son, they killed him. Sect. 152. with, or after him, on the same Errand, beating others, beating fome, and w some of them, and killing others Outright.

8 killing some. (LUKE XX.

12.] Luke XX. Then the Lord of the Vineyard, being still un- Luke XX. 13. Then 13 willing to proceed to the last Extremity with said the Lord of the Vinethem, tho' they had been so very wicked and yard had been fo very wicked and yard, What shall I do? I

will send my-Son. (MAR. ungrateful in their Treatment of his Servants, faid Having yet therefore One to them that were about him, What Mall 1 do Son, his well-beloved, he farther to reclaim them? I will send my own Son sent him also laft [of all] un

to them, saying, ] It may be to them ©). Having yet therefore One Son, who they will reverence smy Šon] was his well-beloved, and the Heir of the Family, when they see him. (Mat. be sent him also last of all to them, as the only gentle Expedient that remained, saying, Perhaps they will reverence my Son, when they see him (c); for surely they must needs have some Respect for

him, and will not presume to offer him any InMat. XXI. jury. But when the Husandmen saw the Son Mat. XXI. 38. But 38. come into the Vineyard, instead of paying any the son live the resfon

when the Husbandmen faw due Regard to him, they grew yet more outra- ed among themselves, faygious in their Wickedness, and reasoned among ing,]This is the Heir; come, themselves, saying. This is the only Heir of the let us kill him, and let us whole Estate ; come, let us kill him, and seize on

seize on his Inheritance,

İLux, that it may be ours. bis Inheritance (d), that [it] may be ours from Ge- (MARK XII. 7. LUKE neration to Generation, and no Descendants of our XX: 14.] Master may remain to give any Disturbance to us or our Children in the Poffeffion of it. And 39 And they caught him with malignant Hearts and cruel Hands they fell and cast him out of the Vine

yard, and flew him [MARK upon their Master's Son, and seized him ; and XII. 8. Luke XX, 15.-1 fearing neither God nor Man, they cast him out of the Vineyard, and flew bim (e), exposing his

dead

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(b) I will send my son.] The Question is not here, how prudent it would have been in a Human Father, to venture his Son in such a Case as this ; for the Power which GOD had of raising Chrift from the Dead, and making all his Sufferings redound to his Glory and Happiness, quite alters the Case. The Design is, to thew the Patience of God, and the Wickedness of the Jews, by this Emblem, than which nothing could be more expressive.

(c) Perhaps they will reverence my Son, &c.], Numberless Predictions in the Old and New Teflament plainly thew, that God foresaw Christ's Death as a certain Event. This therefore, like many others, is merely an ornamental Circumstance, which cannot without Absurdity be applied in the Interpretation of the Parable.

(d) Come, let us kill him, &c.) If such a Proposal would have been the Height of Folly, as well as Wickedness, in these Husbandmen, it was so much the more proper, to represent the Part the Jewish Rulers acted in the Murther of Christ, which they were now project. ing, and which they accomplished within Three Days. The Admonition was most graciously given; but served only in an astonishing Manner to illustrate that Degree of Hardness, to which a sinful Heart is capable of arriving.

(c) And cast him out of the Vineyard, and new him.) So Matthew and Luke express it ; but Mark has changed the Order of the Words, and lays, They killed him, and cast him out of the Vineyard; if we may not render that Clause, They both few him, and caft him out,

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He will therefore destroy them, and let the Vineyard to others. 331

dead Body in a most contemptuous and insolent, Sect. 152.

as well as inhumane Manner. 40 When the Lord there when therefore the Lord of the Vineyard him- Mat. XXI. fore of the Vineyard cometh, self cometh, armed with a Power which they will 40. what will he do unto those Husbandmen ? MARK be utterly unable to resist, what will be do, think XII.9.—LukeXX.-15.) you, to those treacherous and cruel Husbandmen,

when he has them entirely at his Disposal ?
41 They say unto him, And as the Jewish Rulers did not understand, 41
He will milerably destroy that they themselves were these unfaithful Huf-
those wicked Men, and will
let out his Vineyard unto bandmen, they say unto him, There is no Doubt
other Husbandmen, which but he will wretchedly destroy those wicked and in-
Thall render him the Fruits corrigible Wretches, 'nor is the most tormenting
in their Seasons.

Death too severe for them to expect ; and he will
then let out the Vineyard to other Husbandmen, who
fhall faithfully render him the Fruits of it in their

proper Seasons. Luke XX. 16.-17efus Thus did they, before they were aware, con- Luke XX. faid,] He shall come and de- demn themselves; and (Yesús added, 1 You have 16. Itroy these Husbandmen, and thaú give the Vinevará to answered right : He shall indeed quickly come. others. [MARK XIÍ.-9.] and destroy these Husbandmen of whom I speak,

whoever they shall appear to be, with terrible
Severity, and will give the Vineyard to others. And
all this was, as if he had said, 'Consider your own
Concern in what you have heard : God has plant-
ed a Church among you, and given you an ex-
cellent Revelation of his Will ; abundant Provi-
fion has been made, both for your Protection, and
your Improvement too: But you have ungrate-
fully refused the Fruits of Obedience, which were
so juftly his Due ; and when he has frequently
sent his Servants the Prophets, with one Message
and Demand after another, you the Rulers and
Teachers of Israel, to whom the Cultivation of
the Vineyard has been committed, have treated
them in a most ungrateful and barbarous Man-
ner : And now at last he has sent his Son, and
you are going to seize on him, and to add that

· Murther,

so as not to determine which was done first. One cannot suppose, Christ uttered it both these Ways; so that if there be no accidental Transposition in Mark, he probably meant thereby to intimate what is hinted in the Paraphrase, the exposing his dead Body in a most daring Defiance of publick Justice. Those that explain the casting him out of the Vineyard, of Excommunication, which preceded or attended the Execution of a Capital Sentence, do not observe the proper Import of the Vineyard. See below, Note (3).

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43.

332 . Jesus applies the Parable to the Jewish Rulers. Sect. 152. Murther, which you are now contriving, to the w Guilt of all your other Crimes. I leave it there

fore to your own Consciences to judge what the Mat. XXI. Event must be. And for this Reason now Mat. XXI. 43. ThereI say unto you plainly, that the Kingdom of GOD. fore lay 1 unto you, The

; Kingdom of God Ihall be which you have thus vilely and ungratefully abused, taken from you, and given shall be taken away from you, and given to a Na- to a Nation bringing forth tion which shall bring forth the Fruits thereof: the Fruits thereof.. i. e. his Gospel shall be taken from you, and be carried to the Gentiles, who will improve it much

better than you have done. Luke XX. And when they heard this fad Denunciation, LUKE XX.-16. And 16. with which the Parable concluded. and found when they heard it, they

said, God forbid.
that [it] was aimed at them, they said, GOD
forbid, that this should be the case with regard

to us, nor can we ever believe that it will.
17 And Jesus looked upon them with great Serious- 17 And | Jefus ] beheld
ness and so lemnity in his Countenance, and faid

ty in his Countenance and Coid them, and said [unto them, unto them. What is this then that is written? (Plal. written i SDid ye never read

What is this then that is cxviii. 22, 23.) Did you never read, or never re- [MAR. this] in the Scripflect upon this remarkable Passage in the Scrip- tures,] The Stone which the tures. The Stone which the Builders refused, the become the Head of the Cor

Builders rejected, the same is « fame is become the Head-Stone of the Corner (f): ner: [This is the Lord's DoThis is the Lord's Doing, and it is wonderful ing, and it is marvellous in “ in our Eyes ?Words, which tho' they n

our Eyes ?] (MAT. XXI. feem to be accomplished in the Exaltation of Da

42. MARK. XII. 10, 11.) vid to the Jewish Throne, are in their highest Sense applicable to the Mefliah (s), who, tho' disdainfully rejected by you Scribes and Pharisees and Rulers of the People, whose Office it is to build up the Church, is nevertheless chosen by

God to be its great Support and Ornament. 38 And therefore let me plainly tell you, that whoso 18 (And] whosoever shall

ever

fall

(f) The Head-Stone of the Corner.] This I take to be the Meaning of the Words x PLAN gwrias, rather than the Chief Corner-Stone, as it does not appear exa&tly to answer to arps

wridlov, (Eph. ii. 20, and 1. Pet. ii. 6.) which, as the Connection in ihose Places Thews, (as well as the Use of it in other Authors,) fignifies that great Corner-Stone, which lay at the Bottom of the Building as its Support. What is mentioned afterwards of this Head-Stone falling on a Person, seems not to suit with the Supposition of its being laid on, or under the Ground. Compare Zech, iv. 7.

(8) Tho' they might seem to be accomplished in the Exaltation of David &c.] Mr. Jeffery has justly observed, (in his Review, pag. 119.) that on the Principles of Analogy this Passage will be much to the present Purpose, tho’ it should be confessed, that Pfal. cxviii. was immediately meant of David ; as it would prove, that the great Builders of Israel might refuse one, whom God intended for the Head Stone of the Corner, .

(b) On

They would have seized him, but are afraid of the People. 333 fall upon [this] Stone, shall ever shall fall upon this Stone, i. e. whosoever shall Sect. 152. be broken ; but on whom- stumble at me and my Doctrine. while I am soever it shall fall, it will

Luke XX. grind him to Powder.

here on Earth in this humble Form, he mall be ÎMAT. XXI. 44.] broken and damaged by it ; but on whomsoever it

Aball fall, when raised up to so glorious an Emi-
nence, it shall even grind him to Powder (b), like
a brittle Potsherd crushed by the Weight of some
huge Stone falling upon it from on high : (Com-
pare Dan. ii. 44.) So whoever shall oppose me
after my Exaltation to Glory, and the pouring
out of my Spirit- for the full Revelation of my
Gospel and Proof of my Mission, he will bring
upon himself aggravated Guilt, and dreadful un-

avoidable Deftruction.
19- And [ when ] the And when the Chief Priests and the Scribes and 19
Chief Priests and the Scribes Pharifees bad heard sis Párables, which he had
[and Pharisees had heard his
Parables, they ī the fame now delivered, they were so provoked at what he
Hour sought to lay Hands had said, that even in that very Hour they fought
on him ; for they perceived to lay their Hands on him, that they might pro-
that he had spoken this pas fecute him even to Death;
rable against them. (Mat.

for they plainly pera XXI. 45. MARK XII. ceived, that he had spoken this Parable of the wick12.-1 ,

ed Husbandmen that should be destroyed, against
them (i), and had in effect set them all at De- .

fiance by the Application of so signal a Prophecy MAT. XXI. 46. But- to himself. But they feared the People, who Mat. XXI they feared the Multitude, were then present in the Temple, because they 40. because they took him for a Prophet : Tand they left esteemed bim as a Prophet fent from God, and him, and went their Way.] would not have borne that immediate Affault (MARK XII.-12. LUKE

upon him, which the Rage of these Rulers would XX. -19:]

otherwise have engaged them to make. And
therefore, not daring for the prelent to attempt to
seize him with an open Violence, they left him;
and went away to take Counsel in private against

him,

(5) On whomsoever it mall fall, &c.] Dr. Whitby supposes, that here is an Allusion to the Two different Ways of Stoning among the Jews; the former, by throwing a Person down upon a great Stone ; and the other, by letting a Stone fall upon him. But as I cannot see, that the latter was at all more dreadful than the former, since in such a Case a quick Dispatch might seem most desirable, it seems to me that the Force and Beauty of this: pathetic Passage would be in a great measure lost by such an Interpretation.

(i) They perceived that he had spoken this Parable against them.] One would think, they could be at no Loss for the Interpretation of it, confidering how nearly it resembles that in Ifa. v. 1,-7. with which they were, no doubt, well acquainted. Only it is to be observed, that there Ifrael is the Vineyard, here the true Religion is represented under that Figure ; accordingly there it is threatened, that the Vineyard should be destroyed, but here that it thould be let out to otber Husbandinen ; each Event suiting its Connection.

in a serie then this Parable concering how nearly it is to be obfervet;

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