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mines, and of the geological history of and in a proper application of the wathe country.

ter to facilitate the labours of the miners, On the mineralogical constitution of and the washing of the ore. There is no Banca, he observes, that the direction of necessity in Banca, as in countries where the island being from north-west to south- the metal lies concealed in deep veins, to east, it follows, not only the direction of have recourse to difficult operations, or Sumatra and the Malayan peninsula, but expensive machinery ; and the process, also the great chain of Asiatic mountains, indeed, requires so little previous instrucone of the many branches of which termi- tion, that it is mostly performed by nates in Ceylon, while another, travers- persons whose only qualification is a roing Arakan, Pegu, the Malayan penin- bust constitution. A favourable spot sula, and probably Sumatra, sends off being selected, the pit is sketched out, a an inferior range through Banca and Bil- canal conducted from the nearest rivulet, liton,* where it be considered to disap- and then, the miners excavate the soil pear.

until they arrive at the stratum containThe elevated parts of Banca are ob- ing the ore, which is next deposited in served to have the same constitution as heaps near the water, so as to be placed the great continental chain, being com

conveniently for washing: the aqueduct posed principally of granite ; after which

is lined with the bark of large trees, and, Qccurs a species of rock, which Dr. a stronger current being produced by the Horsefield terms red iron-stone, extensive

admission of more water, the heaps are ly distributed in situations of secondary thrown in, and agitated by the workmen ; elevation, in single rocks, or in veins the particles of the ore subsiding through covering large tracts of country. Tracts their gravity, and those of common earth composed of this rock are bounded by being carried away by the current. alluvial districts, which are again sub

When a sufficient quantity of ore is divided into undulating hills, gradually thus accumulated, the process of smeltrising on others of apparently prior for- ing commences :-this is also very mi-. mation, and such as are low and level, of nutely and accurately described by Dr. recent origin, and bordering on the Horsefield. It is unnecessary to observe, mouths of the rivers. Those districts that almost all the operations connected which, occuring in juxta-position with the with the process of mining and refining primitive portions, fill that space between of metal are performed by the Chinese.* these latter and the veins of red iron- In his botanical pursuits, Dr. Horse stone, or, again, between those and the field has been peculiarly successful, his alluvial parts, are stratified; and the descriptions comprising a collection of strata uniformly horizontally arranged.; upwards of five hundred plants, of which

It is through these horizontal strata sixteen appear to be of doubtful genera. that the tin-ore is represented to be

An accouut of the inhabitants, their disseminated ; and, as far as has hi- mode of life and occupations, the state therto been remarked, it appears to be

of agriculture, and the history of the either immediately under the surface, or

* Former writers have described seven princiat no great distance from it.

pal mines, under the direction of Chinese Another section of the report contains managers, who pay tbe miners. Wood is ema view of the tin-mines, exhibiting a

ployed as fuel ; and it is added, that the miners,

are arrived at much perfection in reducing the general enumeration of those worked at

ore into metal. The profit derived from the mine present, or in former periods ; with an to the Dutch company, at one period, is estiaccount of the process of mining, and the

mated at 180,0001. annually. Very little was sent,

to Europe. Banca tin sells rather higher in. economy of the mines.

China (where it is used for tinning paper for The process of mining in Banca is sacrifices. See page 21,) than English grain-tiny remarkable for its simplicity. It consists as being more malleable. The Chinese have iu an excavation, of a square or oblong the slabs of metal, in order fraudently to ina

taught the Malays to put iron shot and stones into form, made by digging perpendicularly to crease their weight.

Under the Dutch com" the beds or strata containing the ore, pany, private merchants and English, and ressels

from the United States of America, exported car.

goes of Banca tin to China. One hundred and Billiton is a small island situated between thirty-three pounds of tin-sand of Banca is said to Sumatra and Borneo, estimated at fifty miles long, yield, on an average, seventy-five pounds of me by forty-five average breadth.-Edit.

tal, or rather more than fifty per cent. Edita.

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different settlements, is introduced into

BORNEO. this yaluable report, wliich I hope will In Borneo, if we have not enjoyed the shortly appear in print, under the pa. advantage of scientific inquiry, we have trouage of the East-India Company. In yet added considerably to our s stock of this expectation, and that I may not di- information, in a more correct knowminish the interest excited in its favour, ledge of the character and habits of the or exceed the latitude with which I am native population ; in the collection of invested, by more extensive : drafts on vocabularies of various dialects of the the valuable information which it con- country ; and in the acquisition of many tains, I shall close these notices of interesting particulars regarding the exBanca with a short account of the ex- tensive colonies of Chinese, by whom the tent and character of the population, as gold-mines of this latter island are it appeared to Dr. Horsefield, at an worked. early period of the establishment of Eu- Some notices have been received of ropean influence.

ruins of temples, of statues, and dilapiThe inhabitants of Banca consist of dated cities in Borneo, and of the exisMalays, Chinese, and indigenes, of tence of various inscriptions, in different whom the latter are subdivided into parts of the country, in characters unOrang Gunung (men of the mountains) or known either to the Chinese, Malays, or Mountaineers ; and Rayads or Orang Laut Dayacs ; but the information yet obtained (men of the sea) or Sea-people. The is too vague, and, in some instances, too Malays are few in rlumber, of a peace- contradictory, to be relied upon; and able but indolent disposition, and of the question, whether this island, at any little importance in the affairs of the former period, rose to any considerable island. The Chinese in Banca preserve degree of greatness, must yet remain untheir original habits of industry, enter- decided. Embanking, as it were, the prise, and perseverance ; they are the navigable pathway between the eastern most useful among the inhabitants, and and western hemispheres, and lying conindispensable in the labours of the tiguous to the most populous regions of mines. The general character of the the globe (China and Japan), there can Orang Gunung, or Mountaineers, the be little doubt but at one period it must original, and, perhaps, most interesting have risen far above its present state of deportion of the population, is rude sim- gradation and neglect. That Borneo was plicity. Dispersed over large tracts in visited, many centuries ago, by the Chithe interior of the country, they live nese and Japanese, is well established; nearly in a state of nature, but submit but whether it was ever more extensively without resistance to the general regula- colonized by either of those nations, than tions which have been established, and it is at present from China, must be left willingly perform the labours required of to future inquiry. Porcelain, jars, plates, them; although their natural timidity, vases, and earthen utensils of various and wandering habits, render them, in descriptions, the manufacture of China a considerable degree, inaccessible to Eu

the Europeans Tiroon (Orang Tidong) and reropeans. The Rayads are the remains of side up the rivers. a peculiar people, so called, who, with A third, on the north-west coast of Borneo, are

more civilized than the others, their families and households, live in

A fourth is found on the coasts of Celebes, small prows, in the Bays of Jebus and

Borney, and the Phillipines, consisting of va. Klabut, and obtain subsistence by fishing grants of several nations ; as, Chinese, Javanese, and adventure. Particulars of the Moun- and natives of Celebes:

The Orang Lauts (sea-men) and Orang Gunung taineers and Rayads,* will form a sepa

(mountaineers) appear to differ from each chiefly rate notice.

from circumstances incident to their respective

modes of life, and to be one and the same an# Called, also, in the descriptions of other cient people ; the most ancient people of the islands of the Eastern Ocean, Biajuos ; " in re- Eastern Islands, if that title is not to be given tu lality,” says a writer, " a species of sea-gypsey; the Papuas, or Oriental Negroes. In Ceylon, the “ itinerant fishermen, who live in small covered Orang Gunung of the Malays are called Idaans "" boats, and enjoy a perpetual summer, shift- and Maroots. Maroot is the Sanscrit name of the...

ing to leeward from island to island, with the forty-nine spirits of the winds, dependent on « variations of the monsoons."-Edit,

Indra or Jupiter. A second description of Biajoos are found on The Idaåns are called Horaforas (Alfoers) by the the north-east of Borneo, where they are called by Daich, apparently after the Arabians.-Edit. Asiatic Journ.No. IV.

VOL. I. 2 Y

and Japan, are frequently discovered in

CELEBES.* different parts of the country; and, such In a former discourse I took occasion is the veneration in which these articles, to notice, that the most prominent peoso found, are held, that a single jar of ple on Celebes were the Bugis and Mathis description has been known to be cassars ; that though speaking different purchased by Dayacs of the interior, languages, their respective races used the for a sum little short of two hundred same written character ; and that the pounds sterling. They are prized by the Mahomedan religion prevailed generally Dayacs as the supposed depositaries of in those parts of the islands which might the ashes of their forefathers.

be considered to have at all advanced I would here take notice of the infor- from a state of barbarism. mation collected concerning the different Confining our observations to the tribes of Dayacs which have come under south-western limb of this whimsicallyconsideration, but that the detail might shaped island, we may infer, that notappear misplaced in the very general view withstanding the country has generally of the subject which I am of necessity declined since its intercourse with Eurocompelled to take, I will only observe, peans, it may still be reckoned populous, that from a comparative vocabulary of as compared with many of the islands of the many of their dialects as are at present east. The population has been roughly accessible, they appear to differ but little estimated at about a million ; but the from the Malayan; that of the nu- data, on which this estimate was formed, merous tribes distinguished by their are not to be unreservedly relied upon. names and other peculiarities, several About the period of the first arrival of ape represented as tattooed ; and that Europeans in the East, the Macassar and some have curled hair, and resemble the Bugist tribes were among the principal Papuas.

dealers in spices, and the Isle of Celebes In the vicinity of Banjar-masin* no was nearly under the authority of a sixopportunity of increasing our information gle sovereign. On the breaking down of has been suffered to be lost. Mr. Alex

that great empire, several of the minor ander Hare, the founder of the interest- states submitted to European adminising colony established in the southern

tration ; 'while the support given to the part of the island, has himself penetrated authority of Boni, and the monopoly of across the south-west peninsula; and, as the spice-trade by Europeans, effectually confidence advances, we may look to 'a reduced the political influence of the anmore extensive intercourse with the rude

cient state of Goa. and scattered tribes of the interior.t

The most ancient state, of which tra

dition makes mention in Celebes, is A town (and also a district) at the mouth of the river of that name, on the south-eastern coast

Luhu or Luwu, situated in the inner of Bornco.--Edit.

part of the Bay of Boni, and the Gali+ Borneo (Varuni) the largest of the Eastern gas, or historical romances, are replete Islands, is estimated at seven hundred and fifty

with the adventures and exploits of Samiles in length, by three hundred and fifty aver. age breadth. The chief European settlements in

wira Gading, the first chief of that counBorneo are Passir, Banjar-masin, and Pontiana, try, and who is said to have extended and the principal native town is Borneo (Varuni); his dominions to the straits of Malacca. all at the mouths of the river, by whose names they are called. The Dayacs, mentioned in the

Next to Luhu, the empire of Goa has the text, are the same ldaans or aborigines of the concerning Borneo, contained in the text, is a Eastern Islands, which have been spoken of in a most valuable addition to the very slight know. former note. Some of their bands, from the au. ledge hitherto possessed respecting that island. thor's description, are composed, as in the case of - Edit. the Biajnos, of men of varivus nations; but the * The large island of Celebes is separated from account that ali their known vocabularics concur Borneo by the straits of Macassar. Making alin proving an identity between their language and lowance for the extreme irregularity of its figure, the Malayan, must, if accurate, go far to esta- its length is estimated at five hundred miles, blish an interesting historical fact: namely, that by one hundred and fifty miles average breadth. the aborigines and the Eastern Islands, (Idaans, It has Borneo on the west, and Gilolo, or Hala&c.) are of Malay origin. The inhabitants of the mahara, Poby, Ceram, and Amboyna to the east : north coast of Borneo have a tradition, that to the south lies Salayer, divided from Celebes by their country was once subject to China. In a strait, called, by the Dutch, the Budgeroons.1530, when the island was first visited by the Edit. Dutch, the Mohammedan religion was found fully † Bugis or Bugess. Celebes is called, by the established on the sea-coast. The intelligence natives and Malays, Negree Oran Bugess -Edit. * Knives or daggers.

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greatest claims to antiquity; and a period chief, and carries on the affairs of governis mentioned when this state extended ment in concert with the majority of the its influence to Achin, Manilla, Sulu, council. Women and minors are eligiTernate, and the whole of the Spice- ble to election in every department of the Islands,

state, from the prince down to the lowest In 1663, Rajah Palaka visited Bata- chief ; and, when this takes place, an advia; and, in 1666, co-operated with the ditional officer, having a title which liteDutch government against the native rally means support,” or prop," is states on the coast of Sumatra : from appointed to assist. Some variation is this period the authority of Boni advan- observable in the different states. In ced, until the recent arrangemeuts by Boni, the prince is elected by the Orang the British government.

Pitu, or seven hereditary counsellors. In The Macassar and Bugis tribes Goa, the prince is chosen by ten counselknown to be the most bold, adventur. lors, of whom the first minister, termed ous, and enterprizing of all the people Bechura Buta, in one. This last officer is of the Eastern Islands. They were for- himself first appointed by the Council of merly celebrated for their fidelity and Nine, termed the Nine Banners of the their courage ; and, for this reason, Country; but in the exercise of his office were employed, like the Swiss in Europe, he possesses very extraordinary powers. in foreign armies. They served in those He can even remove the prince himself, of Siam, Camboja, and other countries, and call upon the electors to make anoand also as guards to their own princes.* ther choice. The inferior chiefs or krains,

The most singular political feature in who administer the dependent province. Celebes, is that of an elective monarchy, are appointed by the government, and not limited by an aristocracy generally here- elected by a provincial council, although ditary, and exercising feudal authority in the exercise of their office their power over the minor chiefs and population, at is in like manner limited. The number all times prepared to take the field ; a of the council varies, in different provincoustitution of civil society which, how- ces, from two to seven. ever common in Europe, is perhaps, War is decided upon in the council of without parallel in Asia, where we sel- state ; and, so forcibly is the desperate dom witness any considerable departure ferocity and barbarism of the people defrom the despotic sway of an individual picted by the conduct they observe on The whole of the states, in that portion these occasions, and in their subsequent of Celebes to which I have alluded, are proceedings towards their enemies, that constituted on the peculiar principle however revolting the contemplation of stated :—the prince is chosen from the such a state of society may be, it forms too royal stock by a certain number of coun- striking a trait in their character to be sellors, who also possess the right omitted. War being decided upon by the of subsequently removing him. These prince in council, the assembled chiefs, counsellors


elected after sprinkling their banners with blood, from particular families of the here- proceed to take a solemn oath, by dipping ditary chiefs of provinces ; and, such is their creeses* in a vessel of water, and their influence, that the prince can afterwards dancing around the bloody neither go to war, nor, indeed, adopt banner, with frantic gesture and a strange any public measure, except in concert

contortion of the body and limbs, so as with them. They have the charge of the to give the extended creese a tremulous public treasure, and also appoint the motion. Each severally imprecates the prime minister. The prince cannot him- vengeance of the Deity against his person, self take the personal command of the if he violates his vow. An enemy is no army; but the usage of the country ad- sooner slain, than the body is decapitated, mits of a temporary resignation of office and treated with every indignity which for this purpose ; in which case, a regent the barbarous triumph of savages cau dicsucceeds provisionally to the rank of tate. The heads are carried on poles, or

Among Europeaus in the Eastern Isles, the sent in to the lord-paramount. Some ac. word Bugess or Bugis has come to signify a sol. counts go so far as to represent them dedier, the same as Sepuy (Sippaheey) on the con. tinent of India.-Edit.



vouring the raw heart of their subdued of peace or war, agricultural pursuits,
enemy, and, whatever shadow of doubt beyond what may procure a bare subsist-
humanity may throw over this appalling ence, are but little attended to. The
fact, it cannot be denied that their favou- usual share of the crop, at the disposal
rite meal is the raw heart and blood of of the chief, is a tithe, termed sima ; and
the deer. This latter repast is termed this, with a few imposts in the bazars,
Lor Dara, or the feast of the Bloody and the services of the people, constitute
Heart, which they are said to devour, as the revenue of the state.
among the Battas, in the season when The languages and literature of the
limes and salt are plentiful.

Celebes require a more extended and deThis, however, is viewing them on the tailed view than it is possible to take of worst side of their character, with im- either on the present occasion. I shall mediate reference to their conduct in war, therefore only briefly observe, that the and to practices found to prevail among languages prevalent throughout these that portion of the population labouring states appear to have been, at no very under restrictions on foreign commerce : remote period, one and the same; but the there are other points of view in which various revolutions which first raised the it may be more favourably considered.

power of Goa, and subsequently elevated The inhabitants of the Wadju districts that of Boni to a still higher importance, in particular, are celebrated for their en- have, in separating the states under two terprize and intelligence-extending their distinct authorities, given rise to two commercial speculations, with a high prevailing dialects, now assuming the apcharacter for honourable and fair dealing, pellation of two distinct languages. Of from the western shores of Siam to the these, the language of Goa or Macassar is eastern coast of New Holland. Women, as peculiarly soft, and is considered to be the before observed, take an active part in all more easy of acquisition, but not so copipublic concerns, and are, in no ivstance, ous as that of the Bugis. Whether the secluded from society, being on a per- Bugis language contains any portion of a fect equality with the men. The strong- more ancient language than either (of est attachment that is conceivable is felt which traces are said to exist in some old for ancient customs, and relics of antiqui- manuscripts of the country,) or, from comty are held in the highest possible vene- mercial intercourse with other states, has ration. They are slow and deliberate in adopted more foreign terms, is yet to be their decisions, but these, once formed, determined. The written character is are final. Agreements once entered into nearly the same; the Macassars, however, áre invariably observed on their part, and using more consonant sounds than the a Bugis is never known to swerve from Bugis. The same practice of softening his bargain. That natural politeness the abrupt or harsh sound of a word endwhich characterizes the various nations ing in a consonant, by attaching a final a and tribes distinguished by wearing the or o, so general in almost every tongue criss or creese, is no where more forci. of the archipelago, is common to, and, I bly exhibited than among the inliabitants believe, invariably observed in both these of Celebes. Their minor associations are languages. The possible existence of a held 'together by all the attachment and language distinct from and anterior to warmth which have distinguished the those now in use, is a subject well deseryclans of North Britain. The same bolding enquiry. spirit of independence and enterprize dis- The Bugis trace back their history tinguishes the lower orders; while the to Sawira Geding', whom they reprepride of ancestry, and the romance of chi- sent to have proceeded in immediate desvalry, are the delight of the higher classes. cent from their heavenly mediator, BiAttached to the chase as an amusement, tara Guru, and to have been the first rather than as the means of subsistence, chief of any celebrity in Celebes.

He the harvest is no sooner reaped, than reigned, as I before observed, over Luhu, every feudal chief, with his associates and the most ancient kingdom of Celebes ; followers, devotes himself to its pursuits. and a lapse of time, equal to seven des The population being equally at the com- cents, is said to have taken place mand of the feudal lord, whether in time before the establishment of Boni. Both

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