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10 tons. Charges. No port dues. Foreigners pay 5% duty ail zulorem on all exports and imports. Pilotage. To or from the outer roads about 1/1 foot dst. Pilots for Bussorah can also be obtained here. To and from Bussorah, or each time the bar is crossed, about 10 71st dft., and in addition about 1/1 subsistence money per day as long as the vessel remains at Bussorah. BUSSORAH, Turkey. Lat. 30° 29' 30' N ; long. 47° 34' 15"

E. Pop. 8,000. Tr.--1. Coal, refined sugar, metals, piece goods; E. Dates, grain, carpets, pearls, wool, cotton, gall-nuts, drugs, &c. Accn. Vessels drawing 18st have ascended as far as Bussorah. 22ft on the bar at HWST., 15st at NT. Inside the bar and as far as Bussorah the least depth in mid-channel is 24st. Charges. Discharging or loading cargo costs iod to 1/8 per ton. Pilotage. See Bushire. CABARETE, Hayti. Lat. 19° 47' N ; long. 70° 28' W. Tr.

E. Mahogany and tobacco. Accn. Vessels of 400 tons can enter and anchor in 3 to 4 fms of water about two cable lengths from the shore. Pilotage. On a vessel of 206 reg. tons, in and out £7 55 iod. On a schooner of 130 reg. tons, ballast in, cargo of tobacco and mahogany out £ i 195 9d.

CABUL.-See Kurrachee.
CADIZ, Spain. Lat. 36° 27' 45" N ; long. 6° 12' 16" W. Pop.

About 70,000. Tr.-1. Coal, alcohol, iron, staves,timber, and colonial produce ; E. Wine and salt are the staple articles of export; olives, olive oil, fruits, metals, corkwood, grain, &c., are also exported in large quantities. Accn. There are 3 graving docks, owned by the Government, 193st, 240ft, and 344st in length, a graving dock 557st long, and slip for vessels up to 136ft long, owned by the Compañia Trasatlantica. Cranes to list from 5 to 8 toos. Charges. On a vessel of 150 reg. tons, coal in, cargo salt out, about £130. Pilotage. Sea to bay £1 175 8d, bay to sea £ 1 145 70 ; Puntales to sea, anchoring in the bay £3 35 9d; Puntales to sea, without anchoring £2 is 8d ; Trocadero to Puntales El IIS 4d, Trocadero to sea, anchoring in the bay £4 155 2d, Trocadero to sea without anchoring £4 25 8d ; Arsenal to bay £2 6s; Trocadero to bay £2 11$ id; shifting in the bay or Puntales 16/9; Arsenal to sea, without anchoring in bay £4 75; anchoring £4 135 id; ships leaving or entering the bay between sunset and sunrise £3 3$ 9d. Should a vessel be hailed on entering by a pilot, and not take him, the vessel is liable to pilotage ; but if she enters without being seen the pilotage is not claimed. CAEN, France. Lat. 49° N; long. 0°21' W. Pop. 63,809.

Tr.-1. Principally coal, pig-iron, cement, wood, coal tar, pitch, cotton, &c. ; E. Wheat, barley, stone, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, oilcake. Accn. There is an inner wet dock, the quays extending about 1,300 yards (circular). The outer basin, newly constructed, has a length of quay of 630 yards, depth of water 16ft. Vessels of 350 to 450 tons discharge and take in cargo alongside the quay in the floating basin. Cranes to list from 15 to 20 tons. Pilotage. On vessel of 100 reg. tons inwards (loaded) 25/ ; outwards (loaded) 16/10. In ballast half this rate. Towage. By horses for vessel of 100 tons 15/10 to 19/9; into canal 4d ton of cargo; for coal, pig-iron, cement, earth, and other goods of little value 4d; for grain and valuable merchandise going out 2.1 to 3d ton ; in ballast, about 15/10, according to tonnage. Eng. Brokers. F. Bouet, G. Pelletier, R. Pelletier. 1. CAGLIARI, Italy. Lat. 39° 1' 13" N ; long. 9° 6' 42'' E. Pop.


Tr.-I. Coal, salt, cotton, soap, &c. ; E. Corn, pulse, oil, wine, and lead ore. Accn. Cagliari is the capital of the island, and has a harbour capable of holding about 30 vessels of medium size. Depth of water ranges from 16 to 1981. Pilotage. On schooner of 172 reg. tons cargo in and out. In and out and assistance-boat £2 26. On screw steamer of 500 tons Sardinian admeasurement, from Spain to England with cargo of lead ore : In and out and boat assistance £2 175 9d. CALAIS, France. Lat. 50° 57' 16" N ; long. 1° 51' E.

Pop. 47,000. Tr.-I. Salt, colza oil, fish, coal, cordage, rails, cast iron, wood, woollens, cotton, machinery; E.

Wines, silks, Parisian goods, machinery, &c. Accn. The new docks were opened in June, 1889, by the President-the works occupying a space of over 400 acres. The tidal harb. entrance has been formed to the left of the old harb., and the floating docks lead out of the tidal harbours, and, passing by canals under the bridge leiding from Calais to Saint Pierre, extend to the old works on the W. side of the town. The tidal harb. has an area of 18 acres and . a minimum depth of 13ft LWST., and 29st HWST. The W. side of the tidal basin is used for merchant vessels. There are magnificent quays and warehouses. The works will be completed in about two years.

There is a careening slip in the harb, for vessels up to 500 tons. The tidal basin to the eastward measures in breadth 558ft, its north quay has a length of 1,8ooft, with an uniform depth of 13ft 2in at low water spring tides, and its south quay has a length of 820ft, with a depth of 26ft zin at low water spring tides. Sheds of 525st in length by 13oft in breadth are erected along the south quay, which is also furnished with travelling hydraulic cranes The tidal basin to westward also offers to commerce extensive ground space, on the quays of which merchandise, such as coal, pig iron, timber, &c., can be stored free of charge for a considerable time. There are two floating docks--that to the east communicates with the tidal basin by two locks, 68ft 4in and 46ft 2in broad respectively, and with a length between gates 451ft zin. Depth of water on lock sills, 28ft 8in at ordinary spring tides, and 24st 5in at neaps. Under these conditions, any vessel with a less dst than 26ft zin can enter the dock at spring tides, or, if arriving at neap tides, can berth at the deep water quay of the tidal basin, and commence discharging forth with, entering dock in due course. There are extensive sheds along the quays of this dock, and 10 hydraulic cranes of i} tons each, 2 of 5 tons, and hydraulc jiggers for use of vessels. A dry dock, 5ooft lo length, exists at the end of this floating dock, capable of accommodating vessels of the largest size. The level of the western Aoating dock sill is placed too high for vessels of deep dft, but it is intended to construct a new dock entrance so as to admit vessels drawing 20ft at all tides. Between the east and west docks a very extensive canal dock exists, which communicates, by means of the Calais canal, with all the internal navigation of the continent. Since the construction of the elevator to Fontinettes, near St. Omer, the largest sized canal

boats of 400 tons can now reach Calais. Depths at high water :Pier-head: Spring tides 34ft ; neap tides 3oft. Dock gates on lock sills : Springtides 29ft 2in; neap tides 25ft rin. South quay of tidal basin : Spring tides 46ft 5in; neap tides 42ft 4in. Same quay at low water: Spring tides 25ft zin; neap tides 3oft 2in. Wet dock : Spring tides at high water 3oft zin; neap tides at high water 26ft zin. There are no sandbanks or rocks outside Calais harb., and the depths of water are greater than at pier-head. Crane to lift 10 tons. Charges. On a vessel of 100 tons £4 155, ballast 8d to is ton. Dues on a vessel of 1,222 reg. tons coming from India, America, &c., full cargo, dst. 2oft, about £12. Pilotage. 24d reg. ton loaded vessels; half for ships in ballast. Inwards from the roads on a vessel of 222 reg. tons 21d. Extra pilotage at sea, is taken further than 8m, one-fifth. Outwards £6 48 6d. In ballast itd reg. ton.

Steamers pay for pilotage, loaded or in ballast id reg. ton. Towage. On vessel of 1,222 tons coming from India, America, &c., with full cargo and drawing post :- inwards, about 4d reg. ton £1978 (im about 4d; im to 3m about 6d; 3m to 6m about 7d); outwards £7 6s 6d (if a steamer up to 1,000 reg. tons about £3). Eng. Brokers. A. Duniagou, G. Foissey, A. Henry, A. Hobacq. CALCUTTA, India. Lat. 22° 33'N ; long. 88° 20' E. Pop

683,458. Tr.-1. Salt, coal, iron, piece goods, cotton yarn, wearing apparel, stationery, hardware, machinery, malt liquors, wine and other spirits, petroleum, flour, tobacco, &c.; E. Cotton, rice, dye stuffs, oils, seeds, shawls, hides, spices, cutch, gunny cloths, hemp, indiarubber, jute, opium, safflower. Accn. Ships of 5,500 tons can ascend to city, where there is jetty and mooring accommodation. The pilots practically take vessels of any dit. up and down the river, but the maximum dft. may be called 25ft. * Below Saugor it is left to the pilot's discretion whether he will pilot a vessel drawing more than 22ft of water. There are nine graving docks, running from 18oft to 352ft in length, and three dry docks of' from 174ft to 192ft in length. Charges. Tonnage dues 6d ton. Harb. master's fees vary according to the work required of him. Hospital dues id. Light dues id ton. Steve. dore 7d ton, Pilotage. Outwards from within the port to below Fort Gloucester I-12th ; Hog River Obelisk 2-12ths; the Anchoring Creek 3.12ths ; Diamond Harb. Telegraph Station 4-12ths; Rangafulla Obelisk (SE.) 5-12ths ; Mud Point Telegraph Station (ESE.) 6-12ths; the Fairway Buoy of Bedfords or the lowermost buoy of the Auckland, if in that channel 7-12ths ; the Apex Buoy of Bedfords or the A Buoy of the Western Channel, according to the channel used, 8-12ths; a line E. or W. of Saugor anchoring buoy or of the H Buoy for the western channel, 9-12ths; a line ENÉ. or WSW. of the lower Gaspar light-vessel for the eastern channel or WSW. of the lower eastern reef head passage buoy for the south channel, 10-12ths; a line ENE. of the Spit Buoy for the eastern channel or WSW. of the south channel reef buoy for the south channel, 11-12ths ; a line drawn E. and W. of the lower reef buoy or the pilot station, full. Inwards, to within the port, exactly the same rates as above, and with the same divisions. In place of reading “To below," read “From below." Intermediate or broken pilotage is calculated by simple subtraction of the proportion leviable for the shorter distance from that chargeable to the


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greater. Pilotage rates on vessels intermediate or broken pilotage :


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58 6 8 9-12ths.

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65 12 6

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87 10 o The pilotage is divided into twelfths for the convenience of charging intermediate or broken pilotage--viz., from sea to places short of Calcutta and from and to intermediate places, as also for the pur. pose of the proportionate reduction (one-fourth) being made when vessels are tugged by steam any portion of the distance. Towage. No tariff. A written agreement is always drawn up. A vessel of 1,362 tons paid for towage from Saugor Light to town £120, and lo moorings £15; towage from moorings to sea £170, which may be taken as a fair average of the usual charges. CALDERA, Chili. Lat. 27° 5' 20" S; long. 70° 52' 45" W.

Pop. 3,000, Tr.-I. Coals, iron, bricks, and machinery ; E. Copper and silver ores, bar silver, copper, and regulus.

Accn. Vessels of poft dft. can lie alongside the wharf. Charges. For doing ship's business in custom-house about £14 115 8d. Pilotage. From £ 1 9s 2d for vessels of 100 to 200 reg. tons, to £4 155 iod for vessels of 1,000 to 2,000 reg. tons, and 65 45 2d for vessels over 2,000 reg. tons. Towage. No tug. boats here, but when necessary vessels can employ whaleboats at a cost of fr or a little more. CALICUT, India. Lat. 11° 15' 10" N ; long. 75° 46' 0" E.

Pop. 57,085. Tr.-E. Pepper, coffee, cardamoms, rice, coir rope, timber, wax, sandal-wood, &c. Accn. Anchorage in 5 fms. Charges. Tonnage dues, i per ton; entering and clearing at Customs, 6d. CALLAO, Peru. Lat. 12°_4' S; long. 77° 13' W. Pop.

About 32,000. Tr.-I. Almost every article of necessity ; E. Guano, nitrate of soda, chemicals, sugar, salt, wool, cochineal, coffee, tobacco, rice, &c. Accn. A good mole has been erected, but it is too small for the increased demand for space by shipping. There is also a dock and a floating dry dock for the largest vessels. Cranes to lift to 5 tons ; iron shears 35 tons. Charges. Discharging : foreign merchandise 5/10 per metric ton, coal 4/4, lumber of all descriptions 4/4; loading : all kinds of merchandise 2/11 per mit. Dock charge 12 cents silver per reg. ton. CALMAR, Sweden. Lat. 56° 39' 15" N ; long. 16° 22' 20" E.

Pop. About 12,000. Tr.-I. Coals, salt, colonial produce, herrings, seeds, ivory, pig-iron, and lead; E. Deals, timber, paper, limestone, flour, and cattle. Accn, Inside harb. close to pier 13ft. There is a patent slip for vessels up to 300 tons.

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Pilotage. 3/27 for 6ft dft. per four English miles, 1/74 for every additional foot. On a vessel of 100 reg. tons, with cargo in and out, soft dft. 12/24 CAMPECHE, Mexico. Lat. 19° 50' N; long. 30° 35' W.

Pop. 16,000. Tr.-1. Silks and manufactured goods; E. Wood, salt, sugar, skins, wax, &c. Accn. Anchorage perfectly safe ; vessels drawing soft can approach to within a mile of coast. CANDIA, Turkey. _Lat. 35° 21' N ; long. 24° or' E. Pop.

20,000. Tr.-I. Calico, cotton twist, four, leather, sugar, rice, barley, &c. ; E. Olive oil, soap, wine, raisins, &c. Accn. Harb. very narrow, 11 and 12ft inside where it is quite safe. Pilotage. 10/ on entering and 10/ on clearing. Mooring expenses about Zi 5s. CANEA, Turkey. Pop. 14,000. Tr.-I. Calico, cotton twist,

Aour, leather, sugar, rice, barley, tobacco, timber, coffee, woollens, rum and spirits, iron, soda ash, cod fish, herrings, jute, sacks, coals, &c.; E. Olive oil, soap, wine, carobs, raisins, oranges, valonia, cheese, &c. Accn. Harb. has 15ft at entrance, but 12ft only where ships moor. Charges, Mooring 25/. Pilotage. 8/ to 12/ in or out. CANNES, France. Lat. 48° 48' N ; long. 9° II' E. Pop.

about 14,000. Tr.-E. Perfumery, oil, and soap. Accn. There is 15ft of water in the harb., which is protected by a mole, and has a fine quay. Eng. Broker. Janot. CANTON, China. Lat. 23° 7' 10" N; long. 113° 14' 3" E.

Pop. Estimated 1,600,000. Tr.-I. Opium, cotton and woollen piece goods, and native imports, such as silk, tea, and cotton goods; E. Tea, silk, matting, preserves, &c. Accn. 13 to 17ft on the bar. Vessels of 1,000 tons can ascend as far as Canton.Almost all steamers lighten at Whampoa, about 14 miles below Canton, and all sailing vessels anchor there. Charges. Tonnage dues 2/ reg. ton, which include harb. light, mooring dues, &c. Pilotage. Whampoa to Hong Kong, or vice versa, 6 to gst dft. £2 125 id; 10 to 18ft dft. 45 45 2d ; 19ft dft. £6 5$ ; 20 to 22ft dft. £$ 6s 8d. Canton to Whampoa, or vice versa, any dft. £2 Is 8d." Towage. Included in pilotage. CAPE HAYTIEN, Hayti. Lat. 19° 46' 40" N; long. 72°

10' 42" W. Pop. About 9,000. Tr.-I. Lumber, provisions, fish, hardware, tobacco, and naval stores; E. Coffee, cocoa, logwood, honey, and hides. Accn. Vessels of 18ft dft. can approach to within three cable lengths of the town, and there is an excellent quay at which vessels drawing 15ft can dis. charge and load, Charges. On a 400 ton vessel, ballast in, cargo out 2291 135 4d. Pilotage. On a vessel of 400 tons, ballast in and cargo out, in and out and signal £2 185 4d ; to the Government 62 145 2d and 20 per cent additional ; to ballast ground £155. CAPE TOWN, Africa. Lat. 33° 56' 3" S; long 18° 28' 45' E:

Pop: 30,000. Tr.-I. Woollens, cottons, hard. ware, furniture, haberdashery, paper, books, tea, sugar, teak, &c. ; E. Corn, wool, wine, hides, skins, horns, aloes, butter, beef, ivory, argol, dried fish, whale and seal oil, copper ore, diamonds, &c. Accn. Two docks or basins (inner and outer), inner entrance

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