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fortifying the Ottoman power, and was given to the bow-string and of ameliorating Islamism ; that for the sabre. Every rumour of new that purpose the institution of the plots forming by old friends of the corps had been changed, and dis- proscribed troops, every expression ciplined troops, under the denomi- of discontent by the populace at, nation of the “ Victorious Troops being excluded from their coffeeof Mahomet," substituted in their houses, which had been shut up, place. « Let all," added the as favourite retreats of the Janisfirman, “ who live obedient to saries, was the pretext and the God and his holy book, offer their signal for new executions; the thanks to the Great Being for this Sultan strangled and beheaded happy event, live peaceably under without mercy and without disthe protection of the most power- crimination. A fire which broke ful Padischah, who is the shadow out in the capital on the 31st of of God upon earth, and never August, and burned for thirty-six cease to join their prayers with hours, laying great part of it in his in calling down the blessing of ruins, and of which it was doubtHeaven. Finally, whoever shall ful whether it was the work of inact contrary to this recommenda- cendiaries or of accident, aggration, shall be punished both in vated still further his vigilance this 'world and the next.

and revenge ; and the proclamaIn the mean time the formation, tion which, on this occasion, was and exercising of the new army, issued against the seditious, was were prosecuted with unremitting a frank avowal of the wiles of the vigour.' In every quarter of Con- Turkish police, and the secrets of stantinople, soldiers were to be Ottoman espionage. seen at drill; Egyptian officers are found," said the proclamation, were brought as instructors from so devoid of reason and religion, the army of Ibrahim; and proud as to wish to create disturbances; Turks, who were wont to treat to these violators of the peace are Egyptians with sovereign con- joined the wives of those who have tempt, now quietly submitted to been exiled or put to death, who become their pupils. The com- go about spreading all kinds of manders were industriously search- false reports, with respect to the ing every where for information, intentions of the government, and and for European treatises on the art alarm even the tranquil and honest of war; and translations of them part of the community. Instead were ordered and executed with of prayer and humiliation, which the rapidity which terror inspires. were suitable, after so dreadful a The Sultan himself frequently at- visitation as the late fire, these tended at the drills, and encou- persons, who are destined to deraged the men by his approbation, struction here and hereafter, lisand by rewards.

tening to nothing but the suggesViolence does not seem to have tions of the devil, indulge in formed any part of the original anger at the decrees of Providence, plan of Mahmoud in effecting this and in hatred of the Sublime révolution; but when his wrath Porte. Their seditious designs and appetite for blood were once have not passed unnoticed ; and roused by resistance, no respite for their repression, men so dis

« Persons

guised as not to be discovered, are had been paid at the period of appointed to visit every quarter of the commotions in June, as they the city; women also are appointed were then perfectly quiet. Two for similar purposes, and whoever, thousand five hundred disciplined in future, is found spreading troops were immediately sent sinister or false reports respecting against those sheep-folds, and the government, shall be seized against nearly three thousand inon the spot, and punished without dividuals, who formerly belonged delay or mercy, whatever be their to the Janissaries, and amongst rank." The punishment de- whom were found a number of nounced against disobedience workmen and cooks belonging to was, that men should be put to the seraglio. One thousand five death upon the spot where they hundred of them were executed, were seized, and women strangled, the remainder were sent to Asia. and thrown into the sea. Mah- It was discovered by the confesmoud was not a man to let such sions of those men, that a con“sharp laws and biting ordi: spiracy had been organised by the nances." sleep unused. Almost former Janissaries, who were to daily, men and women, whose only assemble in great numbers on the fault was that of speaking“ of Asiatic side, for the purpose of forbidden things,” were hurried to forming a junction with the malexecution, and still more of these contents of the capital, while the atrocious barbarities were perpe- fire was occupying the attention of trated in the secrecy of the night. the grand signior. As soon as the "The greatest difficulty in the Sultan learned these particulars, way of the Sultan arose from the he sent to the pacha of the Asiatic identity which urkish prejudices shore orders to exterminate the and habits of thinking had esta- Janissaries whom he might find blished between old customs, and there. their religious faith.

The fermentation produced by supported indeed by the ulemas, the humiliating part which the the muftis, and the imauns ; but nation of the faithful found itself even their authority failed to con- compelled to act at Akermann, vince the populace that the inno- produced new disturbances; the vations which had been introduced populace regarding it as a diswere justified by the Koran ; and grace brought upon the crescent this spirit of unbelief supplied a by the irreligious innovations of constant stock of materials, on the Sultan, which had deprived which the discontent of the sup- the empire of its old defenders at pressed Janissaries might work. the very moment when they were Another fire, on the 11th of Oc- most needed to repel insult and tober, the presage of new horrors, aggression. Order was restored had scarcely been extinguished, by the usual expedients of indiswhen the spies of the Seraskier criminate beheading, strangling, gave him information that meet- and drowning-scenes, of which ings took place at the houses of the details and repetition would be the keepers of the royal sheep- tedious and disgusting. Mahfolds, which belong to the Janis- moud sat upon an uneasy throne, saries, and to which no attention but, amid the executions which

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went on around him, he did not against their opponents, that the relax his efforts for the creation parties might be saved the useless of his army, and amused himself expenses to which they were often with reviews. By the end of the subjected. year there were upwards of twenty thousand regular troops in Con-If, for endeavouring to renovate stantinople and its neighbourhood. the military vigour of the Turkish Extensive barracks were rising all empire, the Sultan Mahmoud was around; arsenals and manufac, entitled to the thanks of the tories of arms were established; Ottomans, his reforms promised and superior officers were success no good to the insurgents of fully employed in introducing the Greece, whose cause, during the new discipline into Romelia, and year, had been retrograding In the Asiatic provinces.

Western Greece, which was the Such a period of civil disorder principal scene of conflict, the was not favourable to civil reform, Greeks, under general Goura, an object at all times contemptible had made themselves masters of in the eyes of a Turkish Sultan : Salona, an important strong-hold, yet Mahmoud manifested some in the month of November, 1825. symptoms of a desire to introduce In consequence of this success, justice into his administration, as the Seraskier, Redschid found

ell as discipline into his army. himself compelled to retire northIn the beginning of August four ward from before Missolonghi to firmans, were issued, the first of Vrachori, in order that, he might which put an end to the practice insure his communications with of confiscating the property of Arta. Ibrahim, likewise, weakTurks or Greeks capitally punished ened in troops, withdrew his men by order of the Porte; prohibiting from the interior, excepting a all mollahs, cadis, &c. from in- strong garrison left in Tripolizza, terfering, in any way with his and awaited the arrival of the succession, if the condemned per- reinforcements, which were on son should have heirs arrived at their way from Egypt. The.com majority, but allowing their in- bined Turkish and Egyptian fleets, terference where the heirs were having these reinforcements on minorsgt

in order to preserve the board, to the number of about property for them. They were to eight thousand men, appeared in receive, in lieu of all demands for the waters of the Archipelago in their trouble in this respect, two the beginning of November. and one

half

per cent on the Miaulis was endeavouring to asamount, instead of ten per cent, semble the Greek fleet at Cerigo, and expenses, amounting to more for the purpose of intercepting than twenty per cent, which they them; but unexpected difficulties used to exact. The second fire and disputes prevented him from man strongly recommended to being joined by the squadrons of the mollah, or cadi, the utmost Spezzia and Ipsara ; and he found impartiality in the distribution of himself compelled to sail with the justice; the rigorous prosecution Hydriot vessels alone, for the of all false witnesses, and of all gulph of Lepanto, both to prevent, mbo should practige chicanery if possible, the undisturbed dis

embarkation of the Egyptian suc- 1826, stood out a siege of eight cours, and to impede, at all events, months." Its garrison was small, the complete blockade of Misso- but determined, or rather, despelonghi by the Turkish fleet! Heräte; the failure of so many atfell in with a large division of it, tacks, and their long resistance to off Chiarenzá, near the mouth of so many Turkish bombardments, the gulph, on the 25th of Novem- had given them confidence: want ber, which attacked him both on of provisions' was the greatest that and the following day. On danger which they had to appreboth occasions he repelled them, hend. The approaches on the with no other loss than that of a land side were in the hands of vessel ( which accidentally took the besiegers ; the harbour was fire; but his inferiority in' point blockaded by the Egyptian fleet; of strength, his force amounting to and, if the latter were allowed to little more than half of that of the remain masters of the gulph, Misenemy, and especially the absence solonghi could not be saved from of the Spezziot fire-ships, rendered being starved into a surrender. it impossible for him to make any Miaulis, who had found himself impression upon their fleet, or too weak to prevent the enemy's prevent it from entering the gulph. fleet from entering the gulph, or It reached Patras, and re-inforced to undertake any thing decisive Ibrahim's 'army by landing six against it when there, had return thousand fresh troops. With parted to the south, leaving his feet of these succours, Ibrahim imme- cruizing between Zante and Chia." diately sailed up the gulph, and, renza, to clear away the difficul effecting a landing on its northern ties which had prevented him shore, marched to oppose a Greek from being joined by the Spezforce i under Goura and Draco, ziote and Ipsariote vessels. In which the government, on learn- this he succeeded, and the united ing the arrival of the Egyptian fleet appeared off the gulph of fleet, had ordered to advance from Lepanto on the 20th of January Salona to the relief of Missolonghi. On the 22nd, an engagement took His troops, under Mohanem Bey, place between divisions of both met, and defeated them, although Heets, but they separated without without any serious loss, while his damage on either side, the vionaval armament destroyed a num- lence of the easterly winds making ber of small vessels, and captured it impossible for them to keep the a considerable quantity of provi- line of battle. On the 27th, the sions and ammunition. He then Turkish fleet, which was generally returned with his booty to Patras, at anchor off Patras, again bore and, having re-inforced the Seras- down upon the Greek squadron '; kier, who had again advanced, the latter stood out to sea, to gain they proceeded together to press a more advantageous position ; the siege of Missolonghi, while then engaged, and, after a sharp the fleet blockaded the entrance action of some duration, compelled to its harbour.

the Turks' to return to Patras, with Missolonghi, the last hope of the loss of a frigate and a corvette. the patriots in Western Greece, These partial engagements, howhad already, at the beginning of ever, were of little lasting effect

went on around him, he did not against their opponents, that the relax his efforts for the creation parties might be saved the useless of his army, and amused himself expenses to which they were often with reviews. By the end of the subjected. year there were upwards of twenty thousand regular troops in Con- If, for endeavouring to renovate stantinople and its neighbourhood. the military vigour of the Turkish Extensive barracks were rising all empire, the Sultan Mahmoud was around ; arsenals and manufac- entitled to the thanks of the tories of arms were established; Ottomans, his reforms promised and superior officers were success no good to the insurgents of fully employed in introducing the Greece, whose cause, during the new discipline into Romelia, and year, had been retrograding In the Asiatic provinces.

Western Greece, which was the Such a period of civil disorder principal scene of conflict, the was not favourable to civil reform, Greeks, under general Goura, an object at all times contemptible had made themselves masters of in the eyes of a Turkish Sultan : Salona, an important strong-hold, yet Mahmoud manifested some in the month of November, 1825. symptoms

of a desire to introduce In consequence of this success, justice into his administration, as the Seraskier Redschid found well as discipline into his army, himself compelled to retire northIn the beginning of August four ward from before Missolonghi to firmans were issued, the first of Vrachori, in order that he might which put an end to the practice insure his communications with of confiscating the property of Arta. Ibrahim, likewise, weaks Turks or Greeks capitally punished ened in troops, withdrew his men by order of the Porte; prohibiting from the interior, excepting a all mollahs, cadis, &c. from in- strong garrison left in Tripolizza , terfering, in any way with his and awaited the arrival of the succession, if the condemned per- reinforcements which were on son, should have heirs arrived at their way from Egypt. The commajority, but allowing their in- bined Turkish and Egyptian fleets, terference where the heirs were having these reinforcements on

order to preserve the board, to the number of about property for them. They were to eight thousand men, appeared in receive, in lieu of all demands for the waters of the Archipelago in their trouble in this respect, two the beginning of November. and one half per cent on the Miaulis was endeavouring to asamount, instead of ten per cent, semble the Greek fleet at Cerigo, and expenses, amounting to more for the purpose of intercepting than twenty per cent, which they them; but unexpected difficulties used to exact. The second fire and disputes prevented him from man strongly recommended to being joined by the squadrons of the mollah, or cadi, the utmost Spezzia and Ipsara ; and he found impartiality in the distribution of himself compelled to sail with the justice; the rigorous prosecution Hydriot vessels alone, for the of all false witnesses, and of all gulph of Lepanto, both to prevent, prbo should pragtige chicanery if possible, the undisturbed dis

minors,

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