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se an incredible advantage over ours, in finding shelter re frequently; and, indeed, almost everywhere except 4 steep or rocky shore ; since, in default of shelter afloat, y drew their large ships up on the beach, as our fisheri do their large boats. And we may certainly conclude t vessels of a construction and size the best adapted to

service of discovery and long voyages were chosen on usions like the present." This occasion was the alleged umnavigation of Africa by the Phoenicians, under the etion of Pharaoh-Necho; and the observation is of se applicable to the vessels employed by the same ies in the navigation to Ophir in co-operation with Hebrew king. The construction of the bottoms, to ch Rennel refers, is shown in the annexed coin (of Ro· Africa), which shows more of the hull than the other Fig. 7.—Silver Carthaginian Roman Coin. Weight 48 grains. and otherwise forms an interesting illustration of the

Magnified one-third. eral subject



9 Then Jchoram Twent forth with his choram, succeeding Jehoshaphat, slayeth his bre princes, and all his chariots with him : and hren. 5 His wicked reign. 8 Edom and Libnah he rose up by night, and smote the Edomzvolt. 12 The prophecy of Elijah against him ites which compassed him in, and the capa writing. 16 Philistines and Arabians oppress tains of the chariots. :im. 18 His incurable disease, infamous death,

10 So the Edomites revolted from under ad burial.

the hand of Judah unto this day. The same w 'Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, time also did Libnah revolt from under his I was buried with his fathers in the city hand; because he had forsaken the LORD David. And Jehoram his son reigned in God of his fathers. stead.

11 Moreover he made high places in the ? And he had brethren the sons of Je- mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabithaphat, Azariah, and Jehiel, and Zecha- ants of Jerusalem to commit fornication, 1, and Azariah, and Michael, and She- and compelled Judah thereto. tiah: all these were the sons of Jehosha- 12 And there came a writing to him t king of Israel.

from Elijah the prophet, saying, Thus saith And their father gave them great gifts the Lord God of David thy father, Because -ilver, and of gold, and of precious things, thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoa fenced cities in Judah: but the king- shaphat thy father, nor in the ways of Asa 2 gave he to Jehoram; because he was king of Judah, firstborn.

13 But hast walked in the way of the Now $when Jehoram was risen up to kings of Israel, and hast made Judah and kingdom of his father, he strengthened the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go a whoring, self, and slew all his brethren with the like to the whoredoms of the house of Ahab, rd, and divers also of the princes of Israel. and also hast slain thy brethren of thy fa

Jehoram was thirty and two years old ther's house, which were better than thyself: n he began to reign, and he reigned 14 Behold, with 8a great plague will the it years in Jerusalem.

Lord smite thy people, and thy children, And he walked in the way of the kings and thy wives, and all thy goods: Israel, like as did the house of Ahab: for 15 And thou shalt have great sickness iad the daughter of 'Ahab to wife: and by disease of thy bowels, until thy bowels vrought that which was evil in the eyes fall out by reason of the sickness day by he LORD.

day. Howbeit the Lord would not destroy 16 | Moreover the LORD stirred up - house of David, because of the covenant against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, 1. he had made with David, and as he and of the Arabians, that were near the

aised to give a “light to him and to his Ethiopians : 1 3 for ever.

17 And they came up into Judah, and q In his days the Edomites revolted brake into it, and 'carried away all the subu "under the dominion of Judah, and stance that was found in the king's house, e themselves a king.

and his sons also, and his wives; so that 11 Kings 22. 50. ? 2 Kings 8. 16, 17. 3 Chap 22. 2. * Heb. lamp or candle. 19 Sam. 7. 12. 1 Kings 11. 36. 2 Kings 8. 19. Isa. 132. 11, &c. 6 Heb. hand. 72 Kings 8. 21. 8 Hleb, a great stroke.

Heb. curricd captive.

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there was never a son left him, save ''Jehoa- | burning for him, like the burning of his haz, the youngest of his sons.

fathers. 18 | And after all this the LORD smote 20 Thirty and two years old was he when him in his bowels with an incurable disease. he began to reign, and he reigned in Jeru

19 And it came to pass, that in process of salem eight years, and departed without time, after the end of two years, his bowels being desired. Howbeit they buried him in fell out by reason of his sickness : so he died the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of sore diseases. And his people made no

of the kings. 10 Or, Ahaziah, chap. 22. 1; or, Azariah, chap. 22.6.

11 Heb, without desire.

Verse 12. “ A writing. ...from Elijah the prophet.”—It is concluded, from a comparison of dates, that Elijah's translation must have taken place several years before this. The opinion of Josephus, and many Jewish and Christian writers, is that the letter was sent to the king, by Elijah, from heaven, by the ministry of angels. Of many other opinions, the more probable seems to be that the name of Elijah has crept into the text instead of that of Elisha, by whom this explanation supposes the letter to have been written ;-or, that Elijah, perceiving by the spirit of prophecy the criminal conduct of the king, and its consequences, wrote this letter previously to his translation, and left it with one of the prophets (probably Elisha), to be delivered in due season ;-—or, that the date of the translation of Elijah is not indicated with such precision, as to enable us to feel quite assured that it had already taken place when this letter was sent to Jehoram.

15. Disease of thy bowels.—Jahn, on the authority of Dr. Mead (“Medica Sacra, ch. iv.) concludes this disease to have been a form of dysentery. The long duration of such a disorder is a very unusual circumstance, which, with its awful severity and the previous prediction of the prophet, sufficiently indicated the Hand from which the stroke came.

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7 And the destruction of Ahaziah was of | Ahaziah succeeding reigneth wickedly. 5 In his God by coming to Joram : for when he was confederacy with Joram the son of Ahab, he is slain come, he went out with Jehoram against by Johu. 10 Athaliah, destroying all the seed royal, Jehu the son of Nimshi, whom the LORD save Joash, uhom Jehoshabeuth his aunt hid, usurp

had anointed ?to cut off the house of eth the kingdom.

Ahab. AND the inhabitants of Jerusalem made 8 And it came to pass, that, when Jehu Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: was executing judgment upon the house of for the band of men that came with the Ara- Ahab, and found the princes of Judah, and bians to the camp had slain all the 'eldest. the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah, that So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Ju- ministered to Ahaziah, he slew them. dah reigned.

9 And he sought Ahaziah : and they 2 Forty and two years old was Ahaziah caught him, (for he was hid in Samaria,) when he began to reign, and he reigned one and brought him to Jehu: and when they year in Jerusalem. His mother's name also had slain him, they buried him: Because, was 'Athaliah the daughter of Omri. said they, he is the son of Jehoshaphat, who

3 He also walked in the ways of the sought the LORD with all his heart. So the house of Ahab: for his mother was his coun- house of Ahaziah had no power to keep still sellor to do wickedly.

the kingdom. 4 Wherefore he did evil in the sight of 10 l 'But when Athaliah the mother of the Lord like the house of Ahab: for they Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she were his counsellors after the death of his arose and destroyed all the seed royal of the father to his destruction.

house of Judah. 5 ( He walked also after their counsel, 11 But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of and went with Jehoram the son of Ahab the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and king of Israel to war against Hazael king stole him from among the king's sons that of Syria at Ramoth-gilead: and the Syrians were slain, and put him and his nurse in a smote Joram.

bedchamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daugh6 And he returned to be healed in Jez- ter

ter of king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada reel, because of the wounds which were the priest, (for she was the sister of Ahagiven him at Ramah, when he fought with ziah,) hid him from Athaliah, so that she Hazael king of Syria. And 'Azariah the slew him not. son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to 12 And he was with them hid in the house see Jehoram the son of Ahab at Jezreel, be- of God six years; and Athaliah reigned over cause he was sick.

the land. ? 2 Kings 8. 24, &c. * Chap. 31. 17. 3 Chap. 21. 6. * Otherwise called Ahaziah, verse l; and Jehvahaz, chap. 21. 17. 6 Heb. treading down. 7 2 Kings 9.7. 8 2 Kings 9. 27.

$ 2 Kings 11.1.

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4 Heb. wherewith they wounded him..


nant with the king in the house of God.

And he said unto them, Behold, the king's 1 Jehoiada, having set things in order, maketh

son shall reign, as the LORD hath 'said of Joash king. 12 Athaliah is slain. 16 Jehoiada restoreth the worship of God.

the sons of David.

4 This is the thing that ye shall do ; A And 'in the seventh year Jehoiada strength third part of you entering on the sabbath, ened himself, and took the captains of hun of the priests and of the Levites, shall be dreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ish-porters of the doors; mael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah 5 And a third part shall be at the king's the son of Obed, and Masseiah the son of house; and a third part at the gate of the Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, foundation : and all the people shall be in the into covenant with him.

courts of the house of the LORD. 2 And they went about in Judah, and ga- 6 But let none come into the house of the thered the Levites out of all the cities of LORD, save the priests, and they that minis Judah, and the chief of the fathers of Israel, ter of the Levites; they shall go in, for they and they came to Jerusalem.

are holy: but all the people shall keep the 3 And all the congregation made a cove- watch of the LORD.

12 Kings 11. 4, &c. 2 2 Sam. 7. 12.' 1 Kings 2. 4, and 9.5. Chap. 6. 16, and 7. 18. * Heb. thresholds.

7 And the Levites shall compass the king

14 Then Jehoiada the priest brought out round about, every man with his weapons in the captains of hundreds that were set over his hand; and whosoever else cometh into the host, and said unto them, Have her forth the house, he shall be put to death: but be of the ranges: and whoso followeth her, let ye with the king when he cometh in, and him be slain with the sword. For the priest when he goeth out.

said, Slay her not in the house of the LORD. 8 So the Levites and all Judah did ac- 15 So they laid hands on her; and when cording to all things that Jehoiada the she was come to the entering of the horse priest had commanded, and took every man gate by the king's house, they slew her his men that were to come in on the sabbath, there. with them that were to go out on the sab- · 16 | And Jehoiada made a covenant bebath: for Jehoiada the priest disinissed not tween him, and between all the people, and the courses.

between the king, that they should be the 9 Moreover Jehoiada the priest delivered Lord's people. to the captains of hundreds spears, and buck- 17 Then all the people went to the house lers, and shields, that had been king David's, of Baal, and brake it down, and brake his which were in the house of God.

altars and his images in pieces, and 'slew 10 And he set all the people, every man Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars. having his weapon in his hand, from the 18 Also Jehoiada appointed the offices of right side of the 'temple to the left side of the house of the LORD by the hand of the the temple, along by the altar and the tem- priests the Levites, whom David had ''disple, by the king round about.

tributed in the house of the LORD, to offer 11 Then they brought out the king's son, the burnt offerings of the LORD, as it is

him the crown, and @gave him written in the law of Moses, with rejoicing the testimony, and made him king. And and with singing, as it was ordained by Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and David. said, 'God save the king.

19 And he set the sporters at the gates 12 Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the house of the LORD, that none which of the people running and praising the king, was unclean in any thing should enter in. she came to the people into the house of the 20 And he took the captains of hundreds, Lord:

and the nobles, and the governors of the 13 And she looked, and, behold, the king people, and all the people of the land, and stood at his pillar at the entering in, and brought down the king from the house of the princes and the trumpets by the king: the LORD: and they came through the high and all the people of the land rejoiced, and gate into the king's house, and set the king sounded with trumpets, also the singers with upon the throne of the kingdom. instruments of musick, and such as taught 21 And all the people of the land reto sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her joiced: and the city was quiet, after that clothes, and said, 'Treason, Treason. they had slain Athaliah with the sword.

and put upon

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4 Heb, shoulder.

5 Heb, houre. & Dent. 17. 18. 7 Heb. Let the king live

11 Num. 29. 2. 19 Heb. by the hands of David,

8 Heb. conspiracy.

9 Deut. 13. 9. 13 i Chron. 26. 1, &c.

10 1 Chron. 24. 1.

Verse 8. “ Jehoiada dismissed not the courses.”—The meaning of this, of course, is that the high-priest, in order to have the stronger force at his disposal, detained the Levitical course, which, under ordinary circumstances, would hare returned home, or at least would have gone off duty when its week of service had expired.

11. Put upon him the crown.”—We know that crowns were worn by the Hebrew kings ; but this is the only incident in Seripture from which we learn that setting a crown on the head was part of the ceremonies of inauguration. There is no part of the Bible in which these ceremonies are so particularly described as in the chapter now before us.

_"Gave him the testimony." _“Gave him” is supplied in our version: omitting this, the text reads, "put upon him the crown and the JTY (adah);" which therefore probably means some part of the royal attire, ornaments, or regalia, as some of the Jewish interpreters explain, and as the signification which the word bears in several other passages of Scripture warrants.

God save the king."— Literally, “Long live the king!” This seems to have been the usual shout of loyalty among the Hebrews. In personally addressing the king, we find this expression put superlatively, as “Let the king live for ever!” The same thing precisely is meant in both expressions—the wish for a protracted life; but the latter was, in a personal address, the more respectful and complimentary phrase, which was never understood in its literal force. This style of address was used to the Hebrew, Babylonian, and Persian kings. (1 Kings i. 31; Neh. ii. 3.; Dan. ii. 4.) The same is also the proper force of our popular cry, for ever?” And God save the king” implies the desire for the prolongation of the king's life ; and by this therefore our translation properly renders the Hebrew expression. Indeed, so similar are the cries of loyalty everywhere, that nearly all the versions find a national cry of equivalent meaning. Thus the Vulgate has here, “ Vivat rex!”-the French versions, “Vive le roi!”-and so of others.

13. “ The king stood at his pillar."—Some think that, instead of “at his pillar, we should understand “upon a stage” or “ scaffold;" perhaps the brazen scaffold which Solomon erected, and upon which he stood at the dedication of the Temple. We incline to join both interpretations, and suppose that Joash stood upon a sort of scaffold or throne placed against a pillar. We cannot suppose that he stood upon the ground, for then, being a child and surrounded by such a number of persons, Athaliah could scarcely have seen him when she entered. In Homer there are several allusions to the custom of setting a throne against a colunin.


11 Now it came to pass, that at what time

the chest was brought unto the king's office 1 Joash reigneth well all the days of Jehoiada. 4 He giveth order for the repair of the temple. 15 Je- | by the hand of the Levites, and when they hoiada's death and honourable burial. 17 Joash, saw that there was much money, the king's falling to idolatry, slayeth Zechariah the son of scribe and the high priest's officer came and Jehoiada.; 23 Joash is spoiled by the Syrians, and emptied the chest, and took it, and carried slain by Zabad and Jehozabad. 27 Amaziah succeedeth him.

it to his place again. Thus they did day

by day, and gathered money in abundJoasa 'was seven years old when he began ance. to reign, and he reigned forty years in Jeru- 12 And the king and Jehoiada gave it to salem. His mother's name also was Zibiah such as did the work of the service of the of Beer-sheba.

house of the LORD, and hired masons and 2 And Joash did that which was right in carpenters to repair the house of the LORD, the sight of the LORD all the days of Je- and also such as wrought iron and brass to hoiada the priest.

mend the house of the LORD. 3 And Jehoiada took for him two wives; 13 So the workmen wrought, and 'the and he begat sons and daughters.

work was perfected by them, and they set 4 | And it came to pass after this, that the house of God in his state, and strengthJoash was minded to repair the house of ened it. the LORD.

14 And when they had finished it, they 5 And he gathered together the priests brought the rest of the money before the and the Levites, and said to them, Go out king and Jehoiada, whereof were made vesunto the cities of Judah, and gather of all sels for the house of the LORD, even vessels Israel money to repair the house of your

to minister, and 'to offer withal, and spoons, God from year to year, and see that ye hasten

hasten and vessels of gold and silver. And they the matter. Howbeit the Levites hastened offered burnt offerings in the honse of the it not.

LORD continually all the days of Jehoiada. 6 And the king called for Jehoiada the 15 | But Jehoiada waxed old, and was chief, and said unto him, Why hast thou full of days when he died; an hundred and not required of the Levites to bring in out thirty years old was he when he died. of Judah and out of Jerusalem the collection, 16 And they buried him in the city of according to the commandment of Moses the David among the kings, because he had servant of the LORD, and of the congrega- done good in Israel, both toward God, and tion of Israel, for the tabernacle of witness? toward his house.

7 For the sons of Athaliah, that wicked 17 Now after the death of Jehoiada came woman, had broken up the house of God; the princes of Judah, and made obeisance and also all the dedicated things of the to the king. Then the king hearkened unto house of the LORD did they bestow upon them. Baalim.

18 And they left the house of the LORD 8. And at the king's commandment they God of their fathers, and served groves and made a chest, and set it without at the gate idols: and wrath came upon Judah and Jeof the house of the LORD.

rusalem for this their trespass. 9 And they made a proclamation through. 19 Yet he sent prophets to them, to bring Judah and Jerusalem, to bring in to the them again unto the LORD; and they testiLORD the collection that Moses the servant fied against them: but they would not give of God laid upon Israel in the wilderness. ear.

10 And all the princes and all the people 20 And the Spirit of God 'came upon Zerejoiced, and brought in, and cast into the chariah the son of Jehoiada the priest

, which chest, until they had made an end.

stood above the people, and said unto them, 19 Kiugi 12. 1, &c. 8 Exod. 30. 12, 13, 14.

s Heb, the healing went up upon the work. * Or, pestils,

Heb. to renew.

4 Heb. a voice. 7 Heb. clothed.

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