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has treated the subject at large, and has continued his narrative to the commencement of that year.
The writer means to confine himself chiefly to that portion of the history of Hayti, which succeeds its independence, but if the reader wishes to acquaint himself with the early part of the revolution, he may receive ample information by referring to the works already mentioned. He will there see recorded the particulars of an event which has justly excited general attention.
The Cape, Island of Hayti, January 23, 1804, It is with sincere pleasure I now commence the series of letters I promised you on my departure from Philadelphia. You will recollect that my intention was, not to enter into any detail of the causes and progress of the revolution, which has alienated this colony from the mother country, but to confine my communications to the events which have occurred, since the declaration of the independence of Hayti, and immediately preceding. I shall endeavour, in the progress of my correspondence, to preserve, as far as possible, a strict impartiality in my narration, and to observe a scrupulous regard to truth. In fact, you may consider, as a general rule, that whatever is stated, unless otherwise particularly specified, will be founded, either upon my own observation, or what appears to me substantial evidence.
During the year 1803, the French army, which in the latter end of 1801, had been conducted from Europe by Le Clerc, being reduced by the diseases of the climate, and the fortune of war, to a very inconsiderable number, the few miserable survivors were compelled to take refuge in the seaport towns, and to make preparations for the final eva. cuation of the island.* This they effected during the summer and autumn of that year, excepting in the northern department, where by the obstinacy of Rochambeau, who succeeded as commander in chief at Le Clerc's death, the inhabitants of Cape François, and a few individuals at Cape Nichola Mole, were compelled to remain until they were nearly destroyed by famine.. For some weeks, the inhabitants of the former place were blockaded by a British squadron, and on the land were closely besieged by the blacks, who burnt and destroyed all the plantations, houses, and gardens, which lay in their way. In this deplorable situation, they were under the necessity, after having eaten their horses, dogs, mules, &c. of making the best arrangements they could for their capitulation. As they knew that by delivering themselves up to the English they would be conveyed beyond the reach of the negroes, their most dangerous and implacable foes, propositions were made to them the same day on which a negociation had been opened with Dessalines, commander in chief of the black army. But the terms, on which Commodore Loring was willing to treat, being considered by Rochambeau as “inadmissible," he found the negociation with the Indigenes to be an affair of some importance, and a capitulation was entered into on the 18th of November, by which the French were allowed ten days (after the 19th) to evacuate the Cape. This cessation of hostilities, so favourable to Rochambeau, was not communicated to the English, and afforded him a convenient opportunity to make preparations for his departure, and the interim was, it is presumed, occupied in the endeavour to devise some means for effecting an escape. The vigilance of the British, however, prevented the execution of any such design, and being informed by Dessalines of the capitulation, Commodore Loring, when the term had nearly expired, requested the former to furnish him with pilots to carry in a part of his squadron, for the purpose of taking possession of the French shipping. The Commodore also expressed his hopes, as he saw no movements on the part of the French, that the black General had not altered his disposition towards them. The answer of Dessalines fully satisfied him on this subject.
* The term island, as generally used in these letters, is to be understood as applied only to the French part. The eastern territory, formerly Spanish, is yet occupied by the French, and has never been in possession of the blacks.
On the 29th of November, according to the terms of the capitulation, the town was delivered up to the blacks, and the French army had repaired on board the shipping in the harbour; and on the 30th, Commodore Loring, seeing the Indigene colours Aying on the forts, sent an officer to ascertain the cause of this change. The messenger was met by a French officer, who invited him on board one of the vessels, to enter into articles for the surrender of the fleet. Arrangements were immediately made, and as the term for the evacuation had expired, the blacks were threatening to sink and burn the ships with red hot shot. Some little forms of etiquette, such as sailing out under French colours, and firing their broadsides previously to surrender, were granted; and after waiting a short time for a fair wind, during which Dessalines was with much difficulty prevailed upon to desist from firing, the French force amounting to about 8000 men, with the shipping, consisting of 3 frigates and 17 merchantmen, were taken possession of by the English, and conveyed to Jamaica. Many of the inhabitants also took their departure with this fleet.'
A small garrison still remained at Cape Nichola Mole, under General Noailles, which was summoned to surrender by Commodore Low ring, on the 20 December, and under pretence of making arrangements for a capitulation, Noailles evacuated the place in the night, with six vessels, all of which, except the one in which he was, fell into the hands of the English. He escaped to a port in Cuba, it is said, and thence sailed in a small French vessel, which was attacked by a British cruizer, and in the engagement was killed. This man, known in Philadelphia, where he resided some time as the Viscount de Noailles, was one of those unprincipled characters, who, during the government of Le Clerc, caused bloodhounds to be sent from Cuba to the Cape, for the destruction of the negroes.
RHETORIC-FOR THE PORT FOLIO.
In The Port Folio for February, we commenced the publication of Dr. Abercrombie's general introduction to his highly valuable course of lectures on the arts of READING AND PUBLIC SPEAKING. In this preliminary discourse, the learned author, in a very luminous, elegant, and satisfactory manner explained, not merely the particular objects of his undertaking, but the great principles of rhetoric, as elucidated by the light of the most illustrious writers and speakers, who flourished during the fairest epochs of literature. This lecture has excited a very vivid interest, particularly among those, who are destined for the bar, and the church, or whose ambition incites them to the attainment of those powers, which may distinguish an orator in the councils of his country.
Dr. A. having, with equal urbanity and address thus pleasantly conducted us through the porch, it now remains to enter and explore a magnificent temple.
Of these ingenious and instructive lectures we now publish the first, which is explanatory of the principles of articulation.
Of all arts and sciences the elements are necessarily the most arid and repulsive; but though terrific, and even disgusting to that yawning lassitude, which shrinks from the slightest exertion, yet the aspiring and ambitious, as well as the philosophical student, though fully conscious of the ruggedness, disdains that such a circumstance should prevent his pursuing the path.
Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam must obey the leading laws of the course. It is notorious to all, who have had any experience in the government and instruction of youth, that without a strict course of elementary discipline, no extraordinary proficiency in any art or language can be attained. If ignorant or careless of the rudiments of knowledge, men rely upon genius alone to enable them to struggle suc. cessfully through the perplexities which embarrass, for example, the acquisition of a foreign idiom, it will be found to be a most miserable mistake, and the presumptuous Tyro will be continually stumbling on classical ground. To boys of the brightest parts, nay of ardent application, few books have a more harsh and tremendous air, than Lily's Grammar; and yet, of the innumerable scholars who have adorned Westminster, Winchester, the Charter House, or Eton, there is scarcely one who has not made himself entire master of this dull but necessary book. A modern philosopher, with the wonted wildness of his sect, has somewhere talked very idly about the husk of learning, and of grovelling among the chips and sawdust of grammar; but he who disdains thus humbly for a season to linger at the foot of the tree of knowledge, will scarcely elevate himself to its top. In some of the old editions of the austere author, to whom we have alluded, there is a motto prefixed in simple latinity, implying that though the root of learning be bitter, yet the fruit is sweet. The foundation of an elegant edifice is not as showy as the gilded roof, and yet is equally necessary. Without the Tuscan basis, we lose more than half the delight, arising from a survey of the Corinthian pillar. QUINTILIAN, who has written with more good sense on this subject than any of his contemporaries or fallowers, has insisted largely upon this subject, and his opinion is entitled to the greatest deference, not merely because he was an eloquent wri: ter, but a practical teacher.
On ARTICULATION, or the construction and proper use of the organs
of speech, in producing those various sounds which constitute the human voice.
The subject to which I shall particularly solicit your attention this evening, is that of Articulation, or the construction and proper use of the organs of speech in producing those various sounds which constitute the human voice.
Articulation implies those modifications of sound, by which the leto ters, syllables, or words of any language are expressed by the operation of the voice, or faculty of speech. And the business of articulation is to make a distinction in sounds, be their tone, their loudness or lowness what it will; thereby to give a distinct and audible utterance to all the several sounds of which the words of a language are aus ceptible.
Articulation is performed by the organs of speech, which are, the teeth, tongue, lips, nostrils, and throat; hence the letters or elementary sounds derive their characters from the immediate action of either of those organs in modulating the air sent out from the lungs. Those letters which are sounded by the action of the tongue against the teeth being called dentals, as d, t, from the Latin word dens a tooth. Those which are formed by the hips, labials, from the Latin word labium a lip, as p, f, $, &c. Those by the throat, gutturals, from the Latin word guttur the throat, as k, x and g hard, as in go; though those letters which have by some been called gutturals, should, strictly speaking, be denominated palatine or palatals, being formed rather by the operation of the palate than by the throat. Lastly, those which are formed by the nose are called nasals, from the Latin word nd&us the nose, as m, n, ng as in hang, nk in thank, an in banquet. These organs, thus operating upon the breath, form the varie ties of sound in the human voice. Every time we inspire or draw the air into the mouth, it descends down the throat into the lungs : the same act of inspiration expanding the lungs for the admission of the air, and the act of respiration contracting them. The air thus contained in the lungs is sent up the windpipe, or that irregular and knotty tube in the throat, the top of which is called the larynx. This larynx, composed of cartilaginous or gristly substances, expands and contracts at pleasure. In the middle of the larynx is a little hole, called the glottis, not wider than the tenth of an inch, through which the breath and voice are conveyed. Those persons, therefore, who have a large glottis, have consequently a tull deep-toned voice; those who have a small glottis, a shrill and sharp one. Thus the sound from the pipes of an organ depends upon the diameter of the pipes. This glottis is. provided with a lid, called the epiglottis, which covers it when we swallow any thing: and if by accident any part of our food or drink gets into the windpipe by this passage, it occasions coughing, and a considerable degree of pam until the offending matter is thrown out.
The acuteness or gravity of tone in the human voice depends upon the aperture of the glottis; and its strength or weakness upon the strength or weakness of the lungs, and partly too, perhaps, upon the