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the alien imposts upon British July of this year, the colonial shipping. The restrictions which harbours were directed, by an clogged the partial concession of order in council, to be shut against the trade made by this country American vessels after the 1st of to America, in 1822, had been December ensuing. The British professedly made the founda- government would have been justion of the act of Congress of tified in excluding them immedi1823; but by the act of 1825 ately, and without any more spethese restrictions were done away; cific notice than was given by and, if the United States were the law itself; especially as it really desirous of establishing in had not come into operation till commerce that freedom and reci. the expiry of five months after procity, of which, in their diplo- its enactment, and had already matic documents, they professed been the subject of consideration to be the most liberal adherents, both to the government and to nothing remained to justify the the legislature of the United continuance of limitations which States. From the 5th of January, even originally were founded on 1826, when the operation of the unwarrantable pretensions. The act commenced, American vessels United States, however, did not ought, in strictness, to have been think proper to accept of the more excluded; but as, in point of liberal offer which was now made fact, they had still been admitted, to them, although to retain the it was thought due, perhaps, to alien duties imposed in 1823, and the courtesy to be expected from to claim the admission of her pro- one friendly nation towards anduce on the same terms with that other, to give the United States a of the mother-country, was in fact new warning, a prorogáted period, to demand every thing of Great an additional opportunity of beBritain and to give nothing in coming just and reasonable. The return. They refused to abate any American government now felt thing of what was required by that the difficulties in which they had act of congress, an obstinacy ob- involved themselves; their trade viously most' unreasonable and with the colonies was at an end, unjust, and which could have no and yet they were unable to disother result than a prohibition of cover any feasible pretence for the intercourse which they refused having refused to retain it upon to accept on the same terms with conditions actually much more fair the rest of the world, and on which and beneficial than the terms upon alone it could fairly be asked. which they had hitherto enjoyed it. So far was congress from being They resolved to submit the whole inclined to repeal or relax the matter to congress in its ensuing restrictions imposed by its act session, that body having already, of 1823, that, during the present during the present year, in full session, when that assembly had knowledge of the act of 1825, full knowledge of the act of refused every proposal to modify parliament of 1825, a motion or abolish the limitations of their for the repeal of the discriminating act of 1823; and the American duties was rejected after debate. secretary of state, and their minisThe consequence was, that, in ter at London, in the communica


tions which they were now com+ American ministers might now be pelled to make to the British convinced of the absurdity and government, complained at great extravagance of their demands, length, and most querulously, that and be willing to recede froin the latter should have regulated them, but they could not recede : the trade by an act of parliament, these demands bad been made by instead of renewing those nego- congress, and fixed by the law: tiațions for arranging it by treaty it was congress that had to recede ; which had been begun in 1824. and, so far from showing any dis+ This was a strange complaint in position to do so, it had, in this the mouth of a government, which very year, refused to listen to a more than three years before had proposal for repealing those disactually regulated this very trade criminating duties which its miby an act of congress which ren- nisters said, in the instructions to dered it impossible for them to their envoy at London, they, for negociate; an act, moreover, their parts, were willing to see explicit compliance with every one abolished on both sides.* In the of whose requisitions, their envoy calm and reasonable, but decided had insisted as a preliminary to language of Mr. Canning to the negotiation, while this demanded American envoy, “It is not made compliance was both impudent matter of complaint, by the British and absurd, and an absolute bar government, that the United States in the way of any treaty about the have declined conditions, which matter. It was the United States other nations have thought worthy themselves who had shut the door of their acceptance. It is on the against treaty; they had done, other hand, not the fault of the and, after being made fully aware British government, if the United of its consequences, they per- States have suffered the time to severed in, an act which had ren- pass by, at which it might have dered negotiation nugatory; an been an object of greater importact by which her executive was ance to this country to induce the bound, and its hands tied up. United States to come into their Their public functionaries were proposals. The United States not at liberty to exercise their exercised, upon this point, own discretion; the law had pre- judgment, and they can, on their scribed a preliminary requisite as part, have no reason to complain a sine qua non in any arrangement; that Great Britain, after allowing that requisite was one to which ample time for maturing that neither Great Britain, nor any other judgment, is contented to abide independent nation, could listen the result of their decision. But for a moment, and which no coun- the British government further try but the United States had ever owes to the spirit of frankness had the coolness to proposes and which it wishes to cultivate in all it would have been a mockery, un- its relations with the United worthy of the dignity of the British States, to declare, that, after havgovernment, to treat with the ex- ing been compelled to apply to ecutive power of America upon a tittata basis which the supreme authority

** Mr. Clay's instructions to Mr. Galof the latter disavowed. The latin, 19th June, 1826.

a free

any country the interdict, pre- endeavouring to seduce countries scribed by the act of 1825, the from the nations to which they British government cannot hold belonged, so that the republican itself bound to remove the inter-, government was thus under the dict, as a matter of course, when- painful necessity of allowing the ever it may happen to suit the lamentable practice" of

privateer convenience of the foreign govern- ing against the ships of a power ment to reconsider the measures with which it was at open war! by which the application of that The executive issued, at the same interdict was occasioned."

time, a manifesto, intended as a

proclamation of war, but which In South America, the progress did not set forth any ground of of events was far from being quarrel, was full of declamation, favourable to the consolidation abuse, and bravado, and incited and tranquillity of the new govern- the Brazilians to rebellion, by ments.

The imprudent contest calling upon them to follow the into which Buenos Ayres had example of Buenos Ayres. In entered against Brazil, for the this document, the emperor was possession of the Banda Oriental, charged with having usurped a assumed a more distinct character principal part of the territory of in appearance, without, however, the republic in the most worthleading to any important result, less and infamous manner recorded while it injured commerce, and in history," with having laid upon laid burthens upon the national its citizens a tyranny, cruel in resources which they were little itself, and exercised by vile and able to bear. On the last day of contemptible instruments; with 1825, admiral Lobo, who com- having united, in order to invade manded the Brazilian squadron it, whatever elements he could in the Plata, declared Buenos tear from his unhappy vassals, rito Ayres itself, as well as all the ports draw vengeance, desolation, and and coasts of the republic occu- death, upon its territory.". The pied by its troops, to be in a state republican hatred of royalty, and of blockade; and he prepared of European royalty, flamed forth with his fleet to enforce it against in the concluding invocation 4 the capital, allowing foreign ves- “ Brave men, who have given in sels fourteen days in which to dependence to your country, take load and take their departure. down your swords: A king, born on This step was immediately fol- the other side of the seas, insults our lowed, on the 2nd of January, by repose, and threatens the honour a decree of the executive govern-, of our children. To arms ! felment of Buenos Ayres, for issuing low-citizens, to arms !". In the letters of marque and reprisal fury of their indignation, the against the emperor of Brazil --a patriots of the Plata seemed to decree in which his majesty was forget that, to whichever party in accused of having rejected all this unfortunate contest, Monte means of hostility recognized as Video and its territory ought to legitimate by the rights of war, in be adjudged upon a historical de

Mr. Canning to Mr. Gallatin, 11th duction, yet Don Pedro had been September, 1826

the party attacked, when he was

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in full possession of the territory; found more than sufficient occuus that the Monte-Videans had pation in alone watching Buenoga possessed, and had exercised the Ayres. In the month of January, a same right with themselves, to rise nine foreign vessels, in spite of the in revolt against the authority of blockading squadrón, entered theb Spain, and, in the course of the harbour, e some of them passings contest, had submitted to Brazil, to withinogun-shot of the Brazilian whom they had since been subject; fleet, and under the protection of that if Buenos Ayres claimed the a greatly inferior force. It cered Banda Oriental, because it had once tainly would have been difficult formed part of the vice-royalty of to point out a more unequivocal La Plata, the same principle would example of an imaginary blockjustify a war against Paraguay, ade; and the American functionand those provinces of Upper ary protested against it as being, Peru which had been just formed in its general character, as well as into the new republic of Bolivia - in its practical operation, stamped for all of these provinces had once with inefficiency; supported by a belonged to the vice-royalty; that, naval power wholly incompetent ât all events, there was no stronger to enforce it, and therefore illegal; reason for going to war in 1825 than prostrating

neutral rights, in any preceding year, and that therefore wholly inadmissible on " it was most imprudent to engage the part of the government of the in such a contest without due pre- United States." The paration, and without even the however, was disregarde Protest,

, means of securing the command of Brazilian vessels of war, cruising the river! aprirent sldiqm9ao about the mouth of the bay. ab. The principal mischief of the although they could not shut up blockade was,to the interruption its harbours, produced a total which it gave to trade, and even suspension of business in the that was only partial, só inefficient capital, while all descriptions of was the small foree of the Bra- provisions, and of foreign imports zilian admiral. The length to which rose one half in price. The stag he had carried the right of block nation of trade at once cut off the ade, compared with the paltry ordinary sources of the public means which he possessed to en- revenue, and disabled the people force it, drew from the Ameri- from meeting the burthen of excan consul a strong remonstrance traordinary imposts.ast bras bsol against such a violation of mone The republican fleet was much of the fundamental rules of the weaker than even that of Brazilol law of blockade, as professed and it consisted of two brigs of war practised by the government of and eleven gun boats, and the the United States.” Admiral Lobo's unimportant actions which took declaration of blockade embraced place between these flotillas were an extent of maritime coast of merely skirmishes, by which noab more than twenty degrees a of thing was effected on either side. 6 latitude; and the maritime force The republican i squadron was employed to enforce it amounted under the command of commodore to a corvette, a couple of armed Brown, who hoisted his flag on brigs, and some gün-boats, which board one of the brigs on the 14th VOL. LXVIII.


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of January, with the design of entertained no doubt but that
attacking the enemy, clearing the they would enjoy the view of a
river, and even shutting up admi- naval battle, when the Brazilian
ral Lobo, with his superior force, admiral agaju put about and with-
in the harbour of Monte Video. drew. On the 9th of February,
On the 15th, the squadron got commodore Brown again left his
under weigh for the island of anchorage to attack them, and,
Martin Garcia, situated where the on his approach, they retired up
Uruguay joins the Plata, which the the river. He followed them to
Brazilians had taken possession of, within about three leagues of cor,
and had fortified with a battery of lonja, on the left bank of the
fourteen guns, and a garrison of Plata, and, having come up with
two hundred men; but, before they them, fired a broadside, which was
had proceeded far, the Brazilian immediately returned by Lobo,
squadron, consisting of three cor-who, with another corvette, lay en
vettes, three schooners, three gun- each side of Brown, and continued
boats, and a cutter, came in sight. the engagement for about an hour.
Notwithstanding the enemy's su- During all this time, Brown suf-
periority in point of force, admiral fețed severely, his own brigs keep-
Brown bore down upon him as ing out of the way a considerable
soon as he got in sight of the city. distance to leeward. Finding this,
The beach was lined with specta- he set sail and came in sight of
tors, and many volunteers put off Buenos Ayres, where he was again
in boats to join the patriot squad, obliged to come to action, and
ron. An action seemed inevitable. sustained a running fight for
The two patriot brigs, together hours. The Brazilian squadron
with a gun-boat, were closing with then staod down the river to refit,
two of the Brazilians, while the and the Buenos Ayres squadron,
remaining gun-boats were closing having saved the gun-boats, re-
with the Brazilian admiral's ship, turned into the outer roads for the
the rest of the Brazilian force same purpose. In other engager
being near at hand,

At the mo

ments of the same indecisive ment when they had got within character which took place during half-gun shot, and the commence- the summer, the republican comment of the action was looked for, mander had reason to complain of admiral Lobo tacked, and stood the same backwardness in his off, the remainder of his squadron consorts, which, on this occasion, following him in his retreat. The had left him almost unsupported patriot squadron chased them for to sustain the enemy's fire. On a short distance, and then, return-, the 19th of October he got under ing, took a new position. The weigh, having given orders to the Brazilians continued their course commanders of the other vessels down the river for some time, but to follow him for the purpose of having united their force, they passing the Brazilian squadron ; again returned, having formed but, after they had passed the bar themselves in two divisions. In of the harbour in safety, and had an hour, the two squadrons were every probability of accomplishing again within gun-shot of each their design, the other vessels of other, and the multitude on shore, the fleet left the admiral to pro

or three


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