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The river is navigable for ships of 100 tons burthen, and much frequented by vessels from the neighbouring ports. By confining the stream, the mud is carried off, and vessels of 400 tons may now enter the river to be careened. There are several yards for building ships and vessels. Timber is abundant, and of excellent quality. The ships destined for the Philippine Islands and China usually touch at Sourabaya, where every refreshment, except good vegetables, is to be procured in abundance.
TRADE. The country about Sourabaya is the greatest coffee plantation in Java, and it is the granary for rice to all the other Dutch settlements.
MADURA.-This island, which extends about 20 leagues due E., is separated from Java by a narrow channel, called the Strait of Madura, formed by Point Panka, and the S. S. W. end of Madura; but it is only navigated by vessels of small burthen. Its N. W. point is in latitude 6° 53′ S., longitude 112° 45′ E. On the S. E. side of the island is the principal town, called Samanap, where refreshments of various kinds are to be procured.
TRADE. The island abounds in rice, and excellent timber for shipbuilding. A great quantity of rattans is also produced, which are bought up at Sourabaya, as well as buffalo and sheep skins. Salt is manufactured from sea-water in great abundance, and is the staple article, but it is monopolized by Government. Several ships are employed in carrying this article to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and most of the Dutch settlements.
PASSOURWANG is situated on the banks of a river navigable for several leagues up the country, at the bottom of a bay on Java. Here is a neat and well-constructed fort, about a mile from which there is a fine wooden bridge across the river; the boat yards are near its mouth. The houses are neatly built, and the country is well cultivated. The chief produce is rice, of which large quantities are exported. The coast hereabouts is very shoal, so that large ships are obliged to anchor three or four miles from the land, in latitude 7° 36' S., the entrance of the river bearing S. W. The banks of the river are mud, and very shallow, having many offensive dead animals about them, which generally occasion an intolerable smell.
PANAROUKAN.-This town is situated upon a river, which empties itself by several mouths into the sea, about 20 miles to the W. of Cape Sandana, the N. E. extreme of Java, in latitude about 70° 49' S. The fort stands about three-quarters of a mile from the sea.
PROVISIONS are cheap, and the place abounds with fish and fruits.
BALEMBOUANG is the only place on the E. coast of Java where refreshments can be procured. This was formerly a place of considerable
trade; but it has gone to decay. Numbers of Malays and Chinese reside in the village. It is considered very unhealthy, and is the place where the convicts from Batavia are sent to work in the pepper and coffee plantations, of which there are several, likewise a small indigo manufactory.
The S. coast of Java does not contain any places of trade, and being seldom visited, is but little known. There are several bays, but the greater part of the coast is inaccessible, from the heavy surf constantly beating upon it.
To the E. of Java is a range of islands; between them are channels or straits, occasionally frequented in time of war by the East India Company's ships bound to China, and which obtain refreshments at several places on the islands. The principal straits are Bally, Lombock, and Alass.
BALLY STRAIT is in latitude 8° 39' S., and longitude 114° 37′ E., between the island of the same name and the E. end of Java, and is 5 or 6 leagues wide. Nearly in the middle of the strait, on the Coast of Java, is Balembouang Bay, already described. Ships passing through this strait, should endeavour to keep in mid channel, with boats out ready to tow, as the tides run very rapid, with eddies near the points in the narrow part. On this account Bally Strait is now little frequented, the preference being given to those to the E.
LOMBOCK STRAIT is formed by the Island of Bally to the W., and that of Lombock to the E.; the S. entrance is in latitude 8° 45' S., and longitude 115° 43′ E., and is known by a large island, called Banditti Island, to the W. of which there is no passage. Ships under the necessity of passing through this strait, seldom find anchorage, and the tides are very rapid, with strong eddies, which are a great inconvenience. There is a place called Carang Assem, on the Island of Bally, where ships in want of provisions and refreshments may obtain a few supplies. There is also a small town on Lombock, nearly opposite.
ALASS STRAIT, called by the natives Gilleesee, is about 44 miles to the E. of that of Lombock, and formed by that island to the W., and Sumbawa to the E. The strait extends about 16 leagues N. N. E. and S. W., and is about six miles wide in the narrowest part. The S. entrance is in latitude about S° 45′ S., and longitude 116° 38' E.
This strait is considered the best and safest to the E. of Java, having anchorage at the several towns and villages, where cattle and refreshments of all kinds may be procured in abundance, and from a people with whom you safely trade, whose character is very opposite to that of the Malay tribes. The principal place visited by ships frequenting this strait is Bally Town, or Loboagee, on the Island of Lombock, which is
about 15 miles within the entrance of the strait, in latitude 8° 42′ S., and longitude 116° 33′ E. It contains a great number of inhabitants, of whose industry every part of the surrounding country exhibits decisive proofs. Large proas come here from Macassar, Amboyna, and other places, for rice, and lie upon a beach within a reef, through which there is a passage for them even at low water.
PROVISIONS.-Cattle may be procured here in any number for Spanish dollars, the value of which is well known, as a considerable trade in the produce of the island is carried on with many of the Dutch settlements. Rice may be had cheap, and in plenty. Fruit, poultry, and vegetables are to be purchased for clasp knives, glass bottles, buttons, cotton handkerchiefs, iron hoops, &c.
SAPY STRAIT is formed between the E. end of the Island Sumbawa and the W. side of Commodo, or Rotti Island. The S. entrance is in latitude 8° 40′ S., and longitude 119° 20′ E.; and from the facility with which wood, water, and refreshments are procured, and from the navigation being safe, it has frequently been preferred to the other straits E. of Java. The principal place is Sapy Bay, on the Sumbawa side.
The village or town of Sapy is built on a creek in the S. W. part of the bay, about three-quarters of a mile from the sea, where beef, fowls, goats, yams, sweet potatoes, and coco-nuts are to be obtained from the natives, in exchange for red and blue cotton handkerchiefs, large clasp knives, empty bottles, iron hoops, and muskets. Of the value of money they seem to have but little knowledge. The water procured here is excellent; but getting it off is attended with some difficulty; the best watering place is to the S. of Rees's Bay, which is not more than 20 yards from high water mark.
On the E. end of Sumbawa, in latitude 8° 10′ S., and longitude about 118° 15' E., is BIMA, where sapan wood grows in abundance, and of a superior kind.
MANGERAY STRAIT is formed by Commodo Island and the W. end of Flores, or Mangeray; but it is intricate, being full of rocks and small islands little known, and ought therefore to be avoided. The N. part of this strait is in latitude 8° 20′ S., and longitude 119° 39′ E.
FLORES STRAIT is bounded on the W. side by the E. part of Mangeray Island, and on the E. side by the Islands of Solor and Adenara, or Sabraon; it extends nearly N. N. E. and S. W. There is a burning mountain on Flores of a considerable height. Ende, the principal port, is near the centre of the S. side of the island, has an uncommonly fine harbour, and is the only safe port on the S. side of any of these islands. Its exports were considerable.
The principal place frequented by English ships passing through these straits, is Larantouca village, on the E. part of Flores, where refreshments for two or three ships may be procured, such as goats, hogs, fowls, fruits of various kinds, a few buffaloes, and some turtle; and good fresh water may be procured from wells. In return for these articles, the natives will receive gunpowder in small quantities, musket balls, glass bottles, wine-glasses, white linen cloth, and all sorts of coarse cutlery. They collect here small quantities of wax, bezoar, and ambergris, which is sent in small proas to Timor and other places, and purchased by the Chinese traders. These islands also produce sandal-wood in considerable quantities. The Island of Sumba, called Sandal-wood Island, is independent, and the natives trade in wax and birds'-nests; but they are savage and treacherous.
The inhabitants of Larantouca generally hoist a Portuguese flag, having formerly had people of that nation amongst them; and many of them at present profess Christianity.
There are other straits to the E., formed by the numerous islands which are scattered about, but which are seldom visited by Europeans; but the proas and other vessels trading from Celebes and other ports to Timor, pass through them.
TIMOR.-This island extends about 80 leagues, in a direction E. N. E. and W. S. W. Its E. end is in latitude 8° 26' S., and longitude 127° 7' E. It is divided between the Dutch and Portuguese; the chief place of the former being Coupang, on the S. W. end; and that of the Portuguese Dhelly, on its N. side. These two ports alone deserve the name
As the island of Timor is now separated from the Moluccas, to which it belonged till 1819, and is dependent on the Government of Java, the restriction on its free trade is no longer in force.
COUPANG, in latitude about 10° 9′ S., longitude 123° 36′ E., is situated at the bottom of a deep bay, which is an excellent road for shipping. The Dutch have a fort here, called Concordia, close to the water side, where all the Europeans reside; without is the Chinese village. To the E. of the fort is a small fresh water river, into which a long boat can go at high water. Excellent anchorage is found in the E. monsoon, in 10 to 12 fathoms water, clear muddy bottom, distance 1 mile to of a mile from the shore; the flagstaff bearing from S. to S. W. The Governor of Coupang has authority over Rotti, Savu, Solor, and some other islands in these seas.
DHELLY.-This harbour lies to the S. of an island called Cambi, and may be easily known by bringing the peak on that island to bear N.;
you are then off the entrance of the coral reefs which secure the harbour. You are obliged to take a pilot, who always comes off on a signal being made, and carries you in to anchor, with the flagstaff bearing S. 59° E. The town is large and well-inhabited, and a large trade is carried on with Macao by the Portuguese and Chinese, of whom numbers are resident here. Laphoa is another Portuguese town.
TRADE.-The power of both the Portuguese and Dutch Governments is almost nominal in Timor, though they claim the entire sovereignty. Two of the rivers, most productive of gold, are within the Dutch line of possessions. Some of the lumps of gold found in Timor weigh full 2 ounces. Copper is said to abound in the centre of the N. W. side of the island, the Chief of which acknowledges the authority of Coupang. The specimens are lumps of native copper imbedded in hard white shiny stone. The trade of Timor is considerable, especially at Dhelly, which is under stricter regulations, to prevent exports from the small ports, than Coupang. The imports are coarse blue and white cloth, large pattern chintzes, a few fine; and handkerchiefs with much red in them. China silks, coarse and of gaudy patterns; China ware, coarse and green; payongs, muskets, gunpowder, iron, coarse British cutlery, Macassar parangs, lead, &c. The exports are gold-dust and birds'nests, but principally wax, sandal-wood brought from the S. coast, earth oil, and cattle; the last chiefly to the Isle of France and Amboyna. The Timor sandal-wood is not so prized in the China market as that from Malabar. It is not easy to calculate the value of the entire trade of the island; but the fair annual commerce of Coupang alone (supposed about one fourth) exceeded, for the last five years, 1,200,000 Spanish dollars, according to the farmers' books. (Malay Miscel. Vol. I.)
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS are plentiful and cheap, both in the Portuguese and Dutch districts. The sea abounds with fish of various. kinds, and many curious and valuable shells are met with.
COINS.-In the Dutch ports the money is the same as at Batavia. At Dhelly, Spanish dollars and Portugal coins are current.
WEIGHTS.-In both districts goods are bought and sold by the Chinese pecul.
The small Islands of SEBRAO, PANTAR, or ALAO; OMBAY, and WETTER, are inhabited by the same class of people as the mountaineers of Solor (who differ from those on the coast); nor is it safe for a boat to land on any of them, unless well armed, as they are all cannibals. They occasionally barter wax with proas that frequent their ports, and even supply the whalers with stock; but the utmost caution is requisite in trading with them, as they are always on the watch to surprise the unwary.