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fuence than was iconsistent with torrents from their own bosoms the privileges of an independent with which the defenders of Peru state. Some of his first proceed, had watered its plai

plains." ings, though founded in strict and The Peruvian congress was constern justice, manifested no dis- voked in the beginning of April, position to show inuch deference, but, only a small number of dein the exercise of the powers with puties assembled in the capital, which he had been intrusted, to and even of these the greater the wishes of the Peruvian au- number, instead of proceeding to thorities.

General Bernidoaga, the business for which they had (who had been commandant of been elected, questioned their own Callao at the time when the powers, refused to act as legisla, black troops delivered it up to tors, and, at a time when an the Spaniards, and, if not the energetic and efficient controlling instigator of the treason, had power was the greatest want of been certainly cognizant of the Peru, gravely insisted on the ne, plot without taking any steps to cessity of an appeal to the nation. prevent its execution), had been They had been legally elected; made prisoner during the siege, the regulations for swearing the and, during his captivity, had de- members, and conducting the nounced a respectable inhabitant business of the assembly, had been of Lima, named Tiron, as privy sanctioned by congress more than tea traitorous correspondence car two years before, and their execuried on with the royalist army. tion had been ordered by a decree After a confinement of some of Bolivar in 1825. Yet they remonths both of the prisoners were solved that they should not proceed Now tried, convicted and con to act till the following spring demned. The municipal authori- the country in the mean time, ties of Lima interceded earnestly having no other government than with Bolivar for a remission, or the dictatorship of a foreigner. commutation, of the sentence of The reasons assigned for this dedeath which had been pronounced: lay were singular. It was neces

The times," said they, “ of ter- sary, they said, to give time for exrov, and peril, are gone; you have citing in the people an affection dispelled dangers, and difficulties, towards their representatives which and apprehensions; and, haying would induce them to provide covered yourself with laurels, and funds to re-imburse the members Peru, with peace and happiness, for the inconvenience they might you may without impropriety; sustain in the discharge of their listen to our intercessions for the duty as if this affection could guilty." But;, Bolivar was in be excited by the said representaflexible; he bade them remember tives doing nothing. It was nethat to pardon traitors would im- cessary, they said, to consult the pair the moral -sentiments of the nation, whether the present conrepublic; that the laws, yet in stitution should be maintained, or their infancy, would be enfeebled reformed; and, if the latter, wheby the exercise of clemency; and ther the reform should be radical that a few drops of parricidal blood or partial; whether the representawould not make amends " for the tives were to act upon their own

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possesses, in an eminent degree,
and therefore Sreat res have al military in their

convictions, and be guided by their Colombia to discover that in own opinions, or were to follow the midst of national difficulties," special instructions which might be the purity, the constancy, the ina given by their constituents; and, corruptibility, and the intelligence, finally, to consult the public voice of a rude and unlettered mob were aš to the most proper person to

the best resources of a state, and be elected president. A deputa- that the opinions of the wise were of tion of fifty two-members present- comparatively little value. To say ed these resolutions to Bolivar, ex- nothing of history, the existing pressing their opinion that, until condition of every new-born state these points 'were arranged, any between Cape Horn and the Normeeting of the legislature would thern confines of Mexico, 'gave be premature.' Bolivar concurred the lie to this mischievous nonsense. entirely in their views, which left · Thus the authority of Bolivar him no apprehensions of a rival was the only government that power, especially during his ap- Peru was as yet to enjoy; but he proaching absence in Colombia ; was far from being so popular or, if he had no ambitious project among the people, as among the in his head, it gave no 'favourable hair-brained deputies' who had opinion of his political sagacity to acted so unintelligibly, and obsefind him, in his answer to these quiously. Grave doubts were reluctant legislators, giving vent entertained of the purity of his to such absurdities as the follow views in regard to Peru, and ret ing: “I approve of your desire ports were spread of his intention to recur, in the midst of your to render her dependent upon difficulties, to the source whence Colombia. People could not be your power is derived." Nothing lieve that a disinterested regard is so conformable with popular for the welfare of a foreign state doctrines as a reference to the should detain him at Lima, 'when mass of the nation, on those capi rebellion was tearing Colombia in tal points which form the bases of pieces, they could discover nostates, namely, fundamental laws, thing but sinister motives for and the supreme magistracy. All keeping his army in Peru, where individuals are liable to error and it was no longer needed, and was seduction, not so the nation, which only a source of intolerable ex

pense; least of all were they disc the knowledge of its welfare and posed to be satisfied

posed to be satisfied with his mode the measure of its independence. of employing that army, marching From this cause its judgment is the Peruvian troops to the Isthpure, its will is strong, and con- mus,' and occupying every village sequently, no one can corrupt, in the country with his Colomfar less, intimidate it. I hold 'ir- bians. The discontent was genet refragable proofs of the constancy ral; some slight' insurrectionary of the nation in g

,

the i]

Peruvian ways preferred its opinions to easily repressed; but a more exthose of the wise. "Let, then, the tended and dangerous conspiracy Electoral colleges be" consulted.” was discovered 1 and prevented! It was left to the president of Bolivar, unexpectedly, issued

proclamation ordering the celé- conduct, not that the state of bration of the great festival of the Colombia imperatively demanded declaration of Peruvian Indepen- his presence in the revolted prodence to be deferred from the vinces, confirmed the suspicion. 25th of July, to the 6th of Ever and anon he was on the August, the anniversary of the point of departing, but generously battle of Jairu. On the evening sacrificed his own wishes to the of the 25th July, he went to the prayers of Peru, which, in the theatre with his usual state, but shape of his own obsequious adleft it early and suddenly; double herents, entreated him to remain, guards were posted at the doors, and to retain for their sakes, a and a number of officers appre- power which he was sighing to hended as they went out. Next lay down. On the 15th of August, day it was alleged that a conspi- the assembled negroes of Lima, racy had been discovered, the humbly petitioned him to remain, objeet of which was, to seize Boli- to save the republic from anarchy var in his box, and either put him and slavery; but their prayers to death, or to imprison him. were more successfully backed by Numerots arrests continued to be the good reasons brought forth made during the whole of that by a deputation of ladies, who day; an additional regiment of actually proceeded to the palace, cavalry, and a battalion of artil- and sticceeded in convincing the lery were brought into the city; dictator of the impropriety of and Bolivar, leaving his country saving Colombia at the expense seat in the neighbourhood, took of quitting Peru." Bolivar was up his residence in the palace mollified and overcome; he declosely surrounded by centinels. clared himself unable to resist The principal parties arrested “the assembled beauty" of Lima'; were military officers of high he consented to remain ; set rank, and extensive influence, “the assembled beauty" a-dancamong whom were generals Ni- ing with his aide-de-camps, and cochea, Alvarado, and Correa. the city bells a-ringing. This The last of these attempted to farce was followed next day by a commit suicide; some of the more serious performance, to more turbulent of the inferior which it had only been introducmilitary were shot; and Bolivar's tory. The Electoral college of own admiral, Guise, was impri- the department of Lima assembled, soned as implicated in the con- and, by an unanimous vote, elected spiracy.

Bolivar president for life. He It was difficult to account for accepted the boon, recommended the stay of Bolivar at Lima, now to them the form of constitution that the spirit of disaffection in which he had framed for Bolivia, Colombia had spread even to discovered that his absence threatGuayaquil, except on the suppo-ened Peru neither with anarchy sition that he wished to perpetu- hor despotism, and set out immeate his power over Peru, and diately for Colombia, leaving the secure to himself a formal right government in the hands of the of continually interfering in and vice-president Santa Cruz. controlling its affairs. His whole The failure of the Peruvian go

vernment to negociate a new Bolivar, very profoundly in the loan in London in the beginning speech with which he presented of the year, disabled them from it, you will avoid the difficulties paying the interest of their debt; which arise, where there are only and the public creditors were two without a third body to form added to the multitude who had a majority. The Chamber of Trialready found reason to repent bunes was to have the exclusive of the trust which they had re- right of proposing all laws reposed in the energy and honesty garding war, peace, and finance; of the new states. The execu- the second chamber, the Senate, tive, to raise revenue, had no was to watch over the administraother resource than taxation ; the tion of justice and public worship, country was neither in a condi- choose the prefects and judges, tion, nor in a temper, to submit to and propose the members of the direct imposts; and therefore ad- high ecclesiastical courts. The ditional burthens were laid upon third and highest chamber, the commerce, The duties levied on Chamber of Censors, was to “eximports in the harbours of Peru ercise a moral and political auwere already enormous; a dimi- thority, having some resemblance nution of them had long been to that of the Areopagus of faithfully promised; the termina- Athens, and the Censors of Rome; tion of the war, bringing with it, the censors were to be, as it were, as it ought naturally to have done, the fiscals of the nation against a large reduction of expenditure, the government, to watch over the seemed to justify the hope that it religious observance of the constiwould now be effected. But, by tution and public treaties.” The a decree of the government, issued elective franchise, though to be in the beginning of June, all fo- exercised indirectly, was to be reign goods imported, whether in distributed according to the most fareigo or national vessels, were approved modes of liberality : subjected generally to an ad ua-"nothing is required but capalorem duty of 30 per cent, and city; even property is not necessome of them, contained in a long sary to the exercise of the august list, to a similar duty of no less functions of sovereignty; the than 80 per cent, on the ground elector requires only to be able that their importation was inju- to sign his name to bis vote, and rious to the agriculture and indus- read the laws, and to be honestly try of the state.

employed." A president was put Before his departure, Bolivar at the head of all these bodies ; gave a constitution to La Paz, he was to hold his office for life ; Santa Cruz, Potosi, and the other and, amid the absurdities of this provinces of Upper Peru, which mass of crude conceptions, none had been formed into an inde more ridiculous than the pendent confederation under his anxiety, which Bolivar manifested own auspices, and, in gratitude to to deprive this executive magisits creator, had taken the name trate of all power, and the pride of Bolivia Three public bodies with which he boasted to the were fixed by this constitution Bolivians of having so contrived instead of two, because thus, said it, that the president would be

was

able to do nothing. 4* He is ide which was instantly effected. On prived," said he lof all influ- the 10th, a part of the army began ence ; lie appoints neither the to debark on the shorer of Yuste, magistracy, nor the judges, he and a small detachment took the does 'not nominate to ecclesiasti- road to Balcaèuri, for the purpose cal offices. This deprivation of of capturing the fort of the same power has never yet taken place name, which defends the anchorin any well-constituted 'govern- age of the port of San Carlos, while ment; it puts obstacle after ob-. the fleet cast anchor at Balcas, that stacle in the way of the authority the remainder of the army might of the chief, who will always find debark at Lechagna. The disemthe whole people under the influ- barkation was successfully effected ence of those who fill the most under the fire of the enemy's batimportant situations, and exercise teries and six gun-boats. On the most - important functions. the 12th, the soldiers joined the Such were the things that were squadron, and the best troops adopted as constitutions in the having been selected to make New World. - The Bolivians, out the general attack, on the 13th of respect to their founder and the whole army marched ito enlegislator,

y elected one of his counter the enemy, without havofficers, general Sucre, to the ing taken any refreshment. On presidency. There can be lit- the 14th, fourteen barges belonging tle doubt that, in all this, Boli- to the squadron attacked the gunvar had an eye to the establish- boats of the enemy, and captured ment of that i presidency for life three of them; and on the same over Peru ini his own person, day, in the afternoon, an engagewhich he very speedily effected! ment took place, which terminated 11. In the republic of Chili, Spain, in the total overthrow of the royal at the end of the preceding year, general, Quintilla, and the disperwas still in possession of the pro- sion of all the forces under his vince of Chiloe, consisting of an command. To prevent the furarchipelago of which the island ther effusion of blood, articles of of that name is the principal. capitulation, very favourable to the Political disorder, and the military royal party, were agreed to.":1,.* assistance furnished to Bolivar for But this conquest was speedily the liberation of Peru, had hither- ravished from the Chilians by a to disabled the government from more formidable enemy than Spain attempting the subjugation of the -by civil dissention, and the inprovince; but, in the beginning of trigues of an ex-president, which the present year, they, fitted out excited apprehensions that Chili, an expedition, and succeeded in as well as Colombia, Peru, and reducing it. On the 8th of January, Bolivia, were to be governed only the squadron being unable from by, or for, the great liberator. the state of the weather to enter O'Higgins, once supreme director the port of San Carlos, cast anchor of the republic, rhad been expelled in the roads, and immediately a

a from the Chilian government in small party of marines and sol- 1822, and was now living at Lima, diers was ordered to take posses- enjoyingthe confidence and friendsion of the battery of La Corona, ship of Bolivar, by whose assistance

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