« EdellinenJatka »
a health was so much impaired that the re. .mainder of his days was passed in great bodily suffering, which was relieved by death on the 23d of November.
Dr. Spurzheim. Dec. 10.—At Boston, in the United States of America, Dr. Spurzheim, the highly celebrated phrenologist.
He was born on the 31st of December, 1776, at Tongeuits, a village near Treves, on the Moselle. His parents cultivated a farm of the rich Abbey of St. Maximin de Treves, and he received his college education at the university of that city. He was destined for the church, but in 1799, when the French invaded that part of Germany, he went to study medicine at Vienna, where he became acquainted with Dr. Gall, with whom he remained for so many years in close connexion. He entered with great zeal into the consideration of the new doctrine of Phrenology, and, to use his own words, "he was simply a hearer of Dr. Gall till 1804, at which period he associated with him in his labours, and his character of hearer ceased."
Having completed his medical studies, he and Dr. Gall quitted Vienna in 180.'>, to travel together, and to pursue in common their researches into the anatomy and physiology of the whole nervous system. During the period which elapsed between the introduction of Dr. Gall's lectures at Vienna, and the time when he and Dr. Spurzheim quitted that capital, the doctrine had made a rapid progress, not only in general diffusion, but in solid and important additions, by their joint labours.
From 1804 to 1813 they were constantly together, and their researches were conducted in common. They left Vienna in March, 1805, to procceddirect to Berlin,and from that time until November, 1807, visited the following places, jointly lecturing and pursuing dissections of the brain:— Leipzic, Dresden, Halle, Jena, Weimar, Goettingen, Brauenrschweig,Copenhagen, Keil, Hamburg, Bremen, Munster, Amsterdam, Leyden, Dusseldorf, Frankfort, "Wurtzbourg, Maubourg, Stuttgard, Carlsruhe, Tustall, Friezbourghen, Brisgau, Doneschingue, Heidelberg, Manheim, Munich, Augsbourg,Ulm, Zurich, Berne, and Basle.
From this period until 1810 he was en
faged with Dr. Gall in compiling and ringing out in Paris their great work, enFFf
titled "Anatomie et Physiologie du Systeme Nerveux en general, et du Cerveau en particulieur."
After its completion their joint labours ceased, when Dr. Spurzheim published his "Observations sur Phrenologie,"his works on education, and some other small works in French. In 1813 he paid another visit to Vienna, where he took his degree of M. D. In 1814 he arrived in England. During his stay there he published two editions of his Physiognomical System, in 8vo.; his Outlines, 12mo.; and his octavo work on Insanity. He delivered lectures in London, Bath, Bristol, Dublin, Cork, Liverpool, and Edinburgh.
Dr. Spurzheim continued his labours in Paris until 1825, contributing "largely to the advancement of Phrenology, by enriching it with important discoveries; by introducing into it philosophic arrangement, and pointing out its application to many interesting purposes connected with the human mind." In 1825, at the solicitation of a great number of his friends, he again visited London, and gave a course of lectures at the Crown and Anchor, to a numerous class; another short course at Willis's rooms; and several courses of dissection of the brain at St. Thomas's and St. Bartholomew's hospitals, and some in the medical schools. During his residence there he published his "Phrenology, or the Doctrine of the Mind, and of its Relations between its Manifestations and the Body," with fifteen engravings; also "A view of the Philosophical Principles of Phrenology." Having made a considerable impression, he was again invited to visit England, when, after lecturing in London, he went to Bath, Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Derby, and Cambridge university; and during this and the following years he sojourned at most of the principal places in England, Ireland,and Scotland,lecturing to very large classes. During this latter period he published, " The Anatomy of the Brain, with a general view of the Nervous System," with eleven plates; "Phrenology in Connexion with the Study of Physiognomy," with thirty-four plates; "A sketch of the Natural Laws of Man;" "Outlines of the Science;" and several pamphlets, letters, and answers to the objections made to the science.
Some of the views taken in these works by Dr. Spurzheim, differ from those advanced in the writings of Gall; and to the list of organs, given by the latter, Dr. S. has added nine others. To these he has
given the names of Inhabitivenesa, Conscientiousness, Hope, Marvellousness, Size, Weight or Resistance, Order, Eventuality, and Time. In the year 1832, Dr. Spurzheim departed for the American continent, and having arrived in Boston, commenced a series of lectures. He had finished his course, with the exception of the concluding lecture, when he was prevented from continuing by severe indisposition, of which there had previously been some striking indications. At length his physical powers, strong as they appeared to be, yielded to the disease, which, perhaps, operated also with augmented strength upon a constitution of great susceptibility, and in a climate to which it was not habituated.
Robert C. Sands. In New-York, Dec. 17, Robert C. Sands, in the 34th year of his age. He was in the enjoyment of good health, until four hours previous to his death, which was caused by an apoplexy.
Mr. Sands was the son of Comfort Sands, then the only survivor of the Convention of 1777, in the state of NewYork, for the formation of the state constitution. The deceased was educated at Columbia College, and graduated in 1815. At this institution—the Alma Mater of many fine scholars—Sands was pre-emient. In his very boyhood, there was a classical ease, grace, and correctness in his writings, that made them fit models for riper years. When only 14 years of age, he published the Academic Recreations, a work extending to three hundred pages. On leaving college, he studied law, and opened his office, but he never loved the practice of his profession, and was constantly found in the grove of the Muses.
In 1817, he was engaged with two or three literary friends in producing a series of essays in the Daily Advertiser, under the title of The Neologist. These essays extended to many numbers, and attracted much attention.
In 1819, in concert with some of the same literary club, he was engaged in writing another series of papers in the Commercial Advertiser, under the signature of "The Amphilogisl." These gave their authors a high rank in the literary world;— they were critical, moral, playful and instructive productions, but most remarkable for their purity of taste. Some of the translations from the Greek and Roman authors,
were specimens of the highest order, erineing a thorough knowledge of the original, and a most felicitous command of language.
In 1822, Mr. Sands was one of the editors of the Atlantic Magazine, and afterwards of theNew-York Review—journals that were marked in every page by taste and talent. In 1820, appeared "Yamoyden, by the late J. W. Eastbupi and his friend.' Mr. Sands was this friend. This work was popular, but never received its due meed of praise. It contains the sweet melancholy of Lyttleton, and the harmonious flow of Beattie. These twin-sons of the Muse were among the first who ever strove to do honour to the patriotism and valour of the native children of the American forest.
In 1827, Mr. Sands became an assistant editor of the Commercial, and continued as an assistant until his death; but still, he found ample time to employ his pen in occasional works of a literary character. He was one of the three joint authors of the Talisman, published by E. Bliss. This work was equal to any ever published in the country in point of fine writing, and professional execution; but it Wets discontinued for want of sufficient patronage, Mr. Sands was also a contributor to works issued from the prolific press of the Harpers. The last piece of composition from his pen was an art ide for a forthcoming magazine. The last of his poetical compositions, was printed in the. Commercial, of Nov. 30, entitled, "THE DEAD of 1832." It was a requiem over departed genius, and receives a melancholy beauty by his sudden and unexpected fate.
Mr. Sands was not only a genius of high order, a ripe and deep scholar, but his affections were of the purest kind. His enmities, if he ever had any thing in his breast that would come under that name, were momentary, but his friendships were lasting. He was free from all literary jealousy, as if every particle of his knowledge had come by inspiration, not by labour. He could hear his rivals praised without feeling any rankling at his heart, and assisted his compeers with delicacy when thev were at a loss for words or thoughts. His classical ear detected every instance of false measure in a line of poetry, and he suggested a correction without any attempt to show his superiority. He had the command of the satiric muse, but she always came to him with a smile, for she knew the purity of his soul too well to drop one accent of bitternessin her inspiration.—Com. Adv.
Capt. Joseph Pratt. In Oxford, N. H. Capt. Joseph Pratt. tUapt. Pratt sailed from Salem, Mass., as commander of several privateers, and was engaged in this service through the revolutionary war. The last which he commanded was the Grand Turk. In this famous privateer, he made three cruizes; during the first cruize, he took the Providenee, Capt. Hancock, an English man-of-war brig of 16 six pounders; on this cruize he also captured several rich prizes loaded with fish, sugar, and rum. He entered the English channel, and from thence steered for the West Indies, and after numerous captures, returned to Salem. In the second cruize he went off Halifax, where he captured an eight gun schooner; thence off cape North, where he fell in with five light ships, and after manning two of them, steered his way off New-York. Here he ran alongside a French ship in the hands of the enemy, lying near the light-house, but was obliged to relinquish the prize, owing to the appearance of an English man-of-war in chase after the privateer. In making off, he fell in with a vessel from New-York, which he took, and brought into Salem harbour. The third and last cruize was from Salem to the West India seas; there he was very successful in the capture of rich prizes. It was here that he fell in with the British ship Pompey, of 22 long nines and 70 men, which struck after a short fight, and was brought into Salem. He then fell in with a privateer ship of 16 four-pounders, which he took and carried into Martinique, where she was sold. As soon as the government of the country was established, this gentleman commenced his commercial career, and in memory of his success in the war, named the first large ship launched in Salem, the "Grand Turk." This ship, un•der the command of Capt. Benj. Hodges, opened the commerce with the East Indies, and laid the foundation of intercourse with the commercial nations of the East.
In Boston, Jan. 10,1833, Amos Binney, aged 65.
Colonel Binney was bom at Hull, Massachusetts, in the year 1768, and bfing left an orphan at an early age, he entered upon the active duties of life, without the previous advantage of a single day's tuition, at any school, public or private—all the knowledge he possessed was acquired by his own efforts, while actively engaged in business pursuits.
Prompted by a desire to become acquainted with the natural advantages of our own soil, Mr. Binney in his youth made a pedestrian excursion throughout the whole interior of New-England. With a mind naturally prone to take enlarged and liberal views of men and things—habits extremely systematic and methodical, and a memory remarkably retentive, the information he acquired, on this excursion, proved exceedingly useful, and eventually of much importance in its bearings upon his subsequent pursuits. After his return to Boston, he embarked in trade, and by industry and application soon acquired sufficient property to live with competence and ease. At this time he took a commission in the militia, and soon after became somewhat distinguished as a partizan of the national administration, opposed, of course, to the then dominant party in Massachusetts.
Just before the commencement of the late war, Col. Binney was appointed navy agent for the port of Boston, an office which he retained until the year 1826. His official conduct was made the subject of severe scrutiny, upon charges preferred against him soon after the war terminated, but the investigation resulted in his full acquital. It may well be doubted whether there was another person in the United States, in office or out, during the late war, from whose individual exertions so much advantage and glory resulted to the country, as flowed from the personal efforts of the navy agent at Boston. This may seem a bold assertion, yet it is true. The want of confidence in the Federal government, the embarrassed state of the national finances—the spirit of opposition to the war in New-England generally, and at Boston in particular, are well known facts. It is not so generally known, though equally true, that the navy agent at Boston was repeatedly without funds of the government for several weeks, at times when the sinews of war were urgently wanted to fit the ships of our gallant navy for sea. On more than one occasion Old Iron-Sides herself rtmal have remained in ordinary, had not the means to prepare her for sea, to recruit her crew, and to supply her stores, been furnished upon the personal responibility of the navy agent. His accounts duly settled at the Treasury show very large balances against the government, at the end of each quarter, for several successive terms. This money he was enabled to advance, partly by the mortgage and sale of his own real estate, and partly by the aid of the late Wm. Gray, who loaned him large sums, on his personal responsi
bility, to be appropriated to the use of the navy. That much of the advantage and glory of the war was gained by the Constitution, all will admit. That she was enabled to put to sea, in proper time and in proper condition, was owing to the patriotic efforts of Amos Binney; and it is but an act of justice, that the fact should now be made known to the community, among whom the unpopularity of the national administration, cast a shade over the actions of its agents, however meritorious.
From the commencement to the close of the active duties of life, the course of Mr. Binney, was eminently enterprising. His judgment was acute and penetrating. Whatever his hands found to do, he did it with all his might. He was an early and steady advocate and patron of American manufactures. His attention was particularly directed to the mineral treasures of our country, and he was always ready to test, by practical experiment, any scheme which in theory offered a fair prospect of success. He did not withhold his aid until expectation became certainty, through the instrumentality of others. His physical and mental energies were freely exerted, and his means employed, in numerous plans of public benefit and convenience, in the establishment of manufactories—in the opening of mines and in the occupation and improvement of waste lands, near the city and elsewhere, thus giving employment and dwellings to numerous families and individuals.
It may be said with truth of Mr. Binney, that those who knew him best esteemed him most. Connected, as he was, with the national administration during the last war, and exposed to a virulent prosecution for alleged malversation in office—although the charges against him were clearly disproved, yet, thr-ro seemed to have remained a lurking feeling of dissatisfaction with the result, in the minds of his political antagonists, which time alone could dissipate. But political prejudice, before his departure, yielded to the mild but irresistible influenccof truth. He had become known to the community as an honest, upright, able, and energetic man, Eossesstng an extraordinary aptness for usiness, and a sound discriminating judgment. The confidence reposed in him, by his associates, in the numerous corporations and public institutions of which he was and had been a member, is the best evidence of the estimation in which he was holden.
Jan. 29, 1833, Joim Hall, recently a judge of the Supreme Court, of N. C. in the 0-lth year of his age. Judge Hall was a native of Staunton county, Va., and was born in the year 17b'9. After going through the course of academical preparation usual at that time, he finished his education in William and Mary College in Williamsburg. When Mr. Hall had completed his professional studies, he removed to North Carolina, in the year 1792, and in the 23d year of hisage, he settled in the village of Warrenton, of which he continued a resident to the day of his death. His studious habits, his untiring attention to business, and fidelity to clients, obtained for him an encouraging share of practice, while the modesty and amiable- ness of his private character, secured him friends who esteemed and loved him, and someof whom discharged towards him the last mournful duties of kindness and affection. His merit, in a few years after he commenced the practice of the law, attracted the attention of the legislature, who appointed him a judge oflhe Supreme Court under the old district system, in the year 1801. The fact of his elevation to the bench, after so short a residence in the state, shows strikingly the high estimation in which he was held. Upon the adoption of the present Superior Court system, in the year 1806, he continued to hold his office, and rode the circuit reguiarly until the year 1818. During that year, the present Supreme Court was organized, and he was elected one of the three judges— an imposing evidence of his popularity on the bench below, and a high compliment to his legal qualifications. Judge Hall continued to preside in the Supreme Court until his recent resignation. Few men ever sustained throughout life a more unblemished and unexceptionable character. Few ever possessed purer and more elevated moral feelings and principles. In his official capacity, he was, indeed, an honour to the bench. His judicial opinions always evinced the soundest principles of truth, justice, and morals, and the most thorough, accurate, and profound legal information. He was well qualified for the enlightened, dignified and venerable forum to which he belonged in the latter part of his life, and the part he acted in the highest tribunal in North Carolina was eminently satisfactory to the public and to individuals. During the thirty-one years he presided in the different tribunals of the state, he held with an impartial hand the scales of justice, and decided all causes that came before him, if ever a judge did, without "fear, favour, or affection." The proverbial purity of his life,
the high and holy motives of his conduct, made him deservedly the object of implicit confidence during his long judicial career.
Philemon Hawkins. At his residence, in Warren county, North Carolina, January 28, 1833, Philemon Hawkins, the last of the signers of the Constitution of the State of North Carolina in 1776. He was born on the 3d December, 1752; and, at the early age of sixteen, was sworn in as Deputy Sheriff for the county of Granville, and performed the whole of the duties of that office for his principal. He belonged to the troop of cavalry at the battle of the Allemance, which was fought on the lGth of May, 1771, and for the distinction he merited on that occasion, was presented by the commander-in-chief, governor Tyron, with a beautiful rifle. Before he was of age, he ■was elected a member of the general assembly for the county of Bute. He continued as a member of the legislature, mainly from the county of Granvi lie, with the intermission of two years only, for thirteen years. The last term of his service was at Fayetteville, in the year 1789. He raised the first volunteer company in the cause of American independence, that was raised in the county of Bute, and which consisted of 144 men. In the year 1776, he was elected a colonel of a regiment by the convention at Halifax, and in that command performed many services; nut ultimately left the army, and continued to act as a member of the legislature. He was a member of the convention which ratified the Constitution of the United States, and frequently a member of the executive council. He was a man of strong mental powers, which he retained to the last, and possessed an accuracy of recollection, which enabled him to be the living chronicle of his times.
Banastre Tarlton. Jan. 20,1833.—AtLeintwardine, Shropshire, aged 78, Gen. Sir Banastre Tarlton, Bart., for twenty-two years M. P. for Liverpool.
He was descended from an ancient family, seated for many generations at Aigburth, in Lancashire, and latterly in the town of Liverpool, and was born Aug. 21, 1754, the third son of John Tarlton, Esq., mayor of Liverpool in 1764. He was intended for the profession of the law;
but he became weary of the toil and drudgery attendant on this line of study, and entered the army in 1775, by purchasing a coronetcy in the king's dragoon guards. In 1776 he obtained leave to go to America, and in the month of December, he commanded the advanced guard of the patrole which made General Lee prisoner. During the years 1777 and 1778, he witnessed nearly the whole of the actions in the Jerseys, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, until the return of the army to NewYork, on which occasion he commanded the rear-guard of Sir Henry Clinton's army. Immediately after this service, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of provincial cavalry, and soon rose to the command of the British legion. When Sir H. Clinton carried a considerable part of the army to the southward, for the seige of Charleston, and operations in the Carolinas, he intrusted the command of the cavalry to Lieutenant-Colonel Tarlton. A series of successes attended his movements, until the British army was, as a whole, overpowered by that of the Republicans. At the battle of Eutaw Springs, in 1781, Lieutenant-colonel Tarlton lost a considerable part of his right hand. After his return home, he published "a history of the campaigns of 1780 and 1781, in the southern provinces of North America," 4to., 1787.
In the house of commons he uniformly sided with the opposition; and, in consequence, the tory party endeavoured to prevent his re-election in 1796. Their candidate was his own brother, John Tarlton, Esq., who had sat in the preceding parliament for Seaford; but the tactics of the general were too powerful for him. In 1802 he was again opposed, but triumphed as before.
In 1806 the late Mr. Roscoe was returned in his room; but in 1807 he was again elected, and finally gave place to Mr. Canning in 1812.
From the peace of 1783 to 1788, he was on half-pay as Lieutenant-colonel-commandant of cavalry. In 1790 he attained the rank of colonel, and in 1794 that of major-general. On the 1st of Jan., 1801, he received the rank of lieutenant-general, and shortly afterwards he was sent to the command of the southern district of Ireland, where he remained until the treaty of Amiens. Soon after the renewal of hostilities, he was again despatched to Ireland as second in command; whence he was removed to the Severn district, which he held for six years. He obtained the rank of general Jan. 1,1812.