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L. i. ii. 37
XLIII. The which die men in bale to serve.] Which Harrow now out, and well away.] See these words cause mankind to perish in trouble, steapfan, explained in the Glossary. Presently after, the mori : though now used in a particular sense, to
first edition reads thus, die with hunger. Chaucer uses it in its ancient IVhat dismal day hath lent BUT THIS his cursed sense, as our poet, who is all antique.
To see my lord so deadly damnifyde? Such cruell game my fearmoges difarms.] This Pyrrhocles, o‘Pyrrhocles, what is thee betyde ? is more poetical and elegant, than if written, This is not altered among the errors of the Such cruell scarmoges my game disarms.
press, though many faults of lesser note are :
but in the 2d quarto 'tis thus printed, scarmoges, skirmishes. Ital. fiar amuchia. Gall. escarmouche. from the German, schirmen, veli- What dismal day hath lent this cursed lighttari : or originally, perhaps, from the Greek
And so the folios : It seems that Spenser wrote χάρμη, . xécuno pugna. Sibilå litterâ praepofitâ, et per this, and corrected it his, and that the printer metathefin, SCRAMA, searomuchia, a (kirmich.
gave us both; I would therefore read,
l How many passages might be brought from the poets, to show the analogy between the IV hat dismal day hath lent his cursed light, wars of Mars, and the skirmishes of Cupid ? - To see my lord so deadly damnifyde? Cruell game is Horatian ;
But Pyrochles, what, Pyrochles, is thee betyde ? Heu nimis longo satiate Ludo.
So that we have found a proper place for this
BUT ; and have accounted for the other words, XXXVII. he light did pas.] He made light of: he passed
XLVI. over lightly.
The waves thereof so pow and suggish were,
Engroft with mud, which did them fowle agrisi, In Phaedria's fritt barck over that perlous fhard.] That every weighty thing they did upbeare] It We use ßard in the west of England for a gap seems to me that Spenser had in view the lake made in the hedge: it seems a great abuse of Asphaltus, or Asphaltites, commonly called the word, and very catachrestically expressed to the Dead Sea, when he wrote this description apply this word to a ford.–Again, a phard is of the Idle Lake. I will cite Sandys, who in generally used for a fragment, from the Anglo-s. his history of the Holy-land, has given us the rceapan, to fheare, or cut off. This iland following relation. The river Jordan is at length of Phaedria was far'd off from the land ; a devoured by that cursed lake Asphaltites, so named of kind of fragment or shard by means of the idle the bitumen which it vomiteth. (See Pliny v. 16.) Jake intervening. Eubseam infulam continenti ad- called also the Dead Sea; perhaps in that it nourisheth haerentem, tenui freto reciprocantibus aquis Euripus no living creature; or for his heavy waters hardly ABSCIDIT. Florus ii. 8.
to be moved by the winds. (Justin xxxvi. 6. Corn.
Tacitus Histor. v.) So extreme salt, that whatfoNequicquam deus ABSCIDIT
ever is throwne thereinto not easily Jinketh. Vespatian, Prudens oceano dissociabili Terras
for a trial, caused divers to be cast in bound hand
and foot, who Hoated as if supported by some spirit. But how hard is the metonymy to apply that to [Joseph. de bell
. Judaic. v. 5.) I think the the ford, which is rather applicable to the island parallel may be easily seen. Dante likewise, in the ford? - If the reader dislikes both the Infern. Cant. viji. hence imaged that dead and above offered interpretations, he may suppose suggish lake which he names la morta gora. a letter altered for the sake of a jingling termi- And Talso in this Asphaltic lake places the nation, from the north-country word schald, island of Armida. See Taflo, x. 62. xvi. 71. a shallow or shelves, or flats.
XLVII. And both from rocks and flats itselfe could wisely Holding in hand a goodly arming sword.) This save.
sword Archimago had stolen from P. Arthur, G. Douglas, pag. 148, 48.
fee above, B. fi. C. 3. St. 18. and below, Sen that so many feyes and alkin landis,
B. ü. C. 8. St. 19.
lowed the reading of the 2d quarto and folios, Weake hands, but counsell is most strong in age.] i.e. and it seems a plain alteration of the poet, In old age the hands are weak, but counsel upon second thoughts.-Archimago here applies moft 1trong. ή μέν δύναμις έν νεωτέροις, η δε φρόνησις not only herbs, but fpells to the wounded in souriçous. Ariftot. Polit. L. vi.
knight, according to the ancient practice of LI.
physicians ; a circumstance which poets seldom Or with the hidden fier inlay warmd.] I have fol- fail of mentioning.
Manil. i. 302.
Well yet appeared-] This is the reading of the From the Anglo-S. horiz, fordidus, mucidus. first old quarto : the following editions read, not hoary, from haji, canus.
IVell it appeared — which plainly destroys the 1.
perspicuity of the construction.- A werke of rich
entaile, fo Ch. in the Rom. of the Rose, ver. As Pilot well expert in perilous wave,
162. That to A fredfast farre his course hath bent.] I would rather read, That to the stedfast par- An image of another entaile, i. e. the pole-ítar: the star in the tail of the i. e. carving, sculpture. Ital. intagliare : intaglio. Jeffer bear ; Cynosura : THE stedfast starre-the
V. faithful light to mariners,
Some in round plates withouten moniment.] Spelt Poenis baec certior auctor
as the Ital. monimento : meaning here, image, Non apparentem pelage quaerentibus orbem.
superscription, ornament. yrópioua, gnorisma,
MONUMENTUM. Aratus, ver. 42. vaútnou åştiwr. nautis ufus in
En Cæfar agnoscit suum hac eft. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 41.
Gnorisma nummis inditum.
Prudent. Peristeph. ii. 95. His winged vessel.] 'Tis the very expresion of So learned critics read the passage in PrudenPindar, vads inorlice. Olymp. ix. 36. for the tius, not nomisma : see Spanh. de Usu & Præst. fails are her wings. Velorum pandimas alas, Numism. pag. 5. Whose is this image and superVirg. iii. 520.
scription ? they say unto him, Cæfars, Matt. xxii. II.
20. η εικών και επιγραφή. And evermore himself with comfort FEEDES
VI. of his owne virtues-] So Plato uses iww xiro Sat Those preticus hils— ] Above
he says, round about aéywy sey orbifewr. & Repub. Lib. ix. p. 571. edit. Steph. έσιάσας λόγων καλών και σκέψεων.
him lay great HEAPES of Gold- I had rather
read, Those pretious HEAPS - for immediately Milton, who is more philosophical than his reader often perhaps imagines, hence says, And downe them poured through an heke full wide.
For the metaphor is very harsh, pouring of Then feed on thoughts, that voluntary move hills ; but not so, pouring of heaps of wealth: Harmonious numbers.
And these rich Hils of wealth doth hide apart.} Into himself defcended. Par. Reg. ii.
His is not improper here: and yet all
the editions excepting the two quartos, read Sydney's Arcad. pag. 50. They are never alone Heaps, which word, HEAPs, Mould have that are accompanied with noble thoughts.
taken possession of St. vi. perhaps the roving
eye of the printer occasioned these words to Rifled the bowels of their mother earth, change place.
For treasures better hid. And these rich heapes of wealth doft hide apat,
Itum eft in vifcera terrae, From the world's eye, and from her right ufaunce. Quasque recondiderat, Stygiisq; admoverat umbris, Is her to be referred to wealth, or world ? not Effodiuntur opes irritamenta malorum.
Ov. Met. i. 138. See below St. 17. to world, for then it should be his right ufaunce. But heaps of wealth require THEIR right usance. This Mammon has many names, Orcus, Ades,
Jupiter Stygius, Zivs x Fórros, Plutus, Pluto, &c. Nullus argento color eft, avaris
τον Πλώτον Πλάτωνα λέγεσι, και εικότως τον αυτόν το, Abditae terris inimice lamnae
Πλάτωνο τον άδην
TINýtwn tò day you gou. Schol. ad Ariftoph. Crispe Sallusti, nisi TEMPERATO
Plut. ver. 727. Terrena autem vis omnis atque
Hor. L. ii. Od. 2. Splendeat usu.
natura Diti patri dedicata eft : qui Dives, ut apud i. e. Unless it [filver] fine with temperate Graecos Iléta, quia et recidant omnia in terras &
shine ulaunce. So Spenser, heaps of wealth are mere
oriantur è terris. Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 26. durt, unless they shine with THEIR right ufaunce. Seneca says prettily of riches, ufu crescunt ad pre
Ωφελες, ώ τυφλέ Πλάτε,
Μήτ' έν γη, μήτ' έν θαλάττη tium. And thus philosophically the Roman
Μήτ' εν ηπειρω φανημέναι Menander,
'Αλλα Ταρταρόν γε νάιειν, κ' 'Αχέροντα.
',, ''. Atque haec perinde sunt, ut illius animus, qui ea
Διά σε γάρ πάντ' εν ανθρώποις κακά. Pollidet ;
[Utinam, vel] debuisti, o caece Plute, Qui uti fcit, ei bona ; illi, qui non utitur recte, mala. Neque in terra, neque mari,
Propter te etenim omnia apud homines mala.
Timocreontis scholium VIII.
Let me detain my reader a little longer in viewGod of THE world and worldings I me call Great Mammon—] Mammon is mentioned in ing, the god of this world, and of wordlings, this Matt. vi. 24. Luke xvi. 13. Riches unjustly in Lucian's Timon. Go back to St. 3. where he
money god. Πλατοδότης, Μεγαλόδωρος, as he is named gained are the wages of the Devil, or of that
is described. invisible being, the god of the world and worldings, but I would rather read,
An uncouth, salvage wight, of griefly hew, and fowl God of this world and worldings
This is exactly his description in the Greek play, So John xii. 31. Prince of THIS WORLD. And called Plutus , percepútatas, ver. 78. i Xuñv, ver. 1 Corinth. ii. 6. Prince of this age.-THIS 84. deurótatos mártwv dampórwy, ver. 123. wicked world : This corrupted age. He is fup- And in Lucian's Timon we have the following poted to afit men in their unrighteous acquifi- defcription ωχρός, Φροντίδοςαναπλήως, συνεσπακώς τις aflist
, tions of riches, hence Mammon in the Syriac, saxtúass após to igos tūv oudheybouwv. Pallidus, curis
. and Plutus in the Greek languages, which plenus, contractis digitis, ut fieri solet in rationum fignify riches, fignify likewise the god of collectionibus. So in St. 3.-and nailes like clawes riches.
appeared : with hooky nailes, like the ravenous In Milton, Par. Reg. iv. 203. Satan thus says harpies. His coward character we have, St. 6.
, of himself,
-in great affright and hafte he rose—his band, that God of this world invok'd, and world beneath. trembled as one terrified. Mammon is finely described, [in Par, loft, B. i. Perhaps too Spenser had Pears Plowman before
him, 680.] even in his angelical state his thoughts And then came covetis-Wyth two blered eyen : See were downward bent, admiring more the trodden
eyes were bleared. And Ch. Rom. gold and riches of heaven,
Rose, ver. 202.
Ful croked were his bondis two:
For covetise is ever wode Ranfack'd the center, and with impious hands To gripin athir folkis gode.
Juvenal. xiv. 303. ad praefețe.
the large and muddy river : limo turbatam haurit Me ill befits that in der-doing armes.] Thus aquam. it is printed in most of the editions. Befits, is
XVI. XVII. the interpretation of the old reading befits, as The antique worldrightly printed in the old quarto. Sir Guyon But later ages pride, like cornfed steed says,
Abufd her plenty and fat
fwolne encreaseFaire shields, gay steedes, bright armes be my delight, Then gan a cursed hand-] Our poet like his royal Those be the riches fit for an adventurous knight. mistress, was a great reader of Boetius, and seems
here to have him in view, Thus Orlando refuses riches.
Felix nimium prior aetas-e non mi grava
Heu! primus quis fuit ille, D'essermi posto a rischio di morire,
Auri qui pondera tetti, Chë di pericol solo, e di fatica
Gemmasque latere volentes
Pretiofa pericula fodit ?
Consolat. Phil. ij. v.
Compare Lucret. ver. 905. &c. Ov. Met. i. First got with guile and then preserv'd with dread- And what is cited above from Ovid and Milton Infinite mischiefs of them [riches] do arise
St. 8.-The comparrison is happy, of the cornStrife and debate
fed fteed to the pride of later ages; and scriptural, , That noble hart in great dishonour doth despize.] ”They were as fed horses, Jer. v. 8. they kicked, and Tantis parta malis, curâ majore, metuque
grew fat, and wanton. ως τατος ίππος αποσήσας επί Servantur.
bátin. Il. z' 506. ut ftabulans equus hordes-pastus The 2d quarto and folios instead of in great dis
XVII. honour, read as great dishonour.
Then avarice gan through his veines inspire That noble heart, as great dishonour doth despise.
His greedy flames, and kindled like devouring fire.] i. e. the which a noble heart doth despise as a Perhaps, her greedy flames~His, just before, great dishonour. That is perpetually used for the might have caught the printer's eye. I say only which : and the particles a, the, are as frequently perhaps : for Avarice and Cuvetisé, are of both omitted.
XVIII. Who swelling sayles in Caspian sea doth crose, Thou that doft live in later times must wage And in frail wood on Adrian gulfe doth fleet. Thy works for wealth--) To wage war, bellum Doth not I ween so many evils meet.] The ist verse gerere, is properly expressed : to wage works, is difficult : perhaps the construction is, who i.e. to carry on thy works, or to work : is an doth cross his swelling sails in the Caspian sea : or, abuse (as the grammarians say) of the phrase : who swelling the failes of his pip (i. e. sailing) in but the lawyers say to wage law. the Caspian sea doth cross it : and who doth fleet, or
XX. flit, in frail wood on the tempestuous Adriatic sea, doth not, &c. I could easily alter these verses, but A darksome way—] Mammon leads Sir Guyon I rather chose to explain them,
into the subterranean caverns of the earth, and
discovers to him his treasures. Ibant obscuri, &c. Whose swelling sayles in Caspian sea doe cross,
Virg. iv. 268. And in fraile wood
Est via declivis, funeftâ nubila taxo : By this alteration, who is omitted in the 2d
Ducit aa infernas per muta silentia fedes. verse, which is agreeable to Spenser's frequent
Ov. Met. iv. 432. See xiv. 122. manner of omitting the relative.
In these verses, cited from Ovid, the learned XV.
reader may observe the construction which At the well-head the purest streames arise,
Spenser often uses, viz, of omitting the relative But mucky filth his braunching armes annoyes.] I be
or pronoun. Quae via ducit; ea via ducit ; but lieve he had Horace in view, L. i. Sat. i. Heinsius alters it. ver. 55. If a man wants but a pitcher of water,
Ibid. why would he not rather draw it from the pure wellbead, rather than from his branching arms ; from That ftreight did load to Plutoes griesly rayne.]
Pope in the beginning of his translation of Homer ruptâ confedit rupe Celaeno, infelix vates. Virg. iii.
. has imitated this place,
245.-after him she flyeth, after Horror. That wrath, which hurld to Plutoes gloomy
-Ne them parted nought.] i. e. did not in The souls of mighty chiefs untimely sain.
the least part them : for two negatives deny In our old poets reign is used for realm or region. more full. But this word we have just above, And so Milton i. 543.
Spake unto them nought. Least therefore the
Tame word should rhime to itself, Spenser alFrighted the reign of Chao s and old Night.
tered it in his ad quarto edition, ne them parted Ibid.
ought i. e. and parted them not at all. - Hell By that wayes fide there fat internall Payne-) So gate gapeth wide, 'tis always wide open. Virg. the ist edition, but the 2d with the folios read, vi. 127. Milt. ii. 884. infernall Payne. They are all infernall all diaboli
XXV. cal imps of Erebus and Night ; as the reader
For next to Death is Sleepe to be compared.] Death may see in Cicero de Nat. Deor. iii. 17. and may consult at his leisure the notes of Dr.
and Sleep were brothers; both sons of Night and
Erebus : hence Homer, Il. 5.231. Davis. If infernal is Spenser's own correction ; then these horrid imps, that beset the entrance Εν9' “Υπνω ξύμβλητο, κασιγνήτω Θανάτοιο. into hell, are all characterized from the first, Ubi Somnum convenit fratrem Mortis. which is payne, as infernal : for the epithet is
Hence too Virg. vi. 278. applicable to them all : but if internal is Spenser's reading then Payne is particularly character. Tum consanguineus Lethi Sopor. ized ; such payne as afflict men internally : so
XXVI. particularly he characterizes tumultuous Strife, An ugly feend more fowle then dismall day.) A cruel Revenge, &c.-After Virgil's poetical description of these imaginary beings, all the latin
fiend more foul than a dismal day. Methinks
the image is more striking, than if the fiend had poets almost, have followed him.
been compared to night. Nuxtà Foixás, Il. 6. 47. Metus Laborq; Funus, et FRENDENS DOLOR. Od. a. 605. Black it stood as night. Milt.
Sen. Hercul. Fur. ver. 693. ii. 670. Impatiensq; fui Morbus.-
XXIX. Claud. in Ruf. i. 32. But a faint shadow of uncertein light.] Lux incerta I will not fill my paper with what is so well
dubia. See note on B. i. C. 1. St. 14. known, but these have generally given them Or as the Moon cloathed with cloudy night proper epithets. If Spenter therefore wrote in
Does Shew to him that walks in fear and fad affright ternal, we must explain it, pain that afflicts men
ώς τις τε νέο ενι ήματι μήνην internally : if infernal, which I rather think,
Η δεν ή έδόκησεν επαχλυεσαν ιδέσθαι,
칡 then this general epithet, though joined to
Apollon. iv. 1479. paine, as standing first, is applicable to them all. Let the reader pleate himself.
Which verses Virgil has imitated. Aen. iv. 453. Ibid.
Qualem prin:o qui surgere mense Strife—brandished a bloody knife~] This is copied Aut videt aut vidi le putat per nubila lunam. from Chaucer in the Knights tale. 2005. Contek
-Come fuol da sera with bloody knife, i. e. Contention, ftrite, gemin- Guardar l'un l'altro sotto nuova luna. umque tenens Discordia ferrum. Statius, L. vii.
Dante Infern. XV. XXIII.
XXXIII. And over them fad Horror-) Over them, i. e. over
Certes, fayd he, I nill thine offered grace, those infernal'imps mentioned in the Stanza just juft above, Juch grace now to be happy is before thee
Ne to be made so happy doe intend.] Mammon said above : and after him, viz. Horror,
laid, the knight replies, I nill, [1 ne will, I will Whiles fad Celeno, sitting on a cliste,
not, I refuse. See Somn. in Nillan.) thine A song of bale and bitter forrow sings.
offered favour, nor to be made so hapty do inThese verses are finely turned ; and the repeti- tend. There is an ambiguity in the word tion of the letters have a visible force. In prae- happy, which if the reader understands not, he