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L. i. ii. 37


XLIII. The which dse men in bale to serve.] Which Harrow now out, and well away.] See these words cause mankind to perish in trouble, stearfan, explained in the Glossary. Presently after, the

firit edition reads thus, mori : : though now used in a particular sense, to die with hunger. Chaucer uses it in its ancient What dismal day hath lent but this his cursed sense, as our poet, who is all antique.


To see my lord deadly damni fyde?
Such cruell game my fiarmoges disarms.] This Pyrrhocles, o Pyrrhocles, what is thee betyde ?
is more poetical and elegant, than if written, This is not altered among the errors of the
Such cruell scarmoges my game disarms.

press, though many faults of lesser note are :

but in the 2d quarto 'tis thus printed, scarmoges, skirmishes. Ital. fiaramuchia. Gall. escarmouche. from the German, schirmen, veli- What dismal day hath lent this cursed lighttari : or originally, perhaps, from the Greek

And so the folios : It seems that Spenser wrote xágun, pugna. Sibilă litterâ praepositâ, et per this, and corrected it his, and that the printer · metathesin, SCRAMA, scaromuchia, a (kirmish.

gave us both; I would therefore read, How many passages might be brought from the poets, to show the analogy between the What dismal day hath lent his cursed light, wars of Mars, and the skirmishes of Cupid ? - To see my lord so deadly damnifyde? Cruell game is Horatian ;

But Pyrochles, what, Pyrochles, is thee betyde? Heu nimis longo satiate Ludo.

So that we have found a proper place for this

BUT ; and have accounted for the other words, XXXVII. - he light did pas.) He made light of: he passed

XLVI. over lightly.

The waves thereof fo flow and suggish were,

Engrost with mud, which did thern fowle agrise, In Phaedria's flitt barck over that perlous shard.] That every weighty thing they did upbeare-] It We use shard in the west of England for a gap seems to me that Spenser had in view the lake made in the hedge: it seems a great abuse of Asphaltus, or Asphaltites, commonly called the word, and very catachrestically expressed to the Dead Sea, when he wrote this description apply this word to a ford.--Again, a fhard is of the Idle Lake. I will cite Sandys, who in generally used for a fragment, from the Anglo-S. his history of the Holy-land, has given us the rceapan, to fheare, or cut off. This island following relation. The river Hordan is at length of Phaedria was shar'd off from the land ; a devoured by that cursed lake Asphaltites, so named of kind of fragment or hard by means of the idle the bitumen which it vomiteth." (See Pliny v. 16.) lake intervening. Euboeam insulam continenti ad- called also the Dead Sea; perhaps in that it nourisheth haerentem, tenui freto reciprocantibus aquis Euripus no living creature ; or for his heavy waters hardly ABSCIDIT. Florus ïi. 8.

to be moved by the winds. (Justin xxxvi. 6. Corn.

Tacitus Histor. v.] So extreme salt, that whatfo-
Nequicquam deus ABSCIDIT
Prudens oceano dissociabili

ever is throwne thereinto not easily sinketh. Vespatian, Terras

for a trial, caused divers to be cast in bound hand

and foot, who floated as if supported by some spirit. But how hard is the metonymy to apply that to [Joseph. de bell. Judaic. v. 5.] I think the the ford, which is rather applicable to the island parallel may be easily seen. Dante likewise, in the ford? – If the reader dislikes both the Infern. Cant. viji. hence imaged that dead and above offered interpretations, he may suppose fuggith lake which he names la morta gora. a letter altered for the sake of a jingling termi- And Tallo in this Asphaltic lake places the nation, from the north-country word schald, island of Armida. See Taflo, x. 62. xvi. 71. a shallow or shelves, or flats.

XLVII. And both from rocks and flats itselfe could wisely Holding in hand a goodly arming sword.] This fave.

sword Archimago had stolen from P. Arthur, G. Douglas, pag. 148, 48.

see above, B. ii. C. 3. St. 18. and below, Sen that so many seyes and alkin landis,

B. ü. C. 8. St. 19.
Sa huge wylfum rolkis, and schald fandis.
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lowed the reading of the 2d quarto and folios, Weake hands, but counfell is most strong in age.) i.e. and it seems a plain alteration of the poet, In old age the hands are weak, but counsel upon second thoughts.-Archimago here applies moft 1trong. ή μέν δύναμις έν νεωτέροις, η δε φρόνησις not only herbs, but fpells to the wounded in soutiçous. Aristot. Polit. L. vi.

knight, according to the ancient practice of LI.

phyficians; a circumstance which poets seldom Or with the hidden fier inlay warmd.] I have fol- fail of mentioning.




UYON finds Mammon in a dilve

Sunning his threafure hore,

Well yet appeared-] This is the reading of the From the Anglo-S. horiz, fordidus, mucidus. first old quarto : the following editions read, not boary, from hajı, canus.

IVell it appeared — which plainly destroys the

perspicuity of the construction.- A werke of rich 1.

entaile, so Ch. in the Rom. of the Rose, ver. As Pilot well expert in perilous wave,

162. That to A ftedfast flarre his course hath bent.] I would rather read, That to the stedfast par- An image of another entaile, i. e. the pole-ítar: the star in the tail of the i. e. carving, sculpture. Ital. intagliare : intaglio. Jesler bear ; Cynosura : the fiedfast starre-the

V. faithful light to mariners.

Some in round plates withouten moniment.] Spelt Poenis baec certior auctor

as the Ital. monimento : meaning here, image, Non apparentem pelago quaerentibus orbem.

superscription, ornament. yvápurua, gnorisma, Manil. i. 302.

MONUMENTUM. Aratus, ver. 42. vaútnow açaíws. nautis ufus in

En Cæsar agnofcit suum hac eft. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 41.

Gnorisma nummis inditum.

Prudent. Peristeph. ii. 95.
His winged vessel.] 'Tis the very expresion of So learned critics read the passage in Pruden-
Pindar, vads morlige. Olymp. ix. 36. for the

Olymp. ix. 36. for the tius, not ncmisma : see Spanh. de Usu & Præst. fails are her wings. Velorum pandimas alas, Numism. pag. 5. Whose is this image and superVirg. iii. 520.

scription they say unto him, Cafars, Matt. xxii, II.

20. η εικών και επιγραφή. . And evermore himself with comfort FEEDES

VI. of his owne virtues-] So Plato uses kvwxivo Oral Those preticus hils—] Above he says; round about abywv tej orálow. & Repub. Lib. ix. p. 571. edit. him lay great heapes of Gold I had rather Steph. έσιάσας λόγων καλών και σκέψεων. And Cicero, SATURARI bonarum cogitationum epulis.

read, Those pretious heaps — for immediately

follows, Milton, who is more philosophical than his reader often perhaps imagines, hence says, And downe them poured through an hok full wide.

For the metaphor is very harsh, pouring of Then feed on thoughts, that voluntary move

hills ; but not so, pouring of heaps of wealth: Harmonious numbers.

The while her Son tracing the defart wild,
Sole, but with balieft meditations fed,

And these rich Hils of wealth doth hide apart.}
Into himself descended. Par. Reg. ii.

Hils is not improper here : and yet all

the editions excepting the two quartos, read Sydney's Arcad. pag. 50. They are never alone HEAPs, which word, HEAPs, Thould have that are accompanied with noble thoughts.

taken poffeffion of St. vi. perhaps the roving


v. 37.


eye of the printer occasioned these words to Rifled the bowels of their mother earth, change place.

For treasures better hid. And these rich heapes of wealth doft hide apat,

Itum eft in vifcera terrae, From the world's eye, and from her right ufaunce. Quasque recondiderat, Stygiisq; admoverat umbris, Is her to be referred to wealth, or world ? not Effodiuntur opes irritamenta malorum.

Ov. Met. i. 138. See below St. 17. to world, for then it should be his right ufaunce. But heaps of wealth require their right ufance.

This Mammon has many names, Orcus, Ades,

Jupiter Stygius, Zivs xfóroos, Plutus, Pluto, &c. Nullus argento color est, avaris

τον Πλάτον Πλάτωνα λέγεσι, και εικότως τον αυτόν T29, Abditae terris inimice lamnae

Tiaétan tón a dry youíszos. Schol. ad Aristoph. Crispe Sallusti, nisi TEMPERATO Splendeat usu.

Plut. ver. 727. Terrena autem vis omnis atque Hor. L. ii. Od. 2.

natura Diti patri dedicata est : qui Dives, ut apud i. e. Unless it [silver] shine with temperate Graecos Llaótwv, quia et recidant omnia in terras e usaunce. So Spenser, heaps of wealth are mere oriantur è terris. Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 26. durt, unless they shine with their right ufaunce. Seneca says prettily of riches, ufu crescunt ad pre

Ωφελες, ώ τυφλέ Πλάτε, tium. And thus philosophically the Roman

Μήτ' έν γη, μήτ' έν θαλάττη

Μήτ' εν ηπειρω φανημέναι: Menander,

'Αλλα Ταρταρόν γε νάιειν, κ' 'Αχέροντα. Atque haec perinde funt, ut illius animus, qui ea

Διά σε γάρ πάντ' εν ανθρώποις κακά. Pollidet ;

[Utinam, vel] debuisti, o caece Plute, Qui uti scit, ei bona ; illi, qui non utitur recte, mala. Neque in terra, neque mari,

Heaut. Act. i. Sc. iii. Neque in continente apparere. We will leave these corre&tions to the reader's Sed Tartarum utique incolere, & Acheronta. further confideration.

Propter te etenim omnia apud homines mala.

Timocreontis scholium, VIII.

Let me detain my reader a little longer in viewGod of the world and worldings I me call Great Mammon--] Mammon is mentioned in ing, the god of this world, and of wordlings, this Matt. vi. 24. Luke xvi. 13. Riches unjustly in Lucian's Timon. Go back to St. 3. where he

money god. Πλατοδότης, Μιχαλόδωρος, as he is named gained are the wages of the Devil, or of that

is described. invisible being, the god of the world and worldings, but I would rather read,

An uncouth, salvage wight, of griefly hew, and fowl God of this world and worldings


This is exactly his description in the Greek play, So John xii. 31. Prince of THIS WORLD. And called Plutus pas cepútates, ver. -78. á Xuño, ver. 1 Corinth. ii. 6. Prince of this age.-THis 84. deurótatos mártir dasmowy, ver. 123. wicked world : This corrupted age, He is sup- And in Lucian's Timon we have the following poted to affift men in their unrighteous acquifi- defcription ωχρός, Φροντίδοςάναπλήρως, συνεσπακώς τις tions of riches, hence Mammon in the Syriae, Saxtúass Tacos To Lgos Two oudreyhouwr. Pallidus, curis. and Plutus in the Greek languages, which plenus, contractis digitis, ut fieri solet in rationum fignify riches, signify likewise the god of collectionibus. So in St. 3.and nailes like clawes riches.

appeared : with hooky nailes, like the ravenous In Milton, Par. Reg. iv. 203. Satan thus says harpies. His coward character we have, St. 6. of himself,

-in great affright and hafte he rosehis hand, that God of this world invok'd, and world beneath. trembled as one terrified. Mammon is finely described, [in Par, loft, B. i. Perhaps too Spenser had Pears Plowman before 680.] even in his angelical state his thoughts And then came covetis-Wyth two blered eyen : See were downward bent, admiring more the trodden St. 3. And eyes were bleared. And Ch. Rom. gold and riches of heaven,

Rose, ver. 202.
Then aught divine or holy else enjoy'd
In vision beatific. By him first

Ful croked were his bondis two:
Men also, and by his suggestion taught

For covetise is ever wode Ranfack'd the center, and with impious hands To gripin athir folkis gode.


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Juvenal. xiv. 303. ad praefefe.


the large and muddy river : limo turbatam haurit Me ill Befits that in der-doing armes.] Thus aquam. it is printed in most of the editions. Befits, is

the interpretation of the old reading befits, as The antique world-
rightly printed in the old quarto. Sir Guyon But later ages pride, like cornfed ftved

Abufd her plenty and fat fwolne encrease-
Faire shields, gay steedes, bright armes be my delight, Then gan a cursed hand-] Our poet like his royal
Those be the riches fit for an adventurous knight. mistress, was a great reader of Boetius, and seems

here to have him in view, Thus Orlando refuses riches.

Felix nimium prior aetas-e non mi grava

Heu ! primus quis fuit ille, D'essermi porto a rischio di morire,

Auri qui pondera tečti, Che di pericol solo, e di fatica

Gemmasque latere volentes
Il cavalier fi pafce e si nutrica.

Pretiofa pericula fodit ?
Berni Orl. Innam, L. i. C. 25. St. 19.

Consolat. Phil. ii. v.

Compare Lucret. ver. 905. &c. Ov. Met. i.
First got with guile and then preserv'd with dread- And what is cited above from Ovid and Milton
Infinite mischiefs of them (riches] do arise

St. 8.–The comparrison is happy, of the cornStrife and debate

fed steed to the pride of later ages; and scriptural, That noble hart in great dishonour doth despize.] *They were as fed horses, Jer. v. 8. they kicked, and Tantis parta malis, curâ majore, metuque

grew fat, and wanton. ως τατος ίππος αποσήσας επί Servantur.

párın. II. 2' 506. ut ftabulans equus hordeo-pastus The 2d quarto and folios instead of in great dif

XVII. honour, read as great dishonour.

Then avarice gan through his veines inspire That noble heart, as great dishonour doth despise.

His greedy flames, and kindled like devouring fire. i. e. the which a noble heart doth despise as a Perhaps, her greedy flames-His, just before, great dishonour. That is perpetually used for the might have caught the printer's eye. I say only which : and the particles a, the, are as frequently perhaps : for Avarice and Covetise, are of both omitted.


Who fwelling sayles in Caspian sea doth crosse, Thou that doft live in later times must wage
And in frail wood on Adrian gulfe doth fleet.

Thy works for wealth-) To wage war, bellum
Doth not I ween so many evils meet.] The ist verse gerere, is properly expressed : to wage works,
is difficult : perhaps the construction is, who i.e. to carry on thy works, or to work : is an
doth cross his swelling fails in the Caspian sea : or, abuse (as the grammarians say) of the phrase:
who swelling the failes of his ßip (i. e. sailing) in but the lawyers say to wage law.
the Caspian sea doth cross it : and who doth fleet, or

XX. flit, in frail wood on the tempestuous Adriatic sea, doth not, &c. I could easily alter these verses, but A darksome way-] Mammon leads Sir Guyon I rather chose to explain them,

into the subterranean caverns of the earth, and

discovers to him his treasures. Ibant obscuri, &c. Whose swelling fayles in Caspian sea doe cross,

Virg. iv. 268. And in fraile wood

Ef via declivis, funestá nubila taxo : By this alteration, who is omitted in the 2d Ducit aa infernas per muta silentia fedes. verse, which is agreeable to Spenser's frequent

Ov. Met. iv. 432. See xiv. 122. manner of omitting the relative.

In these verses, cited from Ovid, the learned

reader may observe the construction which At the well-head the purest streames arise,

Spenser often uses, viz. of omitting the relative But mucky filth his braunching armes annoyes.] I be

or pronoun. Quae via ducit; ea via ducit ; but lieve he had Horace in view, L. i. Sat. i. Heinsius alters it. ver. 55. If a man wants but a pitcher of water,

why would he not rather draw it from the pure well-
bead, rather than from his branching arms ; from That streight did lead to Plutoes griesly rayne.)


Pope in the beginning of his translation of Homer ruptâ confedit rupe Celaeno, infelis vates. Virg. iii. has imitated this place,

245.-after him he flyeth, after Horror. That wrath, which hurld to Plutoes gloomy

XXIV. reign,

-Ne them parted nought.] i. e. did not in The souls of mighty chiefs untimely Nain.

the least part them : for two negatives deny In our old poets reign is used for realm or region. more full. But this word we have just above, And so Milton i. 543.

Spake unto them nought. Least therefore the

fame word should rhime to itself, Spenser alFrighted the reign of Chaos and old Night.

tered it in his ad quarto edition, ne them parted Ibid.

ought i. e. and parted them not at all. - Hell By that wayes fide there fat internall Payne-) So gate gapeth wide, 'tis always wide open. Virg. the ist edition, but the 2d with the folios read, vi. 127. Milt. ii. 884. infernall Payne. They are all infernall all diaboli

XXV. cal imps of Erebus and Night ; as the reader may see in Cicero de Nat. Deor. iii. 17. and

For next to Death is Sleepe to be compared.) Death may consult at his leisure the notes of Dr.

and Sleep were brothers; both sons of Night and

Erebus : hence Homer, II. 231. Davis. If infernal is Spenfer's own correction ; then these horrid imps, that beset the entrance Εν9' “Υπνω ξύμβλητο, κασιγνήτω Θανάτοιο. into hell, are all characterized from the first, Ubi Somnum convenit fratrem Mortis. which is payne, as infernal : for the epithet is

Hence too Virg. vi. 278. applicable to them all : but if internal is Spenser's reading then Payne is particularly character. Tum confanguincus Let'ri Sopor. ized ; such payne as afflict men internally : so

XXVI. particularly he characterizes tumultuous Strife, An ugly feend more fowle then dismall day.) A cruel Revenge, &c.-After Virgil's poetical defcription of these imaginary beings, all the latin

fiend more foul than a dismal day. Methinks

the image is more striking, than if the fiend had poets almost, have followed him.

been compared to night. Nuxtà Fortús, Il. á. 47. Metus Laborq; Funus, et FRENDENS DOLOR. Od. a. 605. Black it ftood as nigbt. Milt.

Sen. Hercul. Fur. ver. 693. . 670. Impatiensq; fui Morbus.

XXIX. Claud. in Ruf. i. 32. But a faint shadow of uncertein light.] Lux incerta I will not fill my paper with what is so well dubia. See note on B. i. C. 1. St. 14. known, but there have generally given them Or as the Moon cloathed with cloudy night proper epithets.--If Spenter therefore wrote in- Dees Shew to him that walks in fear and jad affright ternal, we must explain it, pain that afflicts men

ώς τις τε νέο ενι ήματι μήνην internally : if infernal, which I rather think,

Η δεν ή έδόκησεν έπαχλυεσαν ιδέσθαι, then this general epithet, though joined to

Apollon. iv. 1479. paine, as standing first, is applicable to them all. Let the reader pleale himself.,

Which verses Virgil has imitated. Aen. iv. 453. Ibid.

Qualem prin:o qui surgere mense Strifebrandished a bloody knife-] This is copied Aut videt aut vidi je putat per nubila lunam. from Chaucer in the Knights tale. 2005. Contek

- Come fuol da sera with bloody knife, i. e. Contention, ftrite, gemin- Guardar l'un l'altro sotto nuova luna. umque tenens Discordia ferrum. Statius, L. vii.

Dante Infern. xv. XXIII.

XXXIII. And over them fad Horror-) Over them, i. e. over

Certes, fayd he, I nill thine offered grace, those infernal imps mentioned in the Stanza just just above, such grace nowy to be happy is before thee

to doe above : and after him, viz. Horror, Whiles fad Celeno, fitting on a cliste,

laid, the knight replies, I nill, [1 ne will, I will

not, I refuse. See Somn. in Nillan.) thine A song of bale and bitter forrow jings.

offered favour, nor to be made so happy do inThese verses are finely turned ; and the repeti- tend. There is an ambiguity in the word tion of the letters have a visible force. In prae In prae- hafty, which if the reader understands not, he

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