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L. i. ii. 37
XLIII. The which dse men in bale to serve.] Which Harrow now out, and well away.] See these words cause mankind to perish in trouble, stearfan, explained in the Glossary. Presently after, the
firit edition reads thus, mori : : though now used in a particular sense, to die with hunger. Chaucer uses it in its ancient What dismal day hath lent but this his cursed sense, as our poet, who is all antique.
To see my lord deadly damni fyde?
press, though many faults of lesser note are :
but in the 2d quarto 'tis thus printed, scarmoges, skirmishes. Ital. fiaramuchia. Gall. escarmouche. from the German, schirmen, veli What dismal day hath lent this cursed lighttari : or originally, perhaps, from the Greek
And so the folios : It seems that Spenser wrote xágun, pugna. Sibilă litterâ praepositâ, et per this, and corrected it his, and that the printer · metathesin, SCRAMA, scaromuchia, a (kirmish.
gave us both; I would therefore read, How many passages might be brought from the poets, to show the analogy between the What dismal day hath lent his cursed light, wars of Mars, and the skirmishes of Cupid ? - To see my lord so deadly damnifyde? Cruell game is Horatian ;
But Pyrochles, what, Pyrochles, is thee betyde? Heu nimis longo satiate Ludo.
So that we have found a proper place for this
BUT ; and have accounted for the other words, XXXVII. - he light did pas.) He made light of: he passed
XLVI. over lightly.
The waves thereof fo flow and suggish were,
Engrost with mud, which did thern fowle agrise, In Phaedria's flitt barck over that perlous shard.] That every weighty thing they did upbeare-] It We use shard in the west of England for a gap seems to me that Spenser had in view the lake made in the hedge: it seems a great abuse of Asphaltus, or Asphaltites, commonly called the word, and very catachrestically expressed to the Dead Sea, when he wrote this description apply this word to a ford.--Again, a fhard is of the Idle Lake. I will cite Sandys, who in generally used for a fragment, from the Anglo-S. his history of the Holy-land, has given us the rceapan, to fheare, or cut off. This island following relation. The river Hordan is at length of Phaedria was shar'd off from the land ; a devoured by that cursed lake Asphaltites, so named of kind of fragment or hard by means of the idle the bitumen which it vomiteth." (See Pliny v. 16.) lake intervening. Euboeam insulam continenti ad- called also the Dead Sea; perhaps in that it nourisheth haerentem, tenui freto reciprocantibus aquis Euripus no living creature ; or for his heavy waters hardly ABSCIDIT. Florus ïi. 8.
to be moved by the winds. (Justin xxxvi. 6. Corn.
Tacitus Histor. v.] So extreme salt, that whatfo-
ever is throwne thereinto not easily sinketh. Vespatian, Terras
for a trial, caused divers to be cast in bound hand
and foot, who floated as if supported by some spirit. But how hard is the metonymy to apply that to [Joseph. de bell. Judaic. v. 5.] I think the the ford, which is rather applicable to the island parallel may be easily seen. Dante likewise, in the ford? – If the reader dislikes both the Infern. Cant. viji. hence imaged that dead and above offered interpretations, he may suppose fuggith lake which he names la morta gora. a letter altered for the sake of a jingling termi- And Tallo in this Asphaltic lake places the nation, from the north-country word schald, island of Armida. See Taflo, x. 62. xvi. 71. a shallow or shelves, or flats.
XLVII. And both from rocks and flats itselfe could wisely Holding in hand a goodly arming sword.] This fave.
sword Archimago had stolen from P. Arthur, G. Douglas, pag. 148, 48.
see above, B. ii. C. 3. St. 18. and below, Sen that so many seyes and alkin landis,
B. ü. C. 8. St. 19.
lowed the reading of the 2d quarto and folios, Weake hands, but counfell is most strong in age.) i.e. and it seems a plain alteration of the poet, In old age the hands are weak, but counsel upon second thoughts.-Archimago here applies moft 1trong. ή μέν δύναμις έν νεωτέροις, η δε φρόνησις not only herbs, but fpells to the wounded in soutiçous. Aristot. Polit. L. vi.
knight, according to the ancient practice of LI.
phyficians; a circumstance which poets seldom Or with the hidden fier inlay warmd.] I have fol- fail of mentioning.
Ν Τ Ο
Well yet appeared-] This is the reading of the From the Anglo-S. horiz, fordidus, mucidus. first old quarto : the following editions read, not boary, from hajı, canus.
IVell it appeared — which plainly destroys the
perspicuity of the construction.- A werke of rich 1.
entaile, so Ch. in the Rom. of the Rose, ver. As Pilot well expert in perilous wave,
162. That to A ftedfast flarre his course hath bent.] I would rather read, That to the stedfast par- An image of another entaile, i. e. the pole-ítar: the star in the tail of the i. e. carving, sculpture. Ital. intagliare : intaglio. Jesler bear ; Cynosura : the fiedfast starre-the
V. faithful light to mariners.
Some in round plates withouten moniment.] Spelt Poenis baec certior auctor
as the Ital. monimento : meaning here, image, Non apparentem pelago quaerentibus orbem.
superscription, ornament. yvápurua, gnorisma, Manil. i. 302.
MONUMENTUM. Aratus, ver. 42. vaútnow açaíws. nautis ufus in
En Cæsar agnofcit suum hac eft. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 41.
Gnorisma nummis inditum.
Prudent. Peristeph. ii. 95.
Olymp. ix. 36. for the tius, not ncmisma : see Spanh. de Usu & Præst. fails are her wings. Velorum pandimas alas, Numism. pag. 5. Whose is this image and superVirg. iii. 520.
scription they say unto him, Cafars, Matt. xxii, II.
20. η εικών και επιγραφή. . And evermore himself with comfort FEEDES
VI. of his owne virtues-] So Plato uses kvwxivo Oral Those preticus hils—] Above he says; round about abywv tej orálow. & Repub. Lib. ix. p. 571. edit. him lay great heapes of Gold – I had rather Steph. έσιάσας λόγων καλών και σκέψεων. And Cicero, SATURARI bonarum cogitationum epulis.
read, Those pretious heaps — for immediately
follows, Milton, who is more philosophical than his reader often perhaps imagines, hence says, And downe them poured through an hok full wide.
For the metaphor is very harsh, pouring of Then feed on thoughts, that voluntary move
hills ; but not so, pouring of heaps of wealth: Harmonious numbers.
And these rich Hils of wealth doth hide apart.}
Hils is not improper here : and yet all
the editions excepting the two quartos, read Sydney's Arcad. pag. 50. They are never alone HEAPs, which word, HEAPs, Thould have that are accompanied with noble thoughts.
taken poffeffion of St. vi. perhaps the roving
eye of the printer occasioned these words to Rifled the bowels of their mother earth, change place.
For treasures better hid. And these rich heapes of wealth doft hide apat,
Itum eft in vifcera terrae, From the world's eye, and from her right ufaunce. Quasque recondiderat, Stygiisq; admoverat umbris, Is her to be referred to wealth, or world ? not Effodiuntur opes irritamenta malorum.
Ov. Met. i. 138. See below St. 17. to world, for then it should be his right ufaunce. But heaps of wealth require their right ufance.
This Mammon has many names, Orcus, Ades,
Jupiter Stygius, Zivs xfóroos, Plutus, Pluto, &c. Nullus argento color est, avaris
τον Πλάτον Πλάτωνα λέγεσι, και εικότως τον αυτόν T29, Abditae terris inimice lamnae
Tiaétan tón a dry youíszos. Schol. ad Aristoph. Crispe Sallusti, nisi TEMPERATO Splendeat usu.
Plut. ver. 727. Terrena autem vis omnis atque Hor. L. ii. Od. 2.
natura Diti patri dedicata est : qui Dives, ut apud i. e. Unless it [silver] shine with temperate Graecos Llaótwv, quia et recidant omnia in terras e usaunce. So Spenser, heaps of wealth are mere oriantur è terris. Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 26. durt, unless they shine with their right ufaunce. Seneca says prettily of riches, usu crescunt ad pre
Ωφελες, ώ τυφλέ Πλάτε, tium. And thus philosophically the Roman
Μήτ' έν γη, μήτ' έν θαλάττη
Μήτ' εν ηπειρω φανημέναι" Menander,
'Αλλα Ταρταρόν γε νάιειν, κ' 'Αχέροντα. Atque haec perinde funt, ut illius animus, qui ea
Διά σε γάρ πάντ' εν ανθρώποις κακά. Pollidet ;
[Utinam, vel] debuisti, o caece Plute, Qui uti scit, ei bona ; illi, qui non utitur recte, mala. Neque in terra, neque mari,
Heaut. Act. i. Sc. iii. Neque in continente apparere. We will leave these corrections to the reader's Sed Tartarum utique incolere, & Acheronta. further consideration.
Propter te etenim omnia apud homines mala.
Timocreontis scholium, VIII. God of the world and worldings I me call
Let me detain my reader a little longer in viewGreat Mammon—] Mammon is mentioned in ing, the god of this world, and of wordlings, this Matt. vi. 24. Luke xvi. 13. Riches unjustly in Lucian's Timon. Go back to St. 3. where he
money god. Πλατοδότης, Μιχαλόδωρος, as he is named gained are the wages of the Devil, or of that
is described. invisible being, the god of the world and worldings, but I would rather read,
An uncouth, salvage wight, of griefly hew, and fowl God of this world and worldings
This is exactly his description in the Greek play, So John xii. 31. Prince of THIS WORLD. And called Plutus pas cepútates, ver. -78. á Xuño, ver. 1 Corinth. ii. 6. Prince of this age.--This 84. dnótatos vártwo dampóvas, ver. 123. wicked world : This corrupted age, He is sup- And in Lucian's Timon we have the following poted to affift men in their unrighteous acquifi- defcription ωχρός, Φροντίδοςάναπλήρως, συνεσπακώς τις tions of riches, hence Mammon in the Syriae, Saxtúass Tacos To Lgos Two oudreyhouwr. Pallidus, curis. and Plutus in the Greek languages, which plenus, contractis digitis, ut fieri solet in rationum fignify riches, signify likewise the god of collectionibus. So in St. 3.—and nailes like clawes riches.
appeared : with hooky nailes, like the ravenous In Milton, Par. Reg. iv. 203. Satan thus says harpies. His coward character we have, St. 6. of himself,
-in great affright and hafte he rose—his hand, that God of this world invok'd, and world beneath. trembled as one terrified. Mammon is finely described, [in Par. loft, B. i. Perhaps too Spenser had Pears Plowman before 680.) even in his angelical state his thoughts And then came covetis–Wyth two blered eyen : See were downward bent, admiring more the trodden St. 3. And eyes were bleared. And Ch. Rom. gold and riches of heaven,
Rose, ver. 202.
Ful croked were his bondis two:
For covetise is ever wode Ranfack'd the center, and with impious hands To gripin athir folkis gode.
Juvenal. xiv. 303. ad praefefe.
the large and muddy river : limo turbatam haurit Me ill Befits that in der-doing armes.] Thus aquam. it is printed in most of the editions. Befits, is
Abufd her plenty and fat fwolne encrease-
here to have him in view, Thus Orlando refuses riches.
Felix nimium prior aetas-e non mi grava
Heu ! primus quis fuit ille, D'essermi porto a rischio di morire,
Auri qui pondera tečti, Che di pericol solo, e di fatica
Gemmasque latere volentes
Pretiofa pericula fodit ?
Consolat. Phil. ii. v.
Compare Lucret. ver. 905. &c. Ov. Met. i.
St. 8.–The comparrison is happy, of the cornStrife and debate
fed steed to the pride of later ages; and scriptural, That noble hart in great dishonour doth despize.] *They were as fed horses, Jer. v. 8. they kicked, and Tantis parta malis, curâ majore, metuque
grew fat, and wanton. ως τατος ίππος αποσήσας επί Servantur.
cárin. II. 2' 506. ut ftabulans equus hordes-pastus The 2d quarto and folios instead of in great dis
XVII. honour, read as great dishonour.
Then avarice gan through his veines inspire That noble heart, as great dishonour doth despise.
His greedy flames, and kindled like devouring fire.) i. e. the which a noble heart doth despise as a Perhaps, her greedy flames-His, just before, great dishonour. That is perpetually used for the might have caught the printer's eye. I say only which : and the particles a, the, are as frequently perhaps : for Avarice and Covetise, are of both omitted.
Thy works for wealth-] To wage war, bellum
XX. flit, in frail wood on the tempestuous Adriatic sea, doth not, &c. I could easily alter these verses, but A darksome way-] Mammon leads Sir Guyon I rather chose to explain them,
into the subterranean caverns of the earth, and
discovers to him his treasures. Ibant obscuri, &c. Whose swelling fayles in Caspian sea doe cross,
Virg. iv. 268. And in fraile wood
Ef via declivis, funestá nubila taxo : By this alteration, who is omitted in the 2d Ducit aa infernas per muta silentia fedes. verse, which is agreeable to Spenser's frequent
Ov. Met. iv. 432. See xiv. 122. manner of omitting the relative.
In these verses, cited from Ovid, the learned
reader may observe the construction which At the well-head the purest streames arise,
Spenser often uses, viz. of omitting the relative But mucky filth his braunching armes annoyes.) I be
or pronoun. Quae via ducit; ea via ducit ; but lieve he had Horace in view, L. i. Sat. i. Heinsius alters it. ver. 55. If a man wants but a pitcher of water,
Pope in the beginning of his translation of Homer ruptâ confedit rupe Celaeno, infelis vates. Virg. iii. has imitated this place,
245.-after him he flyeth, after Horror. That wrath, which hurld to Plutoes gloomy
-Ne them parted nought.] i. e. did not in The souls of mighty chiefs untimely Nain.
the least part them : for two negatives deny In our old poets reign is used for realm or region. more full. But this word we have just above, And so Milton i. 543.
Spake unto them nought. Least therefore the
fame word should rhime to itself, Spenser alFrighted the reign of Chaos and old Night.
tered it in his ad quarto edition, ne them parted Ibid.
ought i. e. and parted them not at all. — Hell By that wayes fide there fat internall Payne-) So gate gapeth wide, 'tis always wide open. Virg. the ist edition, but the 2d with the folios read, vi. 127. Milt. ii. 884. infernall Payne. They are all infernall all diaboli
XXV. cal imps of Erebus and Night ; as the reader may see in Cicero de Nat. Deor. iii. 17. and
For next to Death is Sleepe to be compared.) Death may consult at his leisure the notes of Dr.
and Sleep were brothers; both sons of Night and
Erebus : hence Homer, Il. 5.231. Davis. If infernal is Spenser's own correction ; then these horrid imps, that beset the entrance Εν9' “Υπνω ξύμβλητο, κασιγνήτω Θανάτοιο. into hell, are all characterized from the first, Ubi Somnum convenit fratrem Mortis. which is payne, as infernal : for the epithet is applicable to them all : but if internal is Spen
Hence too Virg. vi. 278. ser's reading then Payne is particularly character. Tum confanguineus Let'ri Sopor. ized ; such payne as afflict men internally : so
XXVI. particularly he characterizes tumultuous Strife, An ugly feend more fowle then dismall day.) A cruel Revenge, &c.—After Virgil's poetical description of these imaginary beings, all the latin
fiend more foul than a dismal day. Methinks
the image is more striking, than if the fiend had poets almoft, have followed him.
been compared to night. Nuxtà Fortús, Il. á. 47. Metus Laborq; Funus, et FRENDENS DOLOR. Od. a. 605. Black it ftood as night. Milt.
Sen. Hercul. Fur. ver. 693. ii. 670. Impatiensq; fui Morbus.-
XXIX. Claud. in Ruf. i. 32. But a faint shadow of uncertein light.] Lux incerta I will not fill my paper with what is so well dubia. See note on B. i. C. 1. St. 14. known, but there have generally given them Or as the Moon cloathed with cloudy night proper epithets.--If Spenter therefore wrote in
Does Shew to him that walks in fear and fad affright ternal, we must explain it, pain that afflicts men
ώς τις τε νέο ενι ήματι μήνην internally : if infernal, which I rather think,
Η δεν ή έδόκησεν έπαχλυεσαν ιδέσθαι, then this general epithet, though joined to
Apollon. iv. 1479. paine, as standing first, is applicable to them all. Let the reader pleale himself.,
Which verses Virgil has imitated. Aen. iv. 453. Ibid.
Qualem prin:o qui surgere mense Strife—brandished a bloody knife-] This is copied Aut videt aut vidi je putat per nubila lunam. from Chaucer in the Knights tale. 2005. Contek
- Come fuol da sera with bloody knife, i. e. Contention, ftrite, gemin- Guardar l'un l'altro sotto nuova luna. umque tenens Difcordia ferrum. Statius, L. vii.
Dante Infern. xv. XXIII.
XXXIII. And over them fad Horror-] Over them, i. e. over
Certes, fayd he, I nill thine offered grace, those infernal imps mentioned in the Stanza juft Ne to be made so happy doe intend.] Mammon said above : and after him, viz. Horror,
just above, such grace now to be happy is before thee
laid, the knight replies, I nill, [1 ne will, I will Whiles fad Celeno, fitting on a clifie,
not, I refuse. See Somn. in Nillan.) thine A song of bale and bitter forrow jings.
offered favour, nor to be made so happy do inThese verses are finely turned ; and the repeti- tend. There is an ambiguity in the word tion of the letters have a visible force. In prae In prae- hafty, which if the reader understands not, he