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tians were more conversant with blishment much benefit would, unthe evidences of their holy reli- doubtedly, accrue, were her memgion; always ready to give an bers more awake to the advantages answer to every man, that asketh arising from her form of governthem a reason of the hope that is ment, and, better acquainted with in them, with meekness and fear; the arguments on which their duty then, every scribe instructed unto to maintain communion with her the kingdom of heaven, would be rests; if her children would go like unto a man that is a house- round about that Zion, tell the towholder, which bringeth forth, out ers thereof, mark well her palaces, of his treasures, things new and and consider how the place of ber old, wherewith to put to silence tent might be enlarged, her cords the ignorance of foolish men. To lengthened, and her stakes made the national ecclesiastical esta- strong.

SPECTATOR.

REFLECTIONS AT THE CLOSE OF THE YEAR.

ARRIV'D at the close of the year,

In mercy I'm spared thus far;
And as yet it doth not appear,

What blessings are for me in store.
Rich blessings have crowned my head,

And with them my cup does o’erflow;
My footsteps in mercy are led,

And mercy attends where I go.
Unfruitful and barren I've been,

Deserving damnation and woe,
Yet mercy is still to be seen,

And mercy is all that I know.
The strength of my Saviour I left,

Confiding in weakness alone;
But of mercy I am not bereft;

Yea mercy around me hath shone.
In dangers I often have been,

Temptations assajled me sore:
But mercy hath stepped between,

And mercy the conflict hath bore.
Bereaved by death of my friends,

And left in the desart to stray ;
'Tis mercy a Comforter sends,

And mercy directeth my way.
Of mercy, how deep is the well !

Whạt blessings are in it contained!
To rivers and oceans it swells,

Its fountain can never be drain'd.
May mercy me ever attend,

Through years that may yet be to come;
In every danger befriend,

And peacefully guide,me quite home.
Then, landed in realms of delight,

I'll join with the chorus above;
When faith shall be turned to sight,

And I shall be perfect in love.
And mercy shall then be the theme,

For mercy hath taught me all this ;
'Twas mercy the captive redeem’d,

And mercy will bring me to bliss.

R. O.

REVIEW OF BOOKS. For the Oracles of God, Four Ora- which our author has assumed will

tions. For Judgment to Come, not allow us to pass over his work an Argument, in nine Parts. in silence, lest we should for one By the Rev. Edward Irving, moment be supposed to counteM. A. Minister of the Cale- nance that alteration in the style donian Church, Hatton Garden of public preaching, which he is

Hamilton. Pp. xii. and 548. avowedly endeavouring to effect. Sermons, by the late Rcv. William Many of our readers may not Richardson. Vol. II.--viii. and be aware, that Mr. Irving first

ap472.

peared in public in this metropolis Sermons, chiefly designed for the about two years since; and, after

Use of Families. By John labouring in comparative silence Fawcett, A. M. Third Edition. and obscurity, publishing a farewell 2 Vols.

address to his former people, which We have seldom felt more his friends concealed as much as strongly the difficulties of our si- possible, and speaking at the annituation, than while contemplating versaries of one or two religious chaa review of the volume of Mr. rities, in a way not very highly to Irving. Not that it is at all dif- advance his credit, he all at once, ficult to form a tolerably fair esti- at the commencement of the premate of the intrinsic merits of the sent year, burst forth with unusual work; which may, at once, be splendour; and attracted a degree pronounced to contain great ex- of attention and popularity, which, cellencies and great defects; not when the rank and character of his that it requires any great penetra- hearers are taken into the account, tion to determine the character of its has not, perhaps, been equalled author, who, manifestly, appears for the last half century. This nato possess great ardour of mind, turally produced a rapid circulation considerable vigour of intellect, a

of the volume before us; and as nalofty and unbending spirit, with a turally excited the attention of the fair proportion of political, philoso- public press, which for some time phical, and theological attainment; teemed with remarks and criticisms; but who, at the same time, is ex- with commendations and abuse; ceedingly deficient in judgment, until the public mind has been fairly in knowledge of the actual state of jaded with the hacknied theme. religion among ourselves, and in Still the inquiry is made by many deep acquaintance with the human of our readers, What is the chaheart; too much attached to spe- racter of the work? How far is it culative theories, and prone to in- deserving of our notice?. Are its dulge in rash and unguarded as- sentiments those on which we may sertions. But the real difficulty is, rely? May we justly adopt it as a how to draw the line between cen- model? sure and commendation, so as, on Our answer to such inquiries may the one hand, not rashly to counte- easily be inferred from the precenance that vehement outcry which ding remarks; and we now proceed has been excited against the au- to enter into somewhat more partithor, nor, on the other hand, to cular detail. induce any to copy an example Passing over the title, the style against which, in various respects, of which is altogether novel to the we must protest.

English ear, and is such as is only Difficult, however, as the duty pardonable in a foreigner, or a may be, it is one we are obviously schoolboy translating Latin, and called

upon to perform. The tone which at the same time gives a very

excuse.

ambiguous idea of the work to which ment, they speak to that man from a disit is prefixed, we naturally turn to tance, and at disadvantage. It is but a the Preface; and as the author has parley; it is no conference, nor treats, nor

barmonious communication. To this end, here clearly developed the light in they must discover new vehicles for conwhich he regards the labours of veying the truth, as it is in Jesus, into the others, and the end proposed by minds of the people; poetical, historical, his own publication, we shall in-. scientific, political, and sentimental resert the whole.

hicles. In all these regions some of the

population are domesticated with all their It hath appeared to the author of this

affections; who are as dear in God's sight book, from more than ten years meditation as are others; and why they should not upon the subject, that the chief obstacle to

be come at, why means should not be taken the progress of divine truth over the minds

to come at then, can any good reason be of men, is the want of its being properly assigned? They prepare men for teaching presented to ihem. In this Christian gipsies, for teaching bargemen, for teachcountry there are, perhaps, nine-tenths of ing miners; men who understand their every class who know nothing at all about

ways of conceiving and estimating trụth; the applications and advantages of the single why not train ourselves for teaching imatruths of revelation, or of revelation taken ginative wen, and political men, and legal as a whole: and what they do not know, men, and medical men? and, having got they cannot be expected to reverence or the key to their several chambers of deluobey. This ignorance, in both the bigher sion and resistance, why not enter into and and tbe lower orders, of religion, as a debate the matter with their souls? Then discerner of the thoughts and intentions of they shall be left without excuse; meanthe heart, is not so much due to the want while, I think, we ministers are without of inquisitiveness on their part, as to the want of a sedulous and skilful ministry on Moved by these feelings, I have set the the part of those to wbom it is entrusted.

example of two new methods of handling This sentiment may seem to convey a

religious truth the Oration, and the Arreflection upon the clerical order; but it gument; the one intended to be after the is not meant to reflect upon them so manner of the ancient oration; the best much, as to turn their attention to the

vehicle for addressing the minds of men subject. They must be conscious, that wbich the world hath seen; far beyond the reading is the food of thought, and thought Sermon, of 'wbich the very name hath the cause of action; and, therefore, in learned to inspire drowsiness and tedium: what proportion the reading of the people the other, after the manner of the anis impregnated with religious truth, in that cient Apologies, with this difference, that proportion will the conduct of a people be it is pleaded not before any judicial bar, guided into religious ways. We must, but before the tribunal of human thought therefore, lay our band upon the press as and feeling. The former are but specimens; well as the pulpit, and season its effusions

the latter, tbough most imperfect, is iowith an admixture of derout feeling and tended to be complete. The Orations are pious thought. But, whereas men read placed first in the volume, because the for entertainment and direction in their Oracles of God, which they exalt, are the several studies and pursuits, it becomes foundation of the Argument, which brings needful that we make ourselves adept in to reason and common feeling one of the these, and into the body of them all infuse

revelations wbich they contain, the balm of salvation, that when the people For criticism I bare given most plentiful consult for the present life, they may be occasion ; and I deprecate it not; for it is admonished, stealthily and skilfully invaded the free agitation of questions that brings with admonition of the life to come. So the truth to light. It has, also, been my that, until the servants and ministers of lot to bave a good deal of it where I could the living God do pass the limits of pulpit not meet it; and if I get a good deal more, theology and pulpit exbortation, and take I shall not grumble; for a book is the weapons in their hand, gathered out of property of the public, to do with it what every region in which the life of man, or

they like. The author's care of it is finishhis faculties, are interested, they shall ed when he hath giren it birth. The never havo religion triumph and domineer people are responsible for the rest. I bave in a country, as beseemeth her high ori- besought the guidance of the Almighty ginal, her native majesty, and ber eternity and his blessing very often ; and bave noof freely-bestowed well-being.

thing to beseech of men, but that they To this the ministers of religion should would look to themselves, and have mercy bear their attention to be called; for until

upon their own souls, they thus acquire the pass-word, which is to oonvey them into every man's encamp

This preface has called forth

as

never

severe consures from almost every it true, that the ministers of re-
quarter; nor are those censures by ligion are, as our author intimates,
any means unfounded. To us it without excuse? and must they
appears, that the chief obstacle materially alter their conduct, in
to the progress of divine truth, is order that religion may triumph
not the want of its being properly and domineer in a country as be-
presented; but the depravity of cometh her high original ? The
the human heart. This is the con- point is so important, that it, un-
demnation, that light is come into questionably, deserves our most
the world, and men loved dark- serious consideration.
neşs rather than light, because The inquiry, indeed, would be
their deeds were evil; for every very materially facilitated, had our
one that doeth evil hateth the light. `author clearly defined the persons
Accordingly, when he, who spake of whom he speaks, under the ge-

man spake, and who neral term-the servants and mi-
taught his hearers with authority, nisters of the living God: but yet,
and not as the scribes, exhibited as he numbers himself amongst
his divine lessons in the most at- such persons, we cannot suppose
tractive form, he was at once seen he adverts to those whose doc-
and hated of those whom he ad- trinal or practical sentiments ma-
dressed. So far from the igno- terially differ from his own; and
rance of religion being not due to we must, therefore, consider him
the want of inquisitiveness on the as speaking of the more serious
part of any in this country, we part of the clergy.
hesitate not to affirm, that the ig- The inquiry would be still fur-
norance of every man, who has a ther facilitated, did we exactly
Bible in his possession, and ability know what the author means, by
to read that Bible, is entirely owing passing the limits of pulpit thé-
to his want of inquisitiveness. It ology and pulpit exhortation ; by
is not that religion is abstruse, not training ourselves for teaching ima-
that the attainment of an adequate ginative men, and political men,
knowledge of it is difficult; but it and legal men, and medical men,
is because men have no heart to it; &c. If the author only means,
because they like not to retain that the ministers of religion should
God in their knowledge; because endeavour to adapt their discourses
they desire to continue at peace in to the particular classes of persons
sin, that they remain in ignorance. whom they address; that they
« This sentiment,"

says

should labour to understand and author, may seem to convey a remove the peculiar obstacles and reflection upon the clerical order; temptations which are met with by but it is not meant to reflect upon persons of different professions, them.”. Whatever Mr. I.'s inten- and should endeavour to adopt artions might be, it is quite obvious guments and illustrations from the that the passage does

various store-houses of science and a reflection; and the whole reason- philosophy, by which to explain, iling of the subsequent paragraph, lustrate, and enforce scriptural and of various passages in the body truth, we perfectly coincide with of the work, abundantly confirm his views; but this is nothing new; this idea. Nor do we see why the this has been enforced again and author should bring forwards his again; this has been the practice two new methods of handling reli- of eminent theologians and preachgious truth, had not the plan gene- ers in every age; and this can, rally pursued by the clergy been, therefore, by no means be justly to say the least, defective. characterized as passing the limits

But is this really the case? Is of pulpit theology and pulpit ex

our

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convey such

hortation. The writer, however, society. It is the excellence of evidently means more than this; Cecil, of Paley, and of Milner, and we must, therefore, remind that they speak on the most abhim, and all who may be disposed struse subjects in language intelto adopt his statements, that the ligible to all; in language so inScriptures expressly point out, as telligible, that you never think of the grand means of promoting the the terms which are used, but are advancement of true religion, the solely occupied with the ideas they preaching of the cross.

This was

convey. The attempt, indeed, to ihe peculiar characteristic of the discover new vehicles for conveyApostle's preaching; to this, un- ing the truth, as it is in Jesus, der the divine blessing, he espe- into the minds of the people; pocially looked for usefulness; and etical, historical, scientific, polithis very doctrine, which was, be tical, and sentimental vehicles, has it remembered, to the Jews a stum- been repeatedly made. Some of bling block, and to the Greeks fool- the Fathers tried the experiment; ishness, is declared to have been they, in consequence, introduced to them, which were called both a philosophical and platonized Jews and Greeks, Christ, the power Christianity; a religion, called of God and the wisdom of God. Christian, devoid of every thing

Nothing, indeed, can be con- peculiar to Christianity: a barren, ceived more contradictory in terms speculative, inefficient system. The than the account given by St. Paul experiment was tried again amongst of his own preaching at Corinth, ourselves, as Bishop Burnet menand the plan recommended by Mr. tions. The effect was, a mere system Irving.'And I, brethren, when of ethics; a cold, chilling, heartless, I came to you, came not with ex- religion, from which, through divine cellency of speech, or of wisdom, mercy, we are now in some meadeclaring unto you the testimony sure recovering. We cannot, thereof God, for I determined to know fore, but seriously deprecate the nothing among you save Jesus system which our author here reChrist, and him crucified. And I commends; and are not backward

you

in weakness; and in to confess, that new views and new fear, and in much trembling; and modes of propagating religious my speech, and my preaching, was truth, are ever contemplated by us not with enticing words of man's with considerable suspicion and apwisdom, but in demonstration of prehension. the Spirit and of power: that your We must here also protest against faith should not stand in the wis- those sweeping censures with which dom of men but in the power of even the serious parts of the clergy God,” Now, if St. Paul was, as are not unfrequently assailed in the pious and admirable Cecil con- the present day, and which Mr. jectures, 'raised up peculiarly to Irving's pages clearly countenance; • be an example to others, in la- censures which are at once impoli• bouring to discover the wisest way tic and unjust. No doubt, instances s of exhibiting the Gospel,' we are may be adduced where indolence, no longer justified in following our erroneous views as to the promises own reasonings, but are bound to of divine assistance, and multiplied observe his declarations, and copy and pressing engagements, either his example, with only such va- singly or unitedly, divert the atriations as the differing circum- ' tention of a minister from that stances of the times, &c. may re- course of diligent study and prequire; nor can we ever be justified paration which are necessary to in adopting a style of speech unin- render him efficient. The indistelligible to the lower classes of pensable necessity, also, of provid

was with

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