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INDIA RUBBER VARNISH. That India rubber dissolved in various liquids yields a good varnish is well known; but in general they are too viscid for delicate purposes, and are only good for making stuffs water-proof. India rubber liquified by heat, dissolved in oil of coal tar, or drying linseed oil, does not give e varnish of sufficient fluency or free from smell. Moreover, a considerable quantity of India rubber remains undissolved in a gelatinous state, suspended in the liquid, so that the solution is never clear. Dr. Bolly has recently published some remarks on this subject which may be useful. If India rubber be cut into small pieces and digested in sulphuret of carbon, a jelly will be formed; this must be treated with benzine, and thus a much greater proportion of caoutchouc will be dissolved than would be done by any other method. The liquid must be strained through a woollen cloth, and the sulphuret of carbon be drawn off by evaporation in a water bath ; after which, the remaining liquid may be diluted at will with benzine, by which means a transparent, but still yellowish liquid, will be obtained. A more colorless solution may be prepared by digesting India rubber cut into small pieces for many days in benzine, and frequently shaking the bottle which contains it. The jelly thus formed will partly dissolve, yielding a liquid which is thicker than benzine, and may be obtained very clear by filtration and rest. The residue may be separated by straining, and will furnish an excellent water-proof composition. As for the liquid itself, it incorporates easily with all fixed or volatile oils. It dries very fast, and does not shine, unless mixed with resinous varnishes. It is extremely flexible, may be spread in very thin layers, and remain unaltered under the influence of air and light. It may be employed to varnish geographical maps or prints, because it does not affect the whiteness of the paper, does not reflect light disagreeably as resinous varnishes do, and is not subject to crack or come off in scales. It may be used to fix black chalk or pencil drawings; and unsized paper, when covered with varnish, may be written on with ink.-Galignani.

SWISS CHEESE.

Each parish in Switzerland hires a man, generally from the district of Gruyere, in the Canton of Freyburgh, to take care of the herd and make the cheese; one cheeseman, one pressman or assistant, and one cowherd, are considered necessary for every forty cows. The owners of the cows get credit in a book for the quantity of milk given by each cow daily. The cheeseman and his assistants milk the cows, put the milk all together, and make cheese of it; and at the end of the season each owner receives the weight of cheese proportionable to the quantity of milk his cows have delivered. By this co-operative plan, instead of small-sized, unmarketable cheeses, which each owner could produce out of his three or four cows' milk, he has the same weight in large, marketable cheeses, superior in quality, because made by people who attend to no other business. The cheeseman and his assistants are paid so much per head of the cows in money or in cheese; or sometimes they hire the cows, and pay the owners in money or cheese. A similar system exists in the Frence Jura.

COTTON CROP OF THE UNITED STATES.

I. STATEMENT AND TOTAL AMOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31st August, 1861. II. PRODUCTION

OF EACH STATE IN 1850 AND IN 1861. III. PER CENTAGE OF PRODUCTION IN EACH STATE. IV. EXPORT FROM EACH Port. V. CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1847-1861.

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1,929,246

LOUIBIANA. Export from New-ORLEANSTo foreign ports,..

1,783,673 To cast wise porte,

132,179 Burnt at New Orleans,..

8,276 Stock, 1st September, 1861,. 10,118

Deduct-
Received from Mobile,

48,270 Received from Montgomery, &c., 11,551 Received from Florida,..

13,279 Received from Texas,

30,618 Stock, 1st September, 1860,. 73,934

ALABAMA. Erport from MOBILETo foreign ports,...

456,421 To coastwise ports,

127,574 Manufactured in Mobile, (est.,).. 2,000 Stock, 1st September, 1861,...... 2,481

Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,.....

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TEXAS.
Erport from GALVESTON, &c.-
To foreign ports,...

63,209 To coastwise ports,

84,254 Stock, 1st September, 1861,

452 Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,..

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Florida.
Erp. from APALACHICOLA, Sr. Marks, &c.
To foreign ports,

28,073 To coastwise ports,

85,953 Burnt at St. Marks, ..

150 Stock, 1st September, 1861,

7,860 Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,..

GEORGIA.
Erport from SAVANNAH-
To foreign ports-Uplands,...... 293,746

Sea Islands, 8,441
To coastwise ports-Uplands, .. 170,572

Sea Islands, 11,512
Stock in Savannah, 1st Sept., 1861, 4,102
Stock in Augusta, &c., 1 Aug., 5,991

Deduct-
Rec'd from Florida-Sea Islands, 1,033

Uplande,... 6,198
Stock in Savannah, 1st Sept., 1860, 4,807
Stock in Augusta, &c., 1 "

5,252
SOUTII CAROLINA.
Erp. from CHARLESTON & GEORGETOWN,
To foreign ports-Uplands,.. 199,345

Sea Islands,... 15,043
To coastwise ports-Uplands, ... 121,663

Sea Islands, 8,355 VOL. XLV.NO. V.

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Burnt at Charleston,..

564 Stock in Charleston, 1 Sept., 1861, 2,899

DeductReceived from Florida and Savannah-Sea Islands,..

255 Uplands,...

2,378 Stock in Charleston, 1 Sept., 1860, 8,897

NORTI CAROLINA.
Export-
To foreign ports,

195 To coastwise ports,

56,100
VIRGINIA.
Export-
To foreign ports,

810 To coast wise ports,

61,129
Manufactured, (taken from ports,) 16,998
Stock, 1st September, 1861,.... 2,000
Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,.....

TENNESSEE, &c.
Shipments from Memphis, 369,857
Nashville,

· 16,471 Columbus and Hickman, Ky......

5,500 Stock, 1st September, 1861,.... 1,671

Deduct-
Shipments to New Orleans, 196,866
Manufactured on the Ohio, &c.,. 52,000
Stock, 1st September, 1860,...... 1,709

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Total crop of the United States,

Decrease from crop of 1860, 1,013,684 bales; 1859, 195,395 bales. Increase over crop of 155s, 542,124 bales.

EXPORT OF COTTON TO FOREIGN PORTS,

From September 1, 1860, to August 31, 1861.

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35,197
2,483

6,113
216,250
295,072

93

Grand total,...
Total last year,
Decrease,

2,175,225
2,669,432

578,063
589,587

168,030
220,082
62,052

3,127,56S 3,774,178

494,207

11,524

78,822

646,605

COMPARATIVE CROP STATEMENT.

1860-1,.. 1859-60, 1658-9, 1857-8,. 1856–7, 1855–6,. 1854–5,.. 1853-4,. 1852-3,..

From the N. Y. Shipping and Commercial List.
Bales.
Bales.

Bale8.
... 8,656,086 1851-2,....... 8,015,029 1842–8,.. 2,378,875 1838-4,.....

4,669,770 1850–1,....... 2,855,257 1841-2,....... 1,688,574 1832–3,.....
3,551,481 1849–50,...... 2,096,706 1840–1,.. 1,634,945 1831-2,......
3,113,962 1848-9, 2,728,596 1839-40,...... 2,177,885 1880–1,.
2,939,519 1847-8,.... 2,347,634 1838-9,....... 1,860,582 1829–30,
3,527,845 1846–7,... 1,778,651 1837-8,..... 1,801,497 1828–9,..
2,847,839 1845–6,. ...... 2,100,587 1886–7,....... 1,422,930 1827-8,....
2,980,027 1844–5..... 2,394,503 1835-6,.. 1,860,725 1826-7,.....
3,262,882 1813-4... 2,030,409 1834–5,... 1,254,828 1825–6,.....

Bales. 1,205,894 1,070,488

987,477 1,038,848

976,845 870,415 727,598 957,281 720,027

CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1861.

.. bales, 3,656,056

Total crop of the United States as before stated,..
Add stocks on hand at the commencement of the year, 1st Sept., 1860:

In the Southern ports,..
In the Northern ports,..

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Makes a supply of.......
Deduct therefrom-
The export to foreign ports,.

8,127,568
Less, foreign included,.

701 Stocks on hand, 1st September, 1861 : In the Southern ports,..

87,574 In the Northern ports, .

45,613 Burnt at New Orleans, St. Marks, Charleston and Philadelphia, . 4,390 Manufactured in Virginia and Mobile,....

18,993

83,187

23,883

Taken for home use north of Virginia,....

.bales, Taken for home use in Virginia and South and West of Virginia,..

Total consumed in the United States, (including burnt at the ports,) 1860–61,... “

8,283,437

650,357 193,883

843,740

Estimate of the amount of cotton consumed the past year in the States South and West of Virginia, and not included in the receipts at the ports. Thus :

1854, 1855. 1856. 1857. 1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. North Carolina, bales,, 20,000 .. 18,500 .. 22,000 .. 25,000 .. 26,000 .. 29,000 .. 80,000 .. 33,00 South Carolina, ..... 12,000 .. 10,500.. 15,000 .. 17,000 .. 18,000 .. 20,000 .. 21,000 .. 24,000 Georgia,...

23,000 .. 20,500 .. 25,000 .. 23,000 .. 24,000 .. 26,000 .. 28,000 .. 32,000 Alabama,

6,000 .. 5,500 .. 6,500 .. 5,000 .. 8,000 .. 10,000 .. 11,000 .. 12,000 Tennessee,

6,000. 4,000. 7,000 .. 9,000.. 10,000 .. 13,000 .. 15,000 .. 17,000 On the Ohio, &c., . 38,000 .. 26,000 .. 42,000 .. 88,000 .. 39,000 .. 45,000 .. 49,000 .. 52,000 Total to Sept. 1, bales, 103,000 85,000 117,500 117,000 125,000 143,000 154,000 170,000

To which, if we add (for the past year) the stocks in the interior towns 1st September, (say 6,200 bales,) the quantity detained in the interior, (say 25,000 bales,) and that lost on its way to market, (9,000 bales,) to the crop as given above, received at the shipping ports, the aggregate will show, as near as may be, the amount raised in the United States

the

past season—say, in round numbers, 3,866,000 bales, (after deducting 300 bales new crop received this year to 1st ult.,) against Bales. Bales. Bales.

Bales. 1860, 4,805,800 1857, .3,014,000 1854, .8,000,000 1851,.. .2,450,000 1859, .4,017,000 1856, .3,335,000 1853,. ..3,360,000 1850,. .2,212,000 1858, .3,247,000 1855, .8,186,000 1852.. .3,100,000 1849, .2,840,000

The quantity of new cotton received at the shipping ports to 1st September was, in Bales. Bales.

Bales.

Bales. 1861, 300 1854, 1,890 1847,

1,121 1840,

30,000 1860, 51,600 1853, 6,716 1846,

200 1839. ...no account. 1859, 12,369 1852, 5,125 1845,

7,500 1888, 1858, 8,031 1851, 8,200 1844,

7,500 1837, 1857, 100 1850, 255 1843,

800 1886,

9,702 1856, 1,800 1849,

575 1842,
3,000 1535,

8,424 1855, 26,079 1848,.. 8,000 1841, 82,000 1834,

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STATEMENT SHOWING THE AMOUNT OF COTTON CONSUMED YEARLY IN THE UNITED

STATES, FROM 1847 to 1861.

Total, Foreign
Year.
North of Elsewhere. United

export

Total crop.
Virginia.

States. and stock.
Bales,
Bales.
Bales,
Bales,

Bales. 1847-8,

523,892 92,162 616,044 1,731,590 2,347,634 1848-9,

504,143 138,342 642,485 2,086,111 2,728,596 1849-50,

476,486 137,012 613,498 1,483,208 2,096,706 1850-1,.

386,429 99,185 485,614 1,869,643 2,355,257 1851-2,

588,322 111,281 699,603 2,315,426 3,015,029 1852–3,.

650,393 153,332 803,725 2,459,157 3,262,882 1853-4,.

592,284 144,952 737;236 2,192,791 2,930,027 1854-5,.

571,117 135,295 706,412 2,140,927 2,847,339 1855-6,

633,027 137,712 770,739 2,757,106 3,527,845 1856–7,

665,718 154,218 819,936 2,119,583 2,939,519 1857-8,.

452,185 143,377 595,562 2,518,400 3,113,962 1858-9,

760,218 167,433 927,651 2,923,830 3,851,481 1859–60,

786,521 185,522 972,043 3,677,727 4,669,770 1860-1,

650,357 193,383 843,740 2,812,346 3,656,086

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COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE PRODUCTION OF COTTON IN THE UNITED STATES FOR

THE YEARS 1860-61 AND 1849-50, AND PER CENTAGE OF EACH STATE AT THOSE PERIODS.

1860-61.

1849-50.

Louisiana,..
Alabama,
Texas,
Florida,..
Georgia,
South Carolina,
North Carolina,
Virginia,
Tennessee,
Mississippi,
Arkansas,
Kentucky and Indiana,..

Bales. 1,751,599

546,794 144,747 121,172 477,684 336,339 56,295 78,132 143,424

Per centage.

47.90
14.95
3.96
3.31
13.06
9.20
1.54
2.13
3.95

Bales. 178,737 564,429 67,596 45,131 499,091 300,901 73,849

3,947 194,532 484,293 65,346

772

Per centage.

7.24 22.87 2.33

1.83 20.22 12.19 2.99

.16 7.88 19.62 2.64 .03

Bales,..

3,656,086 . 100.

2,468,624

. 100.

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