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may hereafter be granted, and ten copies of the drawings of the same, when drawings shall accompany the patents: Provided, The cost of printing the text of said descriptions and claims shall not exceed, exclusive of stationery, the sum of two cents per hundred words for each of said copies, and the cost of the drawing shall not exceed fifty cents per copy; one copy of the above number shall be printed on parchment, to be affixed to the letters patent; the work shall be under the direction, and subject to the approval of the commissioner of patents, and the expense of the said copies shall be paid for out of the patent fund. Sec. 15. And be it further enacted, That printed copies of the letters patent of the United States, with the seal of the Patent Office affixed thereto, and certified and signed by the commissioner of patents, shall be legal evidence of the contents of said letters patent in all cases. Sec. 16. And be it further enacted, That all patents hereafter granted shall remain in force for the term of seventeen years from the date of issue; and all extensions of such patents is hereby prohibited. Sec. 17. And be it further enacted, That all acts and parts of acts heretofore passed, which are inconsistent with the provisions of this act, be, and the same are hereby repealed.

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Many valuable inventions are yearly introduced into Europe from the United States, by parties ever on the alert to pick up whatever they can lay their hands upon which may seem useful. Models are not required in any European country, but the utmost care and experience are necessary in the preparation of each case. We copy from “The Scientific American.” Great Britain.-From a synopsis of the patent laws, published in the Scientific American, it appears that patents for inventions, under the new law, as amended by the act of October 1, 1852, and now in operation, include the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in one grant, which confers the exclusive right to make, use, exercise or vend. This is conceded to the inventor or the introducer for a period of fourteen years, subject, after the patent is granted and the first expenses paid, to a government tax twice during its existence, once within three years, and once again within seven. The purchaser of a patent would assume the payment of these taxes. There is no provision in the English law requiring that a patented invention shall be introduced into public use within any specified limit. Under the patent act of October, 1852, the British government relinquished its right to grant patents for any of its colonies, each colony being permitted to regulate its own patent system. If a patent has been previously taken out in a foreign country, the British patent will expire with it. France.—Patents in France are granted for a term of fifteen years, unless the invention has been previously secured by patent in some other country; in such case it must take date with and expire with the previous patent. After the patent is issued the French government requires the payment of a small tax each year, so long as the patent is kept alive, and two years' time is given to put the invention patented into practice. It should be borne in mind, that, although the French law does not require that the applicant should make oath to his papers, yet if a patent should be obtained by any other person than the inventor, upon proof being adduced to this effect before the proper tribunal, the patent would be declared illegal. Belgium.—Patents in Belgium are granted for twenty years, or, if previously patented in another country, they expire with the date thereof. The working of the invention must take place within one year from date of patent, but an extension for an additional year may be obtained on application to the proper authorities. Inventors are only legally entitled to take out patents. The Netherlands-Patents are granted by the Royal Institute of the Netherlands to natives or foreigners, represented by a resident subject, which extend to a period of about two years, within which time the invention must be brought into use, and, upon payment of an additional tax, a patent will be granted to complete its whole term of fifteen years. Unless these conditions are complied with the patent ceases. Prussia.-Applications for patents in Prussia are examined by the Royal Polytechnic Commission; and unless there is novelty in the invention the applicant's petitiën will be denied; and if it is granted, the invention must be worked within six months afterward. A respite, however, of six additional months may be obtained, if good and sufficient reasons for it can be shown. Austria.-Austrian j are granted for a term of fifteen years, upon the payment of one thousand florins, or about five hundred dollars in American currency. This sum, however, is not all required to be paid in advance. It is usual to pay the tax for the first five years upon the deposit of the papers, and the patent must be worked within its first year. The Emperor can extend the patent and privilege of working by special grant. In order to obtain a patent in Austria, an authenticated copy of the original letters patent must be produced. Spain.—The duration of a Spanish patent of importation is five years, and can be prolonged to ten years; and the invention is to be worked within one year and one day. To obtain a Cuban patent requires a special application and an extra charge. Russia.-Since the close of the Crimean war considerable attention has been given to Russian patents by Americans. Russia is a country rich in mineral and agricultural products, and there seems to be a field open for certain kinds of improvements. The present Emperor is very liberally disposed towards inventors, and, as an evidence of the interest which he takes in the progress of mechanic arts, we may state that we have had visits from two distinguished Russian savans, specially sent out by the Emperor to examine American inventions. As Russian patents are expensive and somewhat difficult to obtain, we do not take it upon ourselves to advise applications; inventors must judge for themselves; and this remark applies not only to Russia, but also to all other foreign countries. Canada.-Patents of invention are granted only to actual residents of Canada and British subjects. Under the general patent law of Canada, an American cannot procure a patent for his invention there. The only way in which he can do so is by virtue of a special act of Parliament, which is very difficult, uncertain and expensive to obtain. Several zealous friends of reform in Canada are working earnestly to bring about a reciprocal law, but their efforts have thus far proved fruitless.

British India. The date of the law, February 28, 1856; duration of a patent, fourteen years. Invention must be worked within two years from date of petition. Privilege granted only to the original inventor or his authorized agent in India.

Saxony.Duration of patent, from five to ten years. Invention must be worked within one year from date of grant. Careful examination made before granting a patent.

Hanover. - Duration of patent, ten years; and in case of foreign patent having been previously obtained, an authenticated copy of said patent must be produced. Invention must be worked within six months from date of grant.

Sardinia.—Duration of patent, from one to fifteen years. Patents for five years or less must be worked within one year, and all others within

Norway and Sweden.—Duration of patent, three years at least, fifteen at most, according to the nature and importance of the invention. Patents for foreign inventions not to exceed the term granted abroad, and to be worked within one, two or four years.

Australia.Date of law, March 31, 1854. Careful examination made by competent persons previous to issue of patent, which, when granted, extends to fourteen years. Imported inventions are valid according to duration of foreign patent. It would require from twelve to eighteen months to procure a patent from the Australian government.

two years.






QUICKSILVER. The quantities of quicksilver exported from San Francisco during the first half of each of the last five years, and the market rate at the close of each period, were as follow :

First six months of 1857,....

11,938 flasks, Value per lb., June 30th, 65 cents.

13,452 1859,.. 581

65 3,799

$1 1861,.. 14,797

40 cents. It appears, from the data of the present year, that quicksilver is resuming the importance which it had attained prior to the suspension of the New-Almaden mine. The full operation of those extensive works, and the important progress constantly making in others, swell the export of this year to larger dimensions than ever, and have produced a corresponding reduction of its current value for that purpose. A much larger quantity can be produced, and a large increase in the export may be looked for.


COCOA NUT OIL. The production of cocoanut oil on islands in the Pacific is increasing. On June 11th the Hawaiian schooner Marilda arrived at Honolulu in twelve days from Fanning's Island, bringing 12,000 gallons of cocoanut oil. She reported every thing at the island prospering. On her return she was to take the new oil-press constructed by Mr. Hughes, at the Honolulu foundry, which will enable the proprietors to double the sent manufacture of oil, at a much reduced cost of labor.


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That India rubber dissolved in various liquids yields a good varnish is well known; but in general they are too viscid for delicate purposes, and are only good for making stuffs water-proof. India rubber liquified by heat, dissolved in oil of coal tar, or drying linseed oil, does not give e varnish of sufficient fluency or free from smell. Moreover, a considerable quantity of India rubber remains undissolved in a gelatinous state, suspended in the liquid, so that the solution is never clear. Dr. Bolly has recently published some remarks on this subject which may be useful. If India rubber be cut into small pieces and digested in sulphuret of carbon, a jelly will be formed; this must be treated with benzine, and thus a much greater proportion of caoutchouc will be dissolved than would be done by any other method. The liquid must be strained through a woollen cloth, and the sulphuret of carbon be drawn off by evaporation in a water bath; after which, the remaining liquid may be diluted at will with benzine, by which means a transparent, but still yellowish liquid, will be obtained. A more colorless solution may be prepared by digesting India rubber cut into small so. for many days in benzine, and frequently shaking the bottle which contains it. The jelly thus formed will partly dissolve, yielding a liquid which is thicker than benzine, and may be obtained very clear by filtration and rest. The residue may be separated by straining, and will furnish an excellent water-proof composition. As for the liquid itself, it incorporates easily with all fixed or volatile oils. It dries very fast, and does not shine, unless mixed with resinous varnishes. It is extremely flexible, may be spread in very thin layers, and remain unaltered under the influence of air and light. It may be employed to varnish geographical maps or prints, because it does not affect the whiteness of the paper, does not reflect light disagreeably as resinous varnishes do, and is not subject to crack or come off in scales. It may be used to fix black chalk or pencil drawings; and unsized paper, when covered with varnish, may be written on with ink-Galignani.

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Each parish in Switzerland hires a man, generally from the district of Gruyere, in the Canton of Freyburgh, to take care of the herd and make the cheese; one cheeseman, one pressman or assistant, and one cowherd, are considered necessary for every forty cows. The owners of the cows et credit in a book for the quantity of milk given by each cow daily. The cheeseman and his assistants milk the cows, put the milk all together, and make cheese of it; and at the end of the season each owner receives the weight of cheese proportionable to the quantity of milk his cows have delivered. By this co-operative plan, instead of small-sized, unmarketable cheeses, which each owner could produce out of his three or four cows' milk, he has the same weight in large, marketable cheeses, superior in uality, because made by people who attend to no other business. The o and his assistants are paid so much per head of the cows in money or in cheese; or sometimes they hire the cows, and pay the owners in money or cheese. A similar system exists in the Frence Jura.




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LOUISIANA. Export from New-ORLEANSTo foreign ports,...

1,783,678 To cast wise porte,

132,179 Burnt at New Orleans,

3,276 Stock, 1st September, 1861,. 10,118

Received from Mobile, .

48,270 Received from Montgomery, &c., 11,551 Received from Florida,..

13,279 Received from Texas,

80,613 Stock, 1st September, 1860,. 78,934

ALABAMA. Erport from MOBILETo foreign ports,...

456,421 To coast wise ports,

Manufactured in Mobile, (est.,).. 2,000
Stock, 1st September, 1861,.. 2,481
Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,..

Erport from Galveston, &c.-
To foreign ports,...

63,209 To coast wise ports,

84,254 Stock, 1st September, 1861,

452 Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,...

1,751,599 2,139,425 1,669,274 1,576,409

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Erp. from APALACHICOLA, Sr. Marks, &c.
To foreign ports,..

28,073 To coastwise ports,

85,953 Burnt at St. Marks.

Stock, 1st September, 1861,
Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,...

Export from SAVANNAH-
To foreign ports-Uplands,...... 293,746

Sea Islands, .. 8,441
To coastwise ports-Uplands, ... 170,572

Sea Islands, 11,512
Stock in Savannah, 1st Sept., 1861, 4,102
Stock in Augusta, &c., 1 Aug., " 5,991

Rec'd from Florida-Sea Islands, 1,033

Uplands... 6,138
Stock in Savannah, 1st Sept., 1860, 4,307
Stock in Augusta, &c., 1 "

South CarolIXA.
To foreign ports-Uplands,..... 199,845

Sea Islands,... 15,043
To coastwise ports-Uplands, 121,663

Sea Islands,

8,855 VOL. XLV.NO. V.



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