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E chinò gli occhi, e l'ultime parole
Ritener volle, e non ben le distense.
Virg. iv. 114
The noble corage never weeneth ought Flasht through her face, as it had beene a fiake That may unwortby of itselfe be thought.] The noble Of lightning through bright heven fulmined. This mind never entertains a thought unworthy of itis most elegantly expreffed ; Milton falls short felf. Corage is used for heart or mind, often by of this picturesque expression, which he plainly our poet, as well as by Chaucer. Vir bonus,
, non had in his mind.
modo facere, fed ne cogitare quidem quidquam audeTo whom the angel with a sinile that glow'd bit, quod non audeat praedicare. Cic. Off. L. iii. Celestial rosie red, loves proper hue. viii. 618. This is the greatest instance of that self-reve
rence, which every honest man pays to his own Fulmined is likewise a word which Milton uses, mind': Πάντων δε μάλισ’ αισχύνεο σαντ ν was the speaking of the orators, who
Pythagorean precept: indeed this is the highest Shook the arsenal, and fulinined over Greece.
ftate of moral freedom ; namely, to have it in Par. Reg. iv.
our power to give a final answer to perturbed Milton alludes to a well known Greek verfe passions, and to controul evil phantasms, and applied to Pericles.
to check unworthy thoughts : these are the VI.
monsters which the goodly knights are expelFayre Sir, I let you wee:e.—-] If the reader will ling from Fairy land.—By the bye does not at his leisure compare this and the following Milton bring God too much down from heastanza with what is faid of Clarinda in Taflo, ven to earth, when he introduces Adam thus ii . 39, 40. Of Camilla in Virgil, vii. 803.
discoursing to Eve? V. 117. And of Albyte in Silius, Ital. ii. 68. he may Evil into the Mind of God, or man, fee s me plain imitations. However unnatural May come and go, fo unapprovd, and leave fighting ladies and heroines appear in plain No spot or blame. profe, yet they make no unpoetical figure, For evil in no lhape or guize approaches the when set off with a lively imagination: and divine mind : should we not correct the conyet old Homer admits no earthly fcmales to
text, and thus read?
Evil into the mind of Gods, or man-
Gods, for the angelical order is frequently used
John xvi. 21.
on B. i. C. 1. St. 35. our poet had Taslo in view, where Erminia
XIII. fearing the has discovered her love, casting down her eyes, wishes to have recalled her last Let bee therefore my vengeance to diffwade.] Let bee, words :
let alone ; omit. Let be thy deep advise, B. ii. 3
"11. xxii. 127.
C. 3. St. 16. So too B. ii. C. 6. St 28. Matth. Illi autem ego obvius ibo etiamsi igni vi manús fimilis xxvii. 49. Let be, let us fee, whether Elias will come to save him. Dryden has very judiciously Si igni vî manús fimilis est, animoque rutilo ferro.
Hom. II. xx. 371. and expressively used this old phrase in his well-told tale of Theodore and Honoria,
–άτε παρθένου ήθεός τε, -Let be, said he, my prey,
Παρθένου ήθεός τ' εαρίζετoν αλλήλοισιν, ,
-Ceu virgo juvenisq;
Virgo juvenisque confabulantur inter fe.
-ο μεν έμπεδον ηνιόχευεν,
-alter quidem conftanter equos regebat, pents.
Confianter aquos regebat, alter vero scutica instabat. Frigidus in pratis contando rumpitur anguis.
Il. xxii 641 Virg. Ecl. viii. 71. Ille, velut pelagi rupes immota, refiftit ; Vipereas rumpo verbis & carmine fauces.
Ut pelagi rupes
Virg. vii. 586. Ov. Met. vii. 203. Thus the Son of God in Milton iii. 153. emTo this pretended power of magick the Pfal- phatically, and from scripture language likemift alludes where he mentions the deaf adder, wife, fee Gen. xviii. 25. that refuses to hear the voice of the charmer, charm
That be from thee far, he never so wisely
. And from this passage of the That far be from thee, Father. Pfalmist
' is to be explained what Samson says in That far be from thee, Father. Milton,
Presently after God says of Man So much of adders wisdom I have learnt
Upheld by me, yet once more he shall fana
On even ground against his mortal foe :
By me upheld-
Evil be thou my good ; by Thee at least cords in mufick, seems translated from a sayiug Divided empire with heav'ns king I hold, of Heraclitus, who compared the disagreeing By Thee, and more than half perhaps will reign, elements, and physical and moral evils, in this As man eré long, aud this new world fall know. world, to discords in musick ; 'tis from these discords rightly attempered, that the greatest Let me add, that this verse divided empire with harmony arises. See Aristot. Ethic. L. viii. C. I
beav'ns king I hold, is translated from that εκ των διαφερόντων καλλίσην αρμονίαν.
known verse of Virgil, XVI. XVII.
Divisum imperium cum Jove Carfar l'abet. All which the red-crosje knight to point ared,
Observe too here that elegant mixture of tenses. And him IN EVERIE POINT before her fashioned.
BY THEE, viz. Evil, I do now hold. BY THEL, Yet him IN EVERIE PART before she knew.] This and perhaps will reign more than half, &c. But is the reading of the Folio's. But I have fol to give more convincing instances of the beaulowed the more authentic, the two old quarto
ty of this repetition-I said un.o the ungodly, Set editions : the line above to point ared, seems to not up your horn. Set not up your horn on bigh, have caught the printer's eye. This repeti- and speak not with a fiff neck. Pfal. lxxv. 5: 1 tion (And him in everie part before her fashioned, will mock when your fear comet). When your fear yet him in everie part before she knew) is frequent cometh as desolation, Prov.i. 26. Sometimes this in our poet, as we shall see hereafter. But first repetition is for the sake of perspicuity, as the I would observe that 'tis likewise the practise of following in Milton ii. 910, 917. the best poets to repeat the very fame words,
into this wild alyss, either for the sake of emphasis, pathos, or cor
The womb of nature, and perhaps her graverection.
Into this will abyss the wary fiend Τα δ' εγώ άντιος είμι, και εν πυρί χείρα Fέoικεν, Stood on the brink of hell, and lakl awhile 'Εν πυρί χείρα Fέοιχε, μένος δ' άιθων σιδήρω.
Pond'ring his vejage
In these verses of Milton there is a oúrxvors, And Records of antiquitiewhich Spenser often uses; The wary fiend ponder. To which no wit of man may comen neare ; ing his voyage into this wild abyss, &c. Instances of As Boyardo and Ariosto often refer to Archbithis kind of repetition, with correction, are to shop Turpin, to authenticate their wonderful be met with in B. i. Č. 2. St. 44, 45. And tales; so our poet refers to certain BookES, REB. i. C. 4. St. 8, 9. both which places I have
CORDES OR ROLLES. Juft in the same manner taken notice of. I will here add some other Cervantes in his Don Quixote (where we find instances, and the reader may supply the rest if perpetual allusions to Boyardo, Ariosto, and he chooses : 'tis observable that this repetition the romance writers) pleasantly endeavours to our poet often makes at the close of one Stanza make his stories authentic, by fathering them and at the beginning of the other.
upon one Cid Hamet an Arabian historiograAnd watch the noyous night, and wait for joyous day. pher.
Ibid. The joyous day gan early to appeare,
B. i. C. 11. St. 50, 51. In Deheubarth, that now South-wales is hight, So faire and fresh that lady shewd herselfe in fight: What time king Ryence raign d and dealed right,] In
Deheubarth, i. e. Southwales : for when Wales So faire and fresh, as freshest flowre in May; B. i. c. 12. St. 21, 22.
was divided into three principalities, the coun
tries of the Sileures and Dimeta were called That the words might exactly correspond, by the natives Deheubarth, and by the English which is usual ; perhaps our poet wrote the fol- South-wales.-King Ryence of Wales is very lowing verses after this manner,
often mentioned in the History of Prince Arthur. Oft had he feene her faire, but ne'er so fairely dight.
Ibid. So fairely dight when she in presence came,
The great magitian Merlin had deviz'd, B. i. Č. 12. St. 23, 24. By his deepe science and hell-dreaded might, In which was nothing pourtrahed nor wrought; Å looking-glase-] The poet just hints at this Not wrought nor pourtrahed, but easie to be story above, c. 1. St. 8. where he tells us Brithought :
B. ii. C. 9. St. 33. tomart had left her country, Britain, to seek Qut of his wavering seat him pluckt perforse, Arthegall in Faery land, Perforse him pluckt, and laying thwart her horse- Whose image shee had seene in Venus looking-glas.
B. iii. C. 7. St. 43. Meaning those talismanick or magical looking Thy name, o foveraine queene, to blazon far glasses, which had virtue in them to discover at away.
any distance either persons, or secrets, or things Thy name, o soveraine queene, thy realme and to come. This art in Greek was called Katoma race, ,
B. ii. C. 10. St. 3, 4. Ipomartása a divination by mirrours. A mirrour And smote him on the knee that never yet was bent.
of like sort is mentioned in the Squires Tale in It never yet was bent, ne bent it now.
Chaucer.-But perhaps our poet had his eye B. vi. C. 8. St. 16. more particularly on the Episode in the Lusiad, XVIII.
by Luis de Camoens, Canto x. where Vasco de As it in books hath written beene of old,] So in
Gama is sewn a globe, representing the uniB. iii. C. 6. St. 6.
versal frame or fabrick of the world, in which
he saw future kingdoms and future events. As it in antique BOOKES is mentioned.
XX. And in B. iv. C. 11. St. 8, and St. 10.
But who does wonder, that has red the towre, --as we in RECORDS read)
Wherein th' Aegyptian Phao long did lurke What bookes and records are these? These are From all mens vew, that none might her discoure, the Bookes (mentioned in B. ii. C. 9. St. 40.) Yet she might all men verv out of her bowre? containing the antiquities of Fairy land: theré Great Ptolomæe it for his lemans Jake are the antique rolles and volumes,
Ybuilded all of glasje, by magicke powre, Of Faerie knights and fayrest Tanaquill
And also it impregnable did make;
Yet when his love was false he with a peaze it brake.]
Great Ptolomæl, so the old quartos and folios : Sce too B. iii. C. 3. St. 4. and B. iv. C. xi. in Hughes, Great Ptolomy : 'tis not improbable
that Spenser gave it Great Ptolomee: meaning -Those Rolles layd up in heaven above, perhaps Ptolomy Philadelphus. The strange
story here told, Spenser perhaps had from the placed magical looking glasses. Old Gower
get the better of: overthrow. Convincere. • ftood the palace of Alexander; and another Shakespeare uses it in the same sense very often. lying by, and like it, half buried in rubbige.
XXIII. "Without the walls on the south-west side of
But as it falleth, in the gentlest harts the city [ Alexandria] on a little hill stands a columne of the fame, all of stone, 86 palmes Infern. Canto v.
Imperious Love hath highest fet his throne.) Dante, "high, and 36 in compasse, the palme consisting of 9 inches and a quarter, according to the
Amor, ch' al cor gentil ratto s' apprende. measure of Genoa, as measured for Zigal
XXV. * Bafla by a Genoese; set upon a square cube; His crest was covered with a couchant hound] I for- and which is to be wondered at, not halfe fo merly said that Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton large as the foot of the pillar; called by the
was imaged in Arthegall, which name correl' Arabians Hemadefaeor, which is the column of the Arabians. They tell a fable, how that ponds to his Christian name Arthur, and means
Arthur's peer-The arms here likewise feem deone of the Ptolomies erected the same in the • furthest extent of the haven, to defend the city ings (the heralds say) are very ancient, and are
vised in allusion to his name, Gray: such bearfrom navall incursions, having placed A MA
called Rebusses. For Griseum in the barbarous GICALL GLASSE OF Steele on the top; of Latin age fignified fine furr or ermin. Gall.
vertue (if uncovered) to set on fire such ships Gris. as failed by: but fubverted by enemies, the
glafle loft that power, who in this place I see his fieeves purfiled at the hand re-erected the column: but by the western
With GRYS • Christians it is called the pillar of Pompey;
Ch. Prol. to the Canterb. Tales. and is said to have been reared by Cæsar as a
And on his shield envelop'd sevenfold memorial of his Pompeyan victory.' Let me He bore a crowned little ermilin, add likewise the following account, which I That deckt the azure field with her fayre pouldred skin. have transcribed from A description of Africa by John Leo, a More, translated by John Pory. • Six i. e. the field was azure and the powdering miles westward of Alexandria, among certaine sable: the field was azure, because azure figniancient buildings, ftandeth a pillar of a won fies loyalty, chastity, and fidelity; which virtues derfull height and thicknesse, which the Ara- eminently shine in Arthegall. The crest likewise
bians call Hemadassar, that is to say, the pile of the knight's helmet is a Gray hound, cou·lar of trees : of this pillar there is a fable re chant.—But of this imaging the knights of
ported that Ptolomey one of the kings of Queen Elizabeth's court under the fictitious * Alexandria built it upon an extreme point of names of Fairy Knights, I have spoken already • land, stretching from the haven; whereby to in the preface. 'Tis in this stanza faid, that ' the end he might defend the city from the in- Arthegall won and wore the arms of Achilles.
vasion of foreign enemies, and make it invin- The poet does not give any hint, how he won cible, he placed a certaine fteel-glasse upon them : perhaps this circumstance might have the top thereof, by the hidden vertue of which been cleared up in fome subsequent canto : but glasse as many ships as passed by, while the as the poem is not finished, several minuter cirglass was uncovered, should immediately be cumstances must be unfinished likewise. The let on fire; but the said glaffe being broken proper place to have told this story feems in the Ć
by the Mahumetans, the secret virtue thereof Vth. Book, containing the legend of Arthegal. • vanished, and the great pillar whereon it stood In Boyardo, Orl. Innam. L. iii. Mandricardo ' was removed out of the place. But this is a wins the arms of Hector ; and to this story
most ridiculous narration and fit only for Ariosto alludes, Orl. Fur. xiv. 30, 31. And
babes to give credit unto.' The same kind as Mandricardo a Sarazin wins the arms of of story is told of Hercules, that he erected pil. Hector a Trojan, from which Trojans deJars at cape Finifter, on the top of which he scended Charles the Great and prince Arthur;
so Arthegal wins the arms of Achilles, the fatal
Ibid. enemy of Hector and the Trojans.
Like an huge Aetre' of deepe engulfed gryefe.] 'Tis XXVII.
a proverbial expression. Aetna malorum. Onus
Actná gravius. Thenceforth the fether in her lofty crest, Ruffed of love, gan lowly to availe.] The pro Asyidutan montes, Aetnae omnes, afperi Athenes, verb says, the feuther in her cap was pluckt.
Lucil. apud A. Gell. xvi. C. 9. Ruffed, is the fame as ruffled; See Junius in Sofirando piangea tal, ch' un ruscello RUFF.
Parean le guance, E'L PETTO UN MONGIBELLO. Ibid.
Ariosto, i. 40. 2 et wist she was not well at ease perdy.] Chaucer
XXXIV. frequently uses pardy (Gall. par dieux) as a kind And her faire dewy eyes–) Virg. ver. 253. of expletive. So does Fairfax, xvii. 2.
Dulcia deinde genis rorantibus oscula figens, So Phidias car v'd, Apelles fo (pardie)
Prosequitur miferae caufas exquirere tabis.
Ah nurse, what needeth thee to eke my payne !
Is [it] not enough that l alone dee dye.] It should Her aged nourse
, whose name was Glauce hight-] be blotted out, 'tis an error of the press. See Spenser having here a story to tell of his own,
note on B. i. C. 9. St. 38. takes and leaves, what likes him beft, from other authors.-Glauce was the mother of Di Illa autem, quid nunc me, inquit, nutricula torques ? ana: Dianae autem plures-tertiae pater, Upis tra
Virg. Cir. ver. 257. ditur, Glauce mater, Cicero de Nat. Deor. iii. 23. presently after, And Carme was the mother of Britomart.
That blinded god, which bath ye blindly smit, Paufanias, Διός δε και Κάρμης της Ευβέλα Βριτόμαρτιν gevágban. But the author of the poem named perhaps the printer miftook the abbreviation; Ciris, which passes under Virgil's name, varies and he should have printed it thee from Pausanias,
XXXVI. Quam fimul Ogygii Phoenicis filia Carme But mine is not, quoth she, like other wound.] So Surgere fenfit anus
the first edition, but other editions, others : Corripit extemplo felam languore puellam ;
Non ego consueto mortalibus uror amore.
But reither god of love, nor god of Skye These verses Spenser has plainly imitated,
Can doe, said she that which cannot be done.] God of
Skye, Ziùs ezávios, Jupiter aethereus. He cannot doe Betwixt her feeble arms her quickly keight,
impoflibilities and contradictions. Corripit extemplo,
XXXVII. Ah my dearest dread, O nobis facrum caput. See note on Introd. to B. i. St. 4.
For no, no usuall fire, no usuall rage For not of nought theje Juddein ghastly feares- i. e. Yt is, o nurse, which on my life doth feed.] It is for 'tis not for nothing, &c.
not improbable but the poet gave it, Non tibi nequidquam
For KNOW, no usuall fire, &c.
Ev vodu, Scito, profectò, &c.
Nam nemo illorum quisquam, scito, ad te venit. is that? But he has poeticai licence for such ex.
Terent. Hec. Act. 1. Sc. I. travagancies, which gives life and energy to the inanimated creation.
Upon second thoughts however 1 imagined it might
be defended from the like repetition in Tempore quo feljas mortalin pe&tora curas,
Non, non, fic futurum eft, non poteft
Terent. Phorm. Act. 2, Nec trucilus fuvijs idem fonus, occidit horror Aequoris, et terris maria adclinata quiescunt. Non, non, hoc tibi, false, fic abibit. Stat. Syl. v. 4, 5
Catull. Carm. 14.