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20|onvoy, ........... Low, 110Damariscotta, 1849Boston, New-York, Boston, Sprungaleak, ash. Vineyard Sd., July 17, $ * $2,600 $3,600 18|Exchange... . . . . . . Fuller, 100 N. Providence 1840 Baltimore, Rio Grande, New-York, Putin Rio Janeiro, leaky, June 4, cond., 1,200 1,000 2,200 4|F. A. Hawkins, ...Mayo, 122 Noank, L.I., 1848Eastham, Boston, In port, Burnt at Boston, July 4, 8,000 - 3,000 22 george S. Green, Cobb, 281 Wilmington, 1858|Wellfleet, Boston, Philadelphia, Col. July 19, lost jackstays, davits & boat, 500 ---- 500 15 Gen. Veaze, ...... Gallagher, 132 Hampden, 1851 Port au Prince Port au Prince Boston, Total loss at Bird Rock, June 28, 4,500 8,000 12,500 200 ertrude Horton, Pendleton, 125Rockland 1845Rockland, Me-New-York Portsmouth, Col. Str. Pennsylvania, put in N. Haven, 1,000 ---- 1,000 13|Harriet, ... -------- Young, 147 Trenton, Me., 1854 Trenton, Trenton, Me, Gibraltar Condemned at Gibraltar, June 12, 8,000 8,000 20|Barvest Home, ...Forbes, 90Essex, -- o: Gloucester, Gloucester go Bank, Collision, lost o rail, &c., 250 250 27 Jane N. Baker, ...Handy, 270 New Jersey, 1854 Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Key West, Put back, damaged in hurricane, July 23, 1,800 - 1,800 4M. A. McNeil,....Kelly, 280 Camden, N.J.1858B - Mobile, -- -- Burnt at 'Boston, July 4, 6,500 6,500 31 ---- -Bagnes, 96Baltimore, 1849|Hingh Turk’s Island, Boston, Put back to Grand Turk, cond. and sold, 1,000 300 1,300 8 only Son. - 188Barnstable, 1840Pittston, Me, Bridgeton,N.S. Boston, Missing since April 5, 1,600 400 2,000 8|R rer-------- ongo 1838|Belfast, Penobscot Rivl.............. Ashore at Hampden, 500 --- 500 20Rachels. Miller, .. 195Philadelphia, 1....Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Salem, Ashore at Block Island, July 10, (off.) 600 -- 600 23|Rolla. -------- 84Essex, 1857 Gloucester, Gloucester, Fist o Missing since June 16, 3,000 - 3,000 is seeing. 158 Currituck, 1853|Baltimore, Baltimore, Kennebunk, Put into New-York in distress, 1,700 ---- 1,700 22 Stony Br ---------------------------------- ...Elizabethport, Providence, Total loss at Walch Hill, July 15, 1,200 400 1,600 on Tamaulipas, 1996 reenport, 1859 Greenport, Matanzas, Falmouth, E., Putinto Halifax, July 21, foremastsprung 1,200 ---- 1,200 uindaro.... Wall 283 Ellsworth, 1857|Ellsworth, Trinidad. Cuba Cork At Boston in distress, and burnt July 4, 9,000, --- 9,000 alorous, (Br-). 100Lunenburg, 1860|Lunenburg, Cienfuegos Halii Ashore on the Isle of Pines, June 27, 1,500 2,600 4,100 - 26 Schooners............... Totals, $71,150 + 27,050 498,200 RECAPITULATION OF Losses FOR THE YEAIt is G1. - Loss on vessel. | No. of - - - Loss on vessel ** APRIL, 1861. AND FREIGHT. Loss on CARGo. TOTAL. || DISAs. MAY, 1861. Asprarianr. i* on canao. TOTAL. | | 4 Steamers,............. $23,500 $24,000 $47,500 | 5 || steamers, J. | $307,000 $159,000 $466,000 25 Ships,.... . . . . . . . . - 432,800 354,500 786,800 26 Ships, ................ 568,000 1,096,500 1,659,500 20 Barks.... . . . . . . . . . - 168,300 179,600 847,900 16 Barks.................. 131,800 187,100 818,900 20 Brigs... . . . . . . . . . 66,700 180,100 196,800 17 Brigs.................. 120,200 127,700 247,900 42 Schooners, ... . . . . . . . . . 87,300 151,250 238,550 | 82 Schooners,............ 67,300 66,000 188,800 111 | $778,100 $ 839,450 $1,617,550 | 96 | slisogoo Tool,636,300 $2,825,600 - - JUNE, 1861. JULY, 1861. 2 Steamers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . $425,000 $100,000 $525,000 4 Steamers,.............. $39,400 $10,000 $49,400 5 Ships,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81,000 14,000 45,000 15 Ships, ................ 301,000 212,500 513,500 10 Barks... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115,000 88,700 198,700 8 Barks, ................ 67,000 55,000 122,000 S Brigs, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,4 40,000 S3,400 16 || Brigs, ................ 94,400 55,000 149,400 10 Schooners, . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,7 27,700 71,400 26 Schooners,............. 71,150 27,050 98,200 $5. sess,100 $265,400 $928,500 | 69 | $ 572,950 $359,550 $932,500
RAIL-ROAD AND TELEGRAPH STATISTICS.
I. THE TELEGRAPE FROM Moscow To NEW-YORK. II. British RAILWAY STATISTICS. III, NEW
ROUTE FROM EUROPE TO INDIA. IV. IMPORTANT TO RAILWAY COMPANIES. V. STEAM OX Common ROADS. VI. THE PACIFIC TELEGRAPI. VII. TUE ATLANTIC CABLE,
THE RUSSIAN PACIFIC TELEGRAPH. The plan for establishing a telegraphic line connecting Europe through Siberia with the Pacific Ocean has, during four years, had time to take shape and form, so that, at the commencement of the present year,
supreme sanction was given to the project for constructing a telegraphic line in the counties bordering on the Amoor and Oussouri, from Nikolaiewsk by Kabarovka to the port of Novgorod, (1,900 versts,) the most important point of the possessions recently annexed to Russia on the sea of Japan. The establishment of this line is undertaken by the Ministry of Marine at its cost and under its direction; and at the same time the superior direction of the means of communication (Board of Works) has commenced the construction of a line starting from Kasan in the direction of Siberia, which proposes opening at the end of the present year a telegraphic communication from Kasan to Omsk, (1,900 versts,) and continue it afterwards to Irkutsk, a distance of 2,475 versts from Omsk. Thus, probably within two or three years, on the one side there will be telegraphic communication between Europe and Asia to Irkutsk, and, on the other hand, our new colonies on the Amoor and Oussouri will be connected with each other, and with our principal ports on the Japanese waters. Thus of the extent of 10,000 versts, which the Siberian telegraph will embrace, there only remains the central portion, that of Irkutsk by Kyachta to Kabarovka, about 3,500 versts, where as yet nothing has been settled; but it is beyond a doubt that as soon as the works actually projected shall have been successfully completed, this intermediate line will be constructed, and thus, within four or five years at the latest, the gigantic project of a telegraph from Europe to the distant lands on the shores of the Pacific Ocean will be realized. The year 1861 promises to be a memorable one, if we consider the great questions which will receive a solution. Among those questions we must place the commencement of a durable connection and the establishment of rapid communication between Siberia and civilized Europe, and the apparatus of the electric telegraph on the virgin' shores of the Amoor and Sea of Japan. It seems needless to point out the importance and usefulness of so vast an extension of improved communication by the promoters of civilization and commerce. - St. Petersburgh Gazette.
Colonel ROMANOFF, of the imperial Russian engineers, was introduced to the members of the New-York Chamber of Commerce, October 11th, to lay before them the project of a telegraph line to run from St. Petersburgh to some point on the eastern shore of Siberia, and from thence to the Russian possessions on this continent.
The great overland telegraph to be erected will, when completed, form a direct chain of communication throughout the world. It was first started in accordance with an ukase from the Emperor of Russia, issued in 1858, since which time three thousand miles of it have been laid from St. Petersburgh to Omsk, in Eastern Siberia. Moscow, three thousand five hundred miles from that point, will be the principal station. The wires will go over Behring's Straits, a distance of forty miles, the currents of which depend on the winds, and are never beyond three miles. The widest gap in the Straits is eight miles. The line will cross from Omsk to Orkutsk, thence to Kyachta—the great entrepôt of commerce from Siberia to China; from that point it will be continued to the Altai Mountains to Cheta, and thence to Nicoleisk, at the mouth of the Amoor River. This will end the Russian project which has been guaranteed by the government. The propriety of continuing the line to the United States is now under advisement, and the project is considered easily practicable, involving only an additional outlay of $1,000,000 or $3,000,000, . to the route taken. The following table shows the number of
miles to be embraced by the whole line:
St. Louis to San Francisco, (1,800 miles finished,)...... . . . . 2,000
Count Romanoff states that the line will be completed to Irkutsh in about a year, which will enable the merchants of London to communicate with Pekin in fourteen days. It has been proposed to extend it from the mouth of the Amoor to Jeddo, Japan, ...], will involve but three submerges—one of six miles, one of eight and another of twelve. Count Roma NoFF also stated that the cable sunk in the Red Sea by the British government, to communicate with India, was eaten by insects, with which the water abounds, after it had successfully operated for about three months, and it is now considered impracticable to renew the enterprise at that point. The British government had appointed a commission to inquire into the causes of the failure.
American vessels frequently sail to the Amoor with spices, tea, coffee, iron, &c., and the establishment of telegraphic communication between the United States and that point, and Russia in general, must tend to increase the trade between both countries.
Col. Romanoff will prosecute his inquiries in the United States for about two months, and then return to Russia. Mr. Collins, in the mean time, will give him many of the facilities necessary to his mission.
The proposed line will unite all the telegraphs in the world, without crossing the Atlantic Ocean, so that the great “cable” enterprise need not be resuscitated. The cost is set down for two wires at $3,000,000. To maintain this line, one thousand men, at $300 each per annum, would become necessary, making a total of $300,000. To this force it is pro
sed to add one hundred stations, at $1,000 per annum; two supply vessels at $40,000; interest on capital at 74 per cent. per annum, $210,000; contingencies, $100,000. Total, $750,000. It is calculated that 300,000 messages, at $5 each, would be received, making a total of $1,500,000 revenue.
BRITISH RAILWAY STATISTICS.
Returns just issued cover two years—1859 and 1860—and show the annual traffic of all kinds, and the annual working expenditure, in the bulk and in detail
. The first thing we remark is the largeness of the totals, showing immense social and commercial activity. There were at the end of 1860, 10,433 miles of railway in use, or 431 miles more than in the previous year. The total passenger traffic over these lines was 163,435,678, or 13,678,384 more than in 1859. If we analyze this we find that third-class passengers constitute more than one-half of the whole, a fact pointing to the influence of low fares and the development of excursion traffic. If we take the separate returns of England, Ireland and Scotland, we find that in England the proportion of third to second-class passengers is less than two to one, whereas in Scotland it is six to one; but Ireland only one and a third to one. There would, therefore, appear to be a wide field for the development of third-class traffic in England, and still more in Ireland, while in Scotland third-class travelling is general, for even the second-class passengers are outnumbered by the first. Another characteristic of the returns is brought out by a contrast between the movement of goods and of live stock. In each of the three great divisions of the United Kingdom there was an increase of goods traffic in 1860 over goods traffic in 1859. But in the transport of live stock there was, on the whole, a decided falling off
. Fewer cattle, fewer sheep and pigs were carried over the English lines. In Scotland there was a similar decrease, except in pigs. In Ireland alone the transit of cattle exceeded that of the previous year, but the sheep and pigs were fewer. These figures speak plainly of the severity of the winter of 1859–60. In Ireland alone there were 76,520 pigs and 18,650 sheep less transported by railway than in 1859. The deficiency of traffic from these sources was made up by an increase in all others—more passengers, more minerals, more merchandise of all kinds. The figures show that the severity of the winter decreased, but did not arrest the tide of general prosperity.
The total returns from all sources of traffic in 1859 was £25,743,502, and in 1860 this was increased to £27,766,622. If we turn to the table showing the working expenditure, we find some striking figures. The actual cost of working 10,433 miles of railway in the United Kingdom is £13,189,368. In this item are included £2,437,362 for maintenance of way; £3,801,282 for locomotive power ; £3,699,708 for traffic charges, (coaching and merchandise ;) and no less than £181,170 for "compensation,” a charge alone of 1.37 per cent. The great items of expense are thus :—maintenance of
locomotive power and traffic charges; but repairs and renewals of carriages and wagons swallow up the £1,118,784, and there is a comprehensive item of £1,068,521 for our old acquaintance, sundries.” Thus it comes about that the proportion per cent. of expenditure to the total revenue is, in England, 48, in Scotland, 44, in Ireland, 45 per cent. Scotland, therefore, seems to have the most cheaply managed lines, and Ireland, where railways pay no government duty, exceeds by one per cent. the Scottish cost of management. These enormous figures explain the comparatively low dividends of railway companies; for the £14,561,118 available for division has to be distributed among the shareholders who have contributed the £330,000,000 of capital sunk in our railways.—Globe.
A case of great importance to railway companies and railway travellers has been finally decided, after protracted litigation. A person named David Keys brought an action against the Belfast and Ballymena and the Londonderry and Coleraine Railway Companies for the sum of £1,890, the value of a box of watches which he had entrusted to the care of the guard, and which could not be found when he arrived at the end of his journey. The companies resisted the claim, on the ground that the plaintiff was a second-class passenger, entitled to carr only ordinary passenger's luggage, and that they could not be responsible for property not booked in their office. A jury gave Keys a verdict for £1,261. An appeal was made to the Court of Common Pleas, which confirmed the verdict, and then to the Court of Exchequer, which agreed with the judgment of the Common Pleas. The companies then appealed to the House of Lords, who have decided that the companies were not responsible; thus reversing the judgment of the courts below, and giving a lesson to travellers not to run risks for the sake of a small charge on booking valuable parcels.
The bill to regulate the use of locomotives on common roads in England has now become law, and is expected to lead to important results in cheapening the transit of heavy goods. During the last thirty years great efforts have been made to use steam on common roads; but, incredible as it may seem in a country whose prosperity is inseparably connected with an early use of every such facility, they have been perseveringly defeated by the opposition of the local trustees, who have imE. prohibitory tolls. Two years back, an experiment to convey coal y a traction engine from Little Hulton to Manchester, a distance of seven miles, is understood to have proved not only that an immense saving could be effected, but that the wear and tear of the road was diminished; yet the toll charged amounted to 4s. per ton, against 3}d. per ton for coal drawn by horses; and this, of course, effectually prevented the introduction of the system. The new bill assimilates the tolls to be charged, in a great degree, to those charged for horse traffic; and, although it comprises various regulations, which will probably be found to be more or less needless or vexatious, it seems sufficiently wide to enable the method to have at last a fair field.—London Times, August, 1861.
EU P H R A T E S W A L L E Y — T H E R O U TE TO INDIA. o
It is not too much to say that there is no existing or projected railroad that can for a moment compare, in point of interest and importance, with that of the Euphrates Valley. It brings two quarters of the globe into juxtaposition, and three continents, Europe, Asia and Australia, into co-relation. It binds the vast population of Hindostan by an iron link with the people of Europe; it inevitably entails the colonization and civilization of the great valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris; the resusci