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their ends ; If I have lift up my hand against the fatherless when I saw my help in the gate, then let my arm fall from my shoulder-blade, and my arm be broken from the bone, Job xxxi. 21, 22. Beside this, they may be said to keep the house, in that they provide for it, getting maintenance for the whole body, for by working they get bread, 2 Thef. iii. 10. Paul faith, These hands have ministred to my necessities, Acts xx. 34. And as they do defend the house, and provide for it; so also they do offend whomsoever would hurt it ; they do not only get, but protect, and also keep off the adverfary. And all this was done at once by the power of the hands of the Jews in their great necessity, when they were rebuilding the temple, their hands were throughly filled, and employed in a double defence; For they which builded on the wall, and they that bare burdens, with those that laded, every one, with one of his hands wrought in the work, and with the other hand held a weapon, Neh. iv. 27. Now such, through the wisdom of God, is the dexterity of the hand, that it can employ a weapon to be a better defence to a man, than whatsoever is naturally alloted to any creature beside. And that audacious carper at the works of God (who complained that other creatures had naturally a defence given, and man only left weaponless) was sufficiently silenced, when it was told him; man had reason and hands,
which together, can make a better defensive or offensive weapon for him, than all the horns, and hoofs, the tusks, and talons, or whatsoever nature hath more largely lent to other creatures, can do for them. And if we throughly consider the fabrick of these parts, according unto what anatomy doth give sufficient light unto, we shall yet farther be. convinced of the truth of this matter. If we consider on the part of the bones, first the fcapula, and take notice that it is seated in the strong part of the back, with freedom of motion in its place, in which it is contained by the clavicle, and with great advantage of moving the arm which way foever it pleaseth; that · it is formed with its basis, angles, ribs, processes, cavities, for the better feat of the mufcles, and command of them to their appointed services ; that it is articulated to the humerus, per arthrodiam, wherein the cavity is improportionate to the head of the humerus, that the shoulder may thereby with greater facility and liberty admit of all manner of motion, which it could not possibly have done, had this articulation been any firmer and closer in itself. Now that this joint may be kept from luxa. tion, either from itfelf, or from any thing that might fall upon it, to which it was very liable :
by reason of what was before faid; it is fuf· ficiently defended by a very thick, and nervous ligament; and by the broad tendons of four
great muscles; which do so stridly compass about the joint, that by its own motion, tho' never so violent, it cannot be put out ; and also by the clavicle or kennel bone, which is to directly laid cross over it, that it defends it from all external violence whatsoever. Again, if we consider the humerus, its head, its neck, its pullies, its cavities, its extuberances; if we confider the cubitus, and the radius, and their divers articulation; the one being per ginglymum, which gives fection and extension with strength; the other per arthrodiam, which gives pronation and supination with ease. Lastly, if we consider the bones of the extreme hand; and therein the eight bones of the carpus, which are joined to the cubitus, and to the bones of the metacarpus. per arthrodiam, among themfelves per harmoniam, if we consider the four bones of the metacarpus, and their articulation to the fingers per enarthrosin, the fifteen bones of the fingers, and their articulation among themfelves, (for the firmer holding any thing in the hand) per gingłymum. Now I cannot pass the thumb in the general name of the fingers, without a particular and special taking notice of it, forasmuch as that above all the rest both in its use, and also in its repute, may be said to contribute chiefly to the keeping of the houfe; for it is equivalent to all the fingers, and therefore in Latin is called, pollex, à pollendo, being as it were an antagonist grasper to the whole
hand, and doth as much towards the firm holding and dextrous using of a weapon as all the hand: And therefore it is that idle persons, or effeminate men, or whosoever are unfit for service in war, are called polletrunci ; as who should say, men that have not the use of their thumbs. And it was a custom among the nations, for the conquerors to cut off the thumbs of the conquered, thereby rendering them disgraced, and utterly unable for future employments either at sea or land. And scriptural story also seems to confirm this in Adonibezek, who faid, Threescore and ten kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, gathered their meat under my table ; as I have done, so God hath requited me, Judg. i. 7. Thus far on the part of the bones. Again, if we consider on the part of the muscles ; how they are variously shaped and formed according to their several uses, how they are perforated according to necessity, how they are seated to the best advantage, how they are to one another friends or antagonists, how they are derived from one part, and inserted into another, how much strength and vigour they have, how by their hormetick pow.. er and contraction into their own bodies, they can readily perform whatsoever motion the organ is capable of; they can stir the limb inward, outward ; forward, backward ; upward, downward ; they can perform adduction, abduction ; Aexion, extension ; pronation, fu
pination, the tonick motion, circumgiration ; and all these with so great expedition and agility, that they are much sooner done than said, yea, as soon done as thought on; the actions of the muscles keeping pace, nay, many times out-stripping the volubility of the mind : If we yet further consider them in their tendons, and the variety of them, how they are either solid, plain, round, broad, long, short, one, many; or of whatsoever form may render them most expeditious in their motions ; how they are strengthened by several ligaments, especially that annulary ligament in the wrist.
I say, if we consider these wonderful things, wherein man differs from all other creatures, and many others, which good skill in the anatomy of these parts would easily furnish a man with, all which would be too large here to infert ; it would enforce us to say, that these of all the parts of man do most properly defend him, and may justly be stiled, the keepers of the house. .
Now, that these may be said to tremble, needs no words to make appear, forasmuch as the experience of every old man doth fufficiently confirm it. Which word doth compiehend within itself all the weaknesses, infirmities, inabilities of these parts in this condition : Whether they be outward, as stiffness, contraction, rugosity; or inward, as aches, pains, numbness, palsies, cramps, tremblings ;