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barrier to the north, is the highest of lands which he holds; being liable, at the mountains that encircle it, whence every punjunni (or grand council) to be issue the Bhagmatty and Vishunmatty ri- deprived of them altogether; to have vers, which, with many other streams, them commuted for a pecuniary stipend, traverse the valley of Nipal, the bottom or, exchanged for others. This council of which, beside being very uneven, is consists of the principal ministers of gointersected with deep ravines and speckled vernment, and of such other persons, as with little hills. Seen from Mount Chan- the sovereign thinks fit to invite to it. draghire, the valley of Nipal appears The lands of the Nipal state are divid. thickly settled with villages, among fields ed into. 1. crown lands; 2. Birta, or Bi. fertilized by numerous streams : but the mooter lands; 3. Kohrya or Bari lands, part of the view which most powerfully (such as are destitute of streams) and attracts the attention, is the adjacent 4. Kaith, or plantation-lands of the first enormous mountains of Sheopuri and quality. Jibgibia, with the gigantic Himalaya ridge,

The beegah is used in mensuration by covered with everlasting snow, in the back

the Purbutties only: by which appellaground.

tion the occupiers of the hilly regions surIn some ancient Hindoo books Nipal rounding the valley of Nipal are distinis called Deccani Tapoo or the southern guished from the Newars or proper inişle, in reference to its situation with re habitants of the latter. Many Kaiths spect to the Hymalaya mountains, and yield three harvests; one of rice, one the contiguous northern regions; the of wheat, pulse, &c. and, sometiines one valley of Nipal being there described as or two of an excellent vegetable, called an immenese lake, which, in the progress, tori. There are grounds that yield two of ages, had retired within the banks of crops of rice successively; one fine and the Bhagmatty:

the other coarse ; beside affording in the CLIMATE.

same year a wheat crop. The northernmost part of the Nipal

PRODUCTIONS. valley scarcely lies in a higher parallel of The sugar-cane is cultivated in the Nilatitude than 27e 3 N. Yet it enjoys,

pal valley; but rarely more is raised than in some respects, the climate of the

is required for the consumption of the south of Europe. Its height above the. chief landlords; the seed is always sown sea appears, from the barometer, to be

by females. above four thousand feet: the mean tem The plough is scarcely ever used by perature from the 17th to the 25th of cultivators in the valley, who prepare March was 67 degrees. The seasons here their ground for rice by digging to a cerare pretty much the same as in Upper tain depth with a sort of spade, turning Hindostan. The rains commence rather up the soil in ridges, as in potatoe-planearlier, and set in from the south-east tations, leaving the whole for some time quarter; are usually very copious, and until well flooded, and finally, levelling break up about the middle of October. the field. Among the spontaneous proIn a few hours , the inhabitants, by as ductions of Nipal, are the raspberry, the cending the mountains, can pass a variety walnut, and the mulberry. of temperatures ; and in three or four The cattle of Nipal, generally speakdays journey by moving from Noakote ing, are so superior to those commonly to Kheroo, or Ramika, may exchange the met with in Bengal, and the Chowry heat of Bengal for the cold of Russia. cow, and Changea or Shawl-goat, are LANDS,

only to be found among the mountains Throughout Nipal proper, the Newar bordering on Tibet. The inhabitants of tribes alone cultivate the ground, and ex the latter country use sheep as beasts of ercise the useful arts; but they enjoy lit- burden, for the transporting salt into tle security or happiness under their pre- Nipal, of which each is said to carry sent rulers. The sovereign is there rem forty-two pounds avoirdupoise. This disgarded as the original absolute proprietor trict does not abound much with game; of all lands. Even the first subject of and the fish, from the transparency and the state has, generally speaking, but a rapidity of the stream are very difficult to temporary and precarious interest in the catch with the dy. The sarus, ortolan,

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wild goose, and wild duck, appear in Ni- employed is the produce either of Niti pal only as birds of passage, making a akot, or of the Muddaize; by which latter. stage of it between Hindostan and Tibet. name they commonly distinguish the Comi Copper and iron are found here; the pany's territories. They work very well. latter of an excellent quality. Oude was in iron, copper, and brass, and are parmi formerly supplied with copper from this ticularly ingenious in carpentry : though, country; but of late, the European cop- they never use a saw, dividing their per, by underselling, has driven the Nj. wood, of whatever size, with the chissel pal copper out of the markets. The gold and mallet. They export some of their braimported to Bengal from Nipal, is not zen utensils to the southward. They have the produce of the country: the quantity a:tempted without success, to manufacprocured from the rivulets, flowing ture, some fire arms; but their swords through the territories, being extremely and daggers are tolerably good. They small. The gold is received by the Ni- gild extremely well, and construct bells palese from Tibet in exchange for goods. of so large a size as five feet diameter. TRADE.

From rice, and other grain, they distil The commerce of Nipal is not so exten- spirits, and also prepare a fermented lisive as it might be under better regula-' quor from wheat, &c. munnua, rice, which tions. This is partly to be attributed to they name phaur : it is made in the the ignorance and jealousy of the admi manner of our malt liquors, which it renistration; but also in a great degree to sembles. The currency of Nipal consists the monopolies certain Uluts or mer

chiefly in silver pieces of eight annas cantile Gosains, and a few other mer (14d.) called siccas, and they have a chants, have long been in possession of. coin so low as the 280th part of a sicca. If it were not for these obstacles an ex

POPULATION. tensive traffic might be carried on be The great mass of the inhabitants of tween Tibet and the British territories, Nipal dwell in the valleys ; the hills and through Nipal.

Turiani, being but thinly populated. GeNipal exports to British India, ele- neral Kirkpatrick estimates the populaphants, elephant's teeth, rice, timber, tion of the valley of Nipal at half a milhides, ginger, terra-japonica, turmuric, lion, which appears an extraordinary wax, honey, pure resin of the pine, wal- number, when its small dimensions are nuts, oranges, long-pepper, bark of the considered. The inhabitants consist prinroot of bastard cinnamon, dried leaves of cipally of the two superior classes of ditto, large cardamums, dammer lamp Hindoos, (Bramins and Khetris, with oil, and cotton of the simul-tree. These their subdivisions) Newars, Dhenwars articles are the produce of the Morung Mhanjees, Bhooteas, and Bhauras; the and other parts of the Turiani, and of two first divisions, who occupy the prinNipal : beside these, a great variety of cipal stations in the sovereignty, and fill articles produced in T'ibet are sent south the armies, are dispersed through the through Nipal. There are small quanti- country. The Newars are confined alties of salt and salt-petre made in the most to the valley of Nipal; the Dheneastern part of the Nipal valley ; but the wars and Mhanjees are the fishermen and former is not so much esteemed by the husbandmen of the westerp districts, and natives as that of Tibet. The following the Bhooteas inhabit such parts of Kuarticles are exported from the British do char (Lower Tibet) as are included in the minions to Nipal, either for the con Nipal territories. The Bhauras are sesumption of that country, or for the Ti parated from the Newans, and amount bet market; viz. Bengal cloths, muslins to about five thousand. To the eastward, and silks of various sorts, raw silk, gold some districts are inhabited by the Limand silver laces, carpets, English cutlery, booas, Nuggerkooties, and others; of saffron, spices, sandal-wood, quicksilver, whom little is known beside the name. cotton, tin, zinc, lead, soap, camphor, The Newars are divided into several castes chillies, tobacco, and coral.

like those among the more southern HinMANUFACTURES.

doos, The Newars of Nipal fabricate only The Purbutties, or peasantry of the eloths of a very coarse kind. The cotton mountainous country, are divided into

his

four classes, according to the number of Hoonimaun, a Hindoo deity, whose form ploughs and the nature of their occu

is that of a monkey. pation. The expenses of the military es

GOVERNMENT. tablishments are, for the most part, dis The Nipal constitution of government charged by assignments of land ; though, is essentially despotic, modified by cerin some instances, the soldier receives tain observances, enjoined by immemori

3 pay from the treasury. In money and al custom, the. Dharma Shastra forming lands together, the pay of the private the basis of their jurisprudence in civil sepoy amounts to about seventy-six ru

and criminal cases. pees, exclusive of his coat, which is sup

MANNERS. plied by government. Some of the vil

The inhabitants of this region have all lages bestowed in jaghires are of consi- along entertained but little intercourse derable value, yielding from three to five

with the neighbouring nations, and are thousand rupees annual revenue. The probably the only Hindoo people who income of a village, exclusive of what have not been disturbed, far less subdued, arises from the produce of such lands as

by any Mohammedan force. They are in may be annexed to it, consists principally consequence remarkable for a simplicity in the rent of houses, which are all built of of character and an absence of parade or brick, and the duties charged on salt, to affectation. The Newar tribe differ in bacco, pepper, betel-nut, and similar

many respects from the other Hindoo inarticles of general consumption.

habitants, particularly in feeding on the REVENUES.

flesh of buffaloes. They probably never The Nipal territories being for the

were of a warlike disposition, and are most part parcelled out into jaghires, the held in contempt by the Purbutties or proportion of their produce received into

mountaineers. Their occupations are the treasury is not considerable. It pro- chiefly agricultural, and they execute bably never exceeds thirty lacs of rupees

most of the country arts and manufacper annum, nor falls under twenty-five.

tures. They are of a middle size, broad The profit from the mint alone is reck

shoulders and chest, stout limbs, round oned at from seven to eight lacs of ru

and rather flat faces, small eyes, low and

somewhat spreading noses, and open pees.

chearful countenances. The trade in gold from Tibet has usu

The ordinary

hue of their complexion is between a ally been a monopoly in the hands of go

sallow and copper colour. It is remarkvernment; the copper-mines formerly

able that the Newar women, like the yielded a considerable revenue, but now

Nairs of Malabar, may, in fact, have as scarcely produce a lack. The chief expenses of government are the provision of many husbands as they please, being at fire-arms and military stores-of broad-liberty to divorce them on the slightest cloth for the clothing of the regular

pretences.

LEARNING troops—and of jewels, silks, and cotton stuffs from Bengal.

It is extremely probable there is no

place in India, where a search after anARMY.

cient Sanscrit manuscripts would be more The Nipal artillery is very bad. Match

successful than in the valley of Nipal, and locks, bows, and arrows, and kohras, or particularly at Bhatgong, which is the hatehet-swords, are the common weapons

Benares of the Ghoorkhali territories. used. The regular forces are armed with General Kirkpatrick, the British'ambasmuskets, of which few are fit for actual sador to Nipal in 1793, was informed, service. This force consists of from fifty

while there, of one library, said to conto sixty companies of unequal strength,

tain fifteen thousand volumes. Beside but containing,' on an average, not less

the Sanscrit, which is cultivated by the than one hundred and forty fire-locks, Brahmins of Nipal, the principal verna-, the privates of which are brave and very cular languages are the Purbutti, the hardy, but their discipline slovenly. The Newar, the Dhenwar, the Muggur, the Jung Neshaun, or war standard, is on a Kyraut, the Hovoo, the Limboga, and the yellow ground, and exbibits a figure of Bhootea.

RELIGION.

put an end to the dynasty of SemroungThe books held sacred by the Hindoos hur Khetries. Runjeet Mull, of Bhat. leave scarcely any room to doubt that gong was the last prince of the Soorej the religion of Brahma has been establish Bungsi race that reigned over Nipal. He ed from the most remote antiquity in

formed on alliance with Purthi Narrayan, the Nipal valley, where there are as many

of Gorcah with a view of strengthening temples as houses, and as many idols as himself against the sovereign of Catmaninhabitants; there pot being a fountain,

doo; but this connexion ended in the river, or hill within its limits, that is total reduction of Nipal by his ally, in the not consecrated to some one or other of Newar year 888, corresponding with A.D. the Hindoo deities. The popular re

1768. Ranjeet Mull took refuge at ligion in general, differs nothing from Benares, where he died, and left à son Hindoo doctrines established in other damed Abdool Singh, who is probably parts of India, excepting so far as the still alive. Purthi Narrayan, the Ghoorsecluded nature of the country may have kha, conqueror of Nipal, died in 1771, ássisted to preserve it in a state of supe leaving two sons Singh Pertaub and Barior purity. The valley of Nipal in par- hadar Sah, the former of whom sucticular, abounds, with temples of great ceeded him, and died in 1775, after havsanctity, where numbers of peasantry ing added considerably to the extent of sacrifice buffaloes to Bhavani, and af- his dominions, by the subjugation of the terward feed on the flesh with great sa districts of Tannohi, Soomaisee, Jogitisfaction. During the Goorkhah expeó mara, and Oopadrong, lying to the S. W. dition to Tibet, the soldiers fed on the

of Nipal. Aesh of the Chowry cow, or long-haired Singh Pertaub haul only one legitimate bullock ; yet were in other respects pro son, Raja Kun Bahadur, who was his fessors of the Brahminical religion. successor, under the regency of his mo. HISTORY.

ther, during which period Palpa, GarThe ancient history of Nipal is very Nipal dominions. Uuder the succeeding

rumcote and Kasky were added to the much clouded with mythological fable. The inhabitants have lists of princes for regency of Bahadur Sah, the Rajah's many. ages back ; of whom Ny Muni, Kasky and Serinagur, including both the

uncle, all the estates lying between who communicated his name to the val

territories of the Twenty-four and Twen; ley, was the first. Like other eastern

ty-two Rajahs, comprehending the domi, states it often changed masters ; but the revolutions appear either to have origi- absolutely seized or rendered tributary.

nion of forty-six petty princes, were either nated internally, or to have been connected with their immediate neighbours, by the Bengal government against the

In the year 1769 a force was detached as we never find them subjected to any

minical and Khetri tribes; and as these constitutother great Asiatic power.

ed the principal strength of Purthi Narrayans go, In A. D. 1323, Hur Singh Deo, Rajahvernment, and continue to form the main of Semrounghur, and of the posterity of port of the present one, they possess considerable Bamdeb, of the Soorej Bungsi princes of authority. Their chiefs are known by the name Oude, entered Nipal, and completely conductors of affairs.

of Thurgurs, from whom are selected the leading

Their number is thirtysubdued it. The crown continued in

six, the title properly descending only to heads his family until 1768, when Purthi Na of families, and these thirty-six are subdivided into

three gradations. rayan, the Rajah of Gorcah (Ghoorka)*

The Ghoorkali reigning family pretend to der

rive their descent from the Rajpoot princes Gorcah, or Ghurka, a town, and also a dis Odeypoor, in the same manner as the Savajee trict, to which the former gives its name, in family claimed a similar origin. For a considers Northern Hindoostan, situated between the 28th able period they have existed in the mountainous and 29th degrees of north latitude. Prior to the country bordering on the river Gunduck, during conquest of Nipal by Rajah Purthi Narrayan, of which time they have gradually risen into power Ghoorka, the Trisoolgunga separated the terri. by successive encruachments on their neighbours. tories of the Ghoorkali and Newar (or Nipal) After the conquest of Nipal by the Ghoorkhalies princes, the western limit of the Ghoorka dis. in 1768, the seat of government was transferred trict being marked by the Mursiangdi. This ter.. to Calmandoo, and the city of Gorka, having ritory, beside a numerous peasantry of Dben been imuch neglected, is greatly decayed: Noar wars, contains several Rajpoot families, and some to the city of Gorcal there is said to be a consi Newars, but is principally occupied by the Brah derable mass of rock chrystal,

sup

1

pay no

Ghoorkhalies under Captain Kinlock, transported their goods into either counwhich penetrated as far as Sedowly, an try and paid the regulated duty, and not important post at the foot of the Nipal meeting with a sale, wished to carry hills ; but not being able to proceed fur them to any other country,

should ther and his troops being sickly, the en

further duty, but be permitted to remove terprize was abandoned.

them; and it was stipulated that in all Toward the end of Mr. Hastings's Go

cases the merchants should experience a vernment the Teshoo Lama of Tibet prompt administration of justice, when proceeded to Pekin, and dying soon after imposed on or oppressed. his arrival there, Sumhur Lama, his

In October 1801, a more detailed pobrother, fled from Hassa to the Rajah of litical treaty was concluded, by which the Nipal, taking with him a considerable

friends and enemies of the one state quantity of treasure. By his communi were to have the same relation to the cations he excited the avarice of the Nipal other, and arrangements were made for government, which marched a body of the adjustment of any dispute respecting troops towards Lassa. The armies of the boundaries. . Prior to this treaty a cerlatter being beaten, they agreed to pay a

tain number of elephants had been sent tribute of three lacks of rupees.

In 1790 annually by the Nipal Rajah to the Bengal the Nipalese, by the advice of Sumhur government, on account of the PergunLama, sent an army of 18,000 men nah of Muckinacinpoor; but the goveragainst Teslioo Loomboo, the residence nor-general, with the view of gratifying of another Lama, which plundered that the Rajah, and in consideration of the place and all its numerous temples. improved friendly connections, agreed to In their retreat from this place relinquish that tribute. A mutual exthey lost 2000 men by the severity of the change of felons and criminals was also weather, great numbers of whom appear agreed on, and the Rajah of Nipal onto have been frozen to death.

gaged to appropriate a district for the In 1792 the Emperor of China, as

support and expenses of Samee Deo, grand protector of the Lamas, sent an

a member of his own family who had army of seventy thousand men against

taken refuge in the British territories. the Nipal Rajah, which beat the Nipa

In order to carry into effect the different - lese repeatedly, and advanced to Noakote, objects contained in this treaty, and prowithin twenty-six miles of Catmandoo.

mote the verbal negociations, the goverThe Nipalese were at last obliged to make nor-general and Nipal Rajah agreed each peace on ignominious terms, consenting

to depute a confidential person to reside to become tributaries to the Emperor of

as envoy with the other, who was in

structed to abstain from all interference China, and to restore all the plunder they

with the interior administration of the had acquired from the Tibet Lamas. A treaty of commerce was at this time at

country to which he was delegated, ór tempted by Lord Cornwallis, and Captain any intercourse with its disaffected subKirkpatrick sent envoy to Cartmandoo;

jects. but the extreme jealousy of the Nipalese

Since the accession of Rajah Ghur, frustrated all his endeavours.

Ban Judh Bicrama Sah, a boy, who,

in 1808, was nine years of age, the In March 1793, a treaty was entered councils and entire management of the into by Mr. Duncan, then resident at

country have been entrusted to, or rather Benares, on the part of the British go- usurped, by Bheem Singh Tapah. The vernment, through the medium of native Tapahs are casias, or cultivators of the agents, by which it was stipulated, that land, and formidable from their numtwo and a half per cent. should be reci

bers. They oppose the Chawtras, who procally taken as duty on the imports are Rajpoots, and uncles' to the reigning from both countries, to be levied on the priuce, whose cognomen is Sah and not amount of the invoices stamped at the Shah ; though the latter is very generally custom-houses of their respective coun affected, on account of its royal import.* tries, for which purpose certain stations on the frontiers were selected. It was

* For an account of the late war with Nipal,

see page 425. For the Convention with Kajee also agreed that the merchants who had Umr Singh Thappa, or Tapah, see page 96,-Edit Asiatic Journ.-No. VI.

Vol. I. 4 B

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