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Deeds of entry and clearance for colonial vessels, viz.

To the Hawkesbury

To New Castle...............

To the Fishery, or Settlements at the southward 0 10 0
Naval officer's clerk.

mun 0 20

The naval officer also receives 5 per cent. on all duties collected at

the port.

Wharfinger's Fees, viz.

£8.

d.

On every bale, cask, or package landed or shipped 0
Metage of coals

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.........per ton 0

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Measuring timber

~~~~~~⌁per 100 feet 0 2 0

* A reduction of several, and an abolition of some of the charges (as well as duties) at the Colony, were recommended by the Commissioner ; but it is uncertain what reductions are made.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Provisions of all kinds may be procured at Sydney; beef, mutton, pork, and kangaroo flesh; fowls, eggs, butter, bread, potatoes, and fruits. But the prices fluctuate extremely. Bread is seldom so cheap as in England; the loaf of 2 lbs. selling for 5d. or 6d. To prevent the reduction of stock in the territory, the Government levies a duty upon slaughtering cattle. Except potatoes, the price of no article of provision is reasonable in the Colony.

COINS. The circulating medium consists of British money, and likewise of Government dollars. There is a bank at Sydney, and its notes pass current in the Colony. The duties are payable either in sterling money, Government dollars, store receipts, approved bills by the Commissary on the Treasury or the Colonial Agent, or in the notes of the Bank of New South Wales. In the sale of commodities, bills of long date are usually given.

The uncertainty in the relative value of British money, which has been the standard, has produced great embarrassment occasionally, and affected the value of every species of property; insomuch that it became necessary to stipulate in bargains, the mode of payment.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.-These are the same as in England.

GUMS TO BE FOUND AT NEW SOUTH WALES.-The RED Gum of Botany Bay is produced by the Eucalyptus resiniferus, a tree of considerable size, growing to a great height before it puts out branches. The gum may be drawn from the tree by tapping, or taken out of the veins

of the wood when dry. The wood is heavy and fine grained; but being intersected by the channels containing the gum, splits and warps.

This gum is said to be the finest species of kino (Gummi rubrum astringens), which used to be imported from Africa, and is said to be there produced by a species of Pterocarpus. Kino is very friable, easily breaking between the fingers; without smell; of an opaque, dark-reddish colour, appearing almost black in the mass, and when powdered, of a deep lateritious red. In chewing, it first crumbles, then coheres slightly, and soon seems to dissolve, with a very astringent, slightly sweet taste. It has been confounded with true gum Senegal, and also with dragon's blood. It is easily distinguishable from both by its stypticity when tasted. Its astringent properties render it a very useful drug, and a powerful remedy for the dysentery. Kino is occasionally brought from India under the name of gum dawk. This is probably the produce of the Butea frondosa, which Dr. Roxburgh (Flor. Cor., Tab. 21) says exudes a gum rich in colour as the ruby, and astringent.

The YELLOW Gum of Botany Bay is strictly a resin; it is insoluble in water, and in appearance resembles gamboge, but does not stain. It is generally dug out of the soil under the tree which produces it, from whence it drops; and it is probably what Tasman calls gum lac of the ground.

BASS'S STRAIT.-Between New Holland and Van Diemen's Land is a strait, about 30 leagues wide, called Bass's Strait, from Mr. Bass, who, with Captain Flinders, circumnavigated Van Diemen's Land, and thereby proved the correctness of his own conjecture, that the latter was separated from the former by a navigable strait.

The passage through Bass's Strait, and round Cape Van Diemen, has sometimes been made by vessels which left England too late to pursue the ordinary route to China; and instead of passing through any of the straits E. of Java, (as usual, when late in the season), they have proceeded round New Holland, by the way of the Pacific Ocean.

In approaching the strait from the westward, great caution should be used; and it is better that it should not be entered in the night time. Vessels may anchor conveniently in the strait with easterly winds, under the N. W. end of King's Island; or Port Phillip (on New Holland) just within the entrance on the S. side; or Hunter's Isles, between Three Hummock and Barren Islands, taking care not to anchor too close to the weather shore, lest the wind suddenly change.

PORT PHILLIP is the westernmost harbour on the N. side of the strait; the entrance is in latitude 38° 19′ S., about 4 leagues to the E. of a bluff headland without trees, rising from low, but thickly wooded land :

the soundings, about three miles from the entrance, are 12 and 13 fathoms, decreasing to 7 and 8. A reef projects from each side of the entrance. The harbour is excellent, but there is no fresh water in the vicinity of the entrance; the nearest being found at the S. E. angle of the harbour, to the W. of the hill called Arthur's Seat.

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND is an island, the medial length of which is about 160 geographical miles from N. to S., and the breadth 145 from E. to W. It is situated between the latitudes of 41° and 40° 32′ S., and between the longitudes of 144° 32′ and 148° 25′ E. Its surface is undulated, and diversified with mountains and dales, forests and meadows. It has lakes, rivers, and inlets; and its climate is temperate, not very different from that of England, though less subject to sudden changes. It is divided into two counties, Buckinghamshire and Cornwall; the former extends from the S. coast to the 42d deg. of latitude, including Hobart's Town within its limits; the latter reaches from the same line to the N. coast, and comprehends the town of Launceston.

The W. coast is of a rocky and sterile aspect; but it contains an excellent harbour, called Port Davey, in latitude 43° 28′ S., longitude 146° E. It has not only abundance of fresh water, but the shores abound with Huon pine.

The S. coast is of a similar character to the W.; it is mottled with rocks of white quartz and black basalt, and the projecting points are high, steep, and barren. Port d'Entrecasteaux, at the W. extremity of the bay formed by the S. Cape of Van Diemen's Land, and Tasman's Head, is safe, and convenient for procuring wood and water. D'Entrecasteaux's Strait affords safe anchorage in from 20 to 6 fathoms, soft mud, occasionally mixed with sand. Fresh water may be procured, but it is difficult to get the casks to the boat, on account of the muddy shores.

STORM BAY is a deep gulph, formed between Cape Pillar and Cape Frederick Henry, and stretching to the N. W. A channel at its N. W. angle leads to

DERWENT RIVER, which is safe and navigable for large ships to a considerable distance. At the entrance it is 2 miles wide, with depths of from 10 to 12 fathoms; the point on the E. side is rocky; but Shoal Point on the S. shore, is the only place of danger, and here the river is contracted to half a mile. Upon this river is a settlement, made by a colony from Port Jackson, called

HOBART'S TOWN.-This town is built at the foot of a lofty mountain, called Mount Wellington, near a river, named the Jordan, which is confined to deep pools, or narrow channels, in summer, and overflows its

banks, inundating the country to a considerable distance, in winter. The cultivated districts of Buckinghamshire are more productive than the soil of New South Wales, and the grain of the wheat is larger and heavier. Since 1811, the progress of improvement at Hobart's Town has been very rapid. The wretched huts, of which it was then composed, have given place to substantial buildings, laid out in regular streets, of a good width, though unpaved. The number of houses is about 700, chiefly brick. The public buildings consist of a Church, a handsome brick structure; a Court-house, of stone; Governor's residence, Government store, hospital, and gaol. The inns are paltry, and ill adapted to receive strangers. The inhabitants are not at first sight prepossessing in dress and appearance, and the state of society is not spoken of generally in favourable terms, as many of the settlers are men of broken fortunes. The merchants combine the wholesale and retail business, and are mostly seen behind a counter.

The anchorage in the harbour is safe and convenient: a large and substantial quay is thrown out, for the facility of landing goods, and ships of considerable burthen may lie within hail of it.

TRADE.—The principal articles of export are wheat and potatoes, which constitute the staple agricultural products; also wool, hides, whale oil, and skins. The latter articles are shipped for Europe. The wheat is exported to New South Wales in considerable quantity, and occasionally to the Mauritius and Rio Janeiro. From 1815 to 1820, the quantity of wheat exported from Hobart's Town to Port Jackson was 60,309 bushels. The wool of Van Diemen's Land is not equal to that of New South Wales, owing probably to want of equal attention being paid to it; but a society has lately been established there for encouraging its growth and improve

ment.

The accounts of imports, and other commercial details, are blended with those of Sydney, already given.

DUTIES.-The duties of Van Diemen's Land are the same as those levied in New South Wales. The following account of the duties received upon goods imported into Hobart's Town, for a period commencing July, 1815, and ending December, 1819, will shew the progressive increase of its trade up to that date:~

Duties received in 1818.£5305.

in 1817 4819. Ditto

in 1819.7250.

Duties received in 1816£2877.
Ditto

These duties are exclusive of those on spirits, wine, and tobacco, imported from Sydney, which are received in the latter port.

COINS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.-These are also similar to those at

the seat of Government; except that much of the currency here consists of notes of hand, or what are termed I. O. U.'s, payable at sight; these are issued by any individual, and are negotiable in proportion to the credit of the issuer. Much business is also transacted by barter: sheep being exchanged for sugar, rum, or tobacco. Both practices, however, are now less common than formerly, owing to the issuing of notes by the bank at Sydney.

With the exception of OYSTER BAY, in latitude 42° 42′ S., longitude 148° 8′ E., formed on the W. side of an island separated from Van Diemen's Land by a strait, there seems to be no harbour of consequence known on the E. coast.

The N. coast contains only one harbour, which is

PORT DALRYMPLE, situated in latitude 41° 3′ S., longitude 147° 11′ E. The harbour is difficult of access, and its entrance is not easily discerned. The shoals which beset the passage are dangerous, and mostly covered at half-tide.

A considerable intercourse subsists between this port and New South Wales. It is a very large corn district; and there is a communication betwixt Port Dalrymple and Hobart's Town by land; the distance is about 150 miles.

TRADE.-The trade by sea is almost wholly confined to Port Jackson; consequently manufactured and other goods are charged here with double freight and charges. At the period of Mr. Bigge's Report, the difference in prices of common articles between Sydney and Launceston, (a town situated at some distance from Port Dalrymple), was nearly 100 per cent.

Among the merchantable products of the county of Cornwall, is iron. A few miles from Port Dalrymple, considerable quantities of iron ore have been discovered upon the surface, which proves to be pure protoxide of iron, (similar to the black iron ore of Sweden), and furnishing a very pure and malleable metal.

GEORGE TOWN.-This is a new settlement within a very few miles of the N. coast and Bass's Straits. It is yet in its infancy; but being favourably situated for trade, and roads being already finished, communicating with the interior, it is making rapid progress.

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