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that much ; Missouri, half to five-eighths, and Kentucky perhaps nearly an average crop. The quality of the leaf in Kentucky, as far as we can hear, is fair.
There being at this moment no prospect for a speedy end of our unfortunate strife, and a great falling off in the quantity of the new crop just being made certain, we really do not see what should prevent high prices ruling for some time to come, and opine that some qualities will experience a further rise in the different markets here as well as abroad.
Our table below shows this year's sales to have been larger than for the last ten years, except season 1851-1852:
20,823 Sales during October, 1852,....
1,194 hhds. 1853,
Fat. Lugs, ordinary sound,..
$ 5 75 @ $7 00 $ 700 @ $ 8 25 Good ordinary,..
7 00 @ 60
8 75 Common leaf,...
7 50 @
8 75 @ 10 00 Good leaf,
8 75 @ 10 25 10 00 @ 12 00 Fine Leaf,
10 25 @ 14 00 12 00 @ 15 00 1860. 1859. 1858.
1857. Lugs, ord. sound, p. 100 lbs. $3 25 @$4 25 ..$3 25 @$ 4 00 .. $ 4 75 @$ 5 00 ..$ 5 60 $ 7 80 Good ordinary,
4 25 5 25 .. 4 00 @ 4 75 .. 5 00 @ 600.. 7 30 8 30 Common leaf,
5 25 @ 700 ..
4 75 @
6 50.. 600 @ 700.. 8 30 @ 9 10 Good leaf, 7 00 900 .. 6 50 @
7 00 875.. 9 16 @ 10 00 Fine leaf,
900 @ 12 00 .. 8 25 @ 11 00 .. 8 75 @ 12 00.. 10 00 @ 12 00 Manufacturing leaf,. 6 00 @ 15 00 .. 8 00 @ 15 00 .. 8 00 15 00 10 00 16 00
1853. Lugs, ord. sound, p. 100 lbs. $ 8 10 @$ 8 75 $5 80 @ $ 6 25 .. $ 4 65 @$ 5 00 ..$4 60 $ 5 00 Good ordinary,
8 75 @ 900..
6 257 00.. 5 00 @5 40 .. 5 005 30 Common leaf,
9 90 @ 11 22 7 007 50.. 5 40 @ 6 00 .. 5 30 6 10 Good leaf,
11 25 @ 12 90 7 50 @ 8 50 .. 6 00 @ 675 6 10 7 00 Fine leaf,
12 90 @ 14 50 8 50 @ 10 00 .. 6 75 @ 8 25 .. 7 00 9 00 Manufacturing leaf, ........ 9 50 R 16 00 .. 8 00 @ 12 00.. 700 @ 13 00 .. 700 @ 14 00
ADULTERATION IN SILK FABRICS. What is Jute? is a question often asked by the general reader. This article, well-known to those engaged in the East India trade, played an important part in the recent great fire of London. It has been demonstrated that it is a rather unsafe article to stow away, on account of its easy ignition and tendency to spontaneous combustion. It is also unsafe in another particular, for it is the great adulteration of silk. Jute is the fiber of a species of hemp (botanically speaking the corcchorus capsularas) which is grown in the East Indies, chiefly in Bengal. The same class of men who put shoddy into cloth, logwood into a villainous compound, and then call it port wine, adulterate silk with jute. It has a lustrous, silky appearance, and the fraud is not easily detected. A recent English writer in the Technologist says that, thanks to jute, there is scarcely a piece of sound genuine silk woven in the country, and the consequence is, that the so-called silk fabrics, instead of lasting from generation to generation-as they did in the times of our grandmothers and great-grandmothers—barely last the brief period of the latest new fashion. The reason of this is evident, for in preparing this fiber for the market, it is necessary to cause it to almost putrify in order to develop the fine silky character, so much valued in the jute intended for export. In India the cloth made from the fiber is much stronger and more durable, because they do not take such care in steeping it for home consumption. In URE's " Philosophy of Manufacture,” (newest edition) a writer says of jute “ that it is mixed with the cotton warps of cheap broadcloths, and also with silk, and, from its lustre, can scarcely be detected.” Why cannot jute be turned to more honorable and useful purposes than adulteration ? Dr. Forbes Watson says, that its “
production admits of unlimited extension,” and who knows but the great paper-rag and the cotton question may be somewhat solved by jute Journal of Commerce.
THE ADULTERATION OF TEA. In the Eondon Lancet, of August 10th, we find the result of the microscopical and chemical analysis of forty-eight samples of tea:
“Of the twenty-four specimens of black tea analyzed, every one was found to be genuine ; of a like number of green teas, all were adulterated. The adulterations are mainly a coloring matter with which the tea leaf is faced, painted or glazed. Ferro-cyanide of iron, or Prussian blue,
. is the article most commonly used for this purpose. Sometimes, however, indigo, kaolin or China clay, and turmeric powder were found in addition. That species of tea which is denominated gunpowder is adulterated in other ways, by admixture with leaves not those of tea, with paddy husk, and particularly with“ lie tea,' so called, a leaf which resembles the tea leaf closely, and is sent to this country from China in vast quantities to be employed in adulterations here. The coloring of the tea is almost entirely done in China, and probably because it improves its appearance, and perhaps renders its sale more sure and rapid.
“Such is the result of a thorough analyzation of this article by eminent scientific men in England, and it is certainly not very flattering to the taste of these who drink green tea for the love of it. There is no such article as unadulterated green tea. Let the lovers of the herb remember that fact, and as they sip the delicious beverage and fancy they find in it a solvent for their aches and pains, let them also remember that they are sipping with it a solution of Prussian blue and indigo, as well
as sundry other little peccadilloes that neither add to its exhilarating properties, nor yet are entirely harmless to the system. On the other hand, the black teas are not adulterated, and are the only ones used by the Chinese. Knowing the impurities that are in the best green teas, they send them to foreign ports to tickle the delicate palates of the English, the French and the Americans, who, in their view, fancy the bright, lively appearance imparted by the coloring compositions they use.
“The remedy for these wholesale adulterations is easy. It is entirely in the hands of the tea merchants. If they refuse to buy the poisoned leaf, the Chinamen will very quickly stop adulterating it.”
TRADE AND NAVIGATION OF GREAT BRITAIN IN 1860.
The annual statement of the trade and navigation of the United Kingdom with foreign countries and British possessions in the year 1860 has just been published in the form of a blue book, containing 468 pages. From the numerous statistical tables we gather the following information :
Imports and Exports.—The real value of the total imports and exports of merchandise during the last five years is as follows :-Imports, 1856, £172,544,154; 1857, £187,844,441 ; 1858, £164,583,382 ; 1859, £179,182,355 ; 1860, £210,530,873. Exports, 1856, £139,220,353 ; 1857, £146,174,301 ; 1858, £139,782,779, 1859, £155,692,975; 1860, £164,521,351.
Corn. --The quantity of wheat imported in 1860 was 5,880,958 quarters, being 1,879,036 quarters over the previous year. Of other kinds of corn and grain, 7,125,661 quarters were imported in 1860, and 5,317,761 quarters in 1859. 5,086,220 cwt. of wheat meal and flour was imported in 1860, and 71,343 cwt. of other kinds of meal and flour.
Cotton.—The quantity of raw cotton imported during 1856 and the four succeeding years was as follows :—1856, 9,141,842 cwt.; 1857, 8,654,633 cwt. ; 1858, 9,235,198 cwt. ; 1859, 10,946,331 cwt. ; 1860, 12,419,096 cwt. During the same five years the quantity of cotton yarn imported was as follows:-1856, 1,116,226 lbs. ; 1857, 956,652 lbs.; 1858, 799,827 lbs. ; 1859, 962,097 lbs.; 1860, 1,002,872 lbs. In 1860, 148,296 pieces of cotton manufactures of India and China were imported, besides European cotton manufactures to the value of £685,059.
Silk.—The value of silk imported in 1860 was £10,241,748, being less than in the previous year, when the value was £10,377,042. Thrown silk exhibits a similar decrease; the value of the imports being £336,991 in 1860, and £526,773 in 1859. There is an increase, however, with regard to silk manufactures, the returns showing £3,343,761 in 1860, as compared with £2,763,379 in 1859.
Spirits.- The returns respecting the import of spirits exhibit the following results :—Value of brandy in 1859, £1,420,942; in 1860, £1,088,177. Geneva, 1859, £16,429 ; 1860, £16,428. Rum, 1859, £801,056 ; 1860, £757,981. Unenumerated spirits, not sweetened, 1859, £97,927; 1860; £90,073. Sweetened spirits of all kinds, 1859, £35,684; 1860, £53,555.
Tobacco.-The following is the value of the raw tobacco imported during the past five years :-1856, £1,980,672 ; 1857, £1,895,104 ;
1858, £2,230,323; 1859, £1,563,330; 1860, £1,494,517. The manufactured tobacco, segars and snuff imported during the same periods were of the following value:-1856, £243,490; 1857, £287,483 ; 1858, £300,516; 1859, £253,841 ; 1860, £283,201.
Shipping.—The number, tonnage and crews of registered vessels, distinguishing sailing and steam, were as follows:-36,164 sailing vessels, tonnage, 5,210,824 tons; steam vessels, 2,337, tonnage, 500,144 tons. Total number of vessels, 38,501; total tonnage, 5,710,968 tons; crews, 294,460.
THE LUMBER TRADE. The lumber trade of this country, according to the Boston Commercial Bulletin, was for years confined to New-England, and particularly the present State of Maine. Within the past ten years the trade has greatly changed its direction, and within the past five years almost wholly. Å well-written essay upon the causes and effects of this would be an interesting historical record. The home trade in lumber has pressed to the extremes—from the Penobscot to the great lakes. In 1851, a member of a firm in the lumber business, at Boston, conceived the idea of working Western and Canada lumber for the Boston market, a long experience having satisfied him that the forests of Maine would, in a short time, become essentially deficient in the supply of some of the most desirable qualities of lumber for building and shipping. To show what has been the result of this enterprise, we can state that the sales made by this firm, in the first year afterwards, (1852,) were not over three hundred and fifty thousand feet. Now they sell about twenty-five millions annually. The business has already outgrown the proportions of one concern, and there are others here who are engaged in the business as agents of Western and Canada houses.
This lumber now takes the precedence for shipping over all other kinds; its widths, its lengths and its adaptedness to carriage all excel the Eastern lumber. It is taken mostly from the forests of Michigan, Upper Canada and Western New-York, and is conveyed to the seaboard by way of the canals and the St. Lawrence, and by rail-road, via Ogdensburg and Burlington. The better qualities are sent in large quantities to the west coast of South America, California and Australia.
The traffic in Eastern lumber has decreased proportionately; where our old firms ten years since used to average a cargo per day from the Penobscot and Kennebec, they scarcely average a cargo per week.
It has been supposed by many that we were dependent on the South for hard pine, or rather that we could not find a substitute for hard pine. It is scarcely twenty years since that the first lot of common river sawed boards arrived in this city from Mobile, consigned to E. D. PETERS & Co. The trade has grown since then. In 1845 the ship-builders of Boston sent out men all through the South to cut hard pine and oak for shipbuilding, and from this, and also from the fact that hard pine boards were generally accepted as the best for certain purposes, we have come to believe that we could not do without the Southern lumber. This is a mistake.
I. LARGE EXPORTS TO EUROPE. II. REDUCED IMPORTS. III. EXTRAORDINARY RECEIPTS OF GRAIN
AT TIDE-WATER. IV. APPEAL OF THE NEW-YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE TO THE CANAL BOARD, AND THEIR RESPONSE. V. GENERAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. VI. FOREIGN Dry Goods. VII. GOVERNMENT Loan. VIII. PACIFIC TELEGRAPI COMPLETED.
The month of November has shown a marked change in the business features of New-York. A continued activity has prevailed in the export trade to foreign countries, showing, as general results, exclusive of specie:
Ten months, 1861. Exports,...
$ 109,934,000 Imports,..
141,754,000 The grain movement will form one of the extraordinary features of the year 1861, and contributes largely to the strength of the country in sustaining an expensive war. The aggregate receipts to 14th November at tide-water were as follow:
Flour, barrels. Wheat, bushels. Corn, bushele. Barley, bushels. 1860,
1,051,900 15,771,600 13,400,300 2,393,000 1861,
1,221,200 25,054,700 20,559,600 1,703,900 By reducing the wheat to flour, the quantity of the latter left at tidewater, this year, compared with the same period last year, shows a gain equal to 2,625,000 barrels of flour. The receipts at tide-water, since the opening of the canals, for three years, to the 14th November, have been as follow:
1861. Сапаlѕ open, .
May 1. Flour,...
..barrels, 600,600 1,051,900 1,221,200 Wheat
.bushels, 3,523,200 15,771,600 25,054,700 Corn.
2,488,700 13,409,300 20,559,600 Barley,
1,909,200 2,393,000 1,703,900 Rye,
4,697,500 0,948,600 4,806,200 In order to facilitate the grain movement of this State and of the West, the New-York Chamber of Commerce, on the 7th November forwarded a memorial to the Canal Commissioners at Albany, to maintain navigation to the latest moment this year. To this appeal the following response was made :
At a meeting of the Board of Canal Commissioners, held November 14, a resolution, of which the following is a copy, was adopted :
" Resolved, That the navigation of the canals of this State, for the present season, be continued to the latest possible period, with reasonable effort; and that to this end the several Canal Superintendents are required to see that the several repair contractors on their respective sections have prepared for use all necessary ice-breakers, and other tools and implements to aid navigation, as shall be directed by the commissioners in charge."