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treaties weighed more with them, than the commands of rigid authority, or the arguments of a cooler mind, where the affection of the heart was not felt, or not tenderly expressed. They were most of them his honour and joy. His principal defect in this capacity was, that he had not sufficient resolution of temper to govern some untractable youths, who would not be won upon by mild and gentle addresses: And he was sometimes deceived by the appearance of humiliation and penitence, and fair promises of a more orderly behaviour. The natural softness and gentleness of his temper made it painful to censure and reprove: Upon every important occasion indeed, he resolutely submitted to this disagreeable task, and performed it in a manner most likely to be effectual; yet in lesser instances, where he thought the character and improvement of his pupils not so much concerned, he was, perhaps, too easy in admitting excuses, and not strict enough in exacting an observance of his established laws. This, as we shall hereafter observe, he perceived and acknowledged to be an error. He found it a great inconvenience, and the source of some disorders in his family, to have young gentlemen of great fortunes, intended for no particular profession, and young men intended for the ministry, as students together. It was difficult to establish general laws, which would Some of those who had not bear hard upon one or the other. large allowances from their parents or guardians, were sometimes a snare to the other students, especially the divinity students, whose allowance was generally small; though it is but justice to add, that many of the former behaved in the most unHe often expressed his wish, that difexceptionable manner. ferent places of education could be provided for persons intended for the ministry and those for other professions; as he thought it would be a better security for the religious character of the former; and some indulgences might be allowed to the others, especially those of rank and fortune, that were not proper for divinity students, as few of them were likely ever to be in affluBut whatever their rank and circumstances ent circumstances. were, he treated them with equal regard; they were alike subject to the discipline and religious orders of his family.-When any of his pupils, who have behaved well, left his academy, he parted with them with great regret, and by fervent prayer, commended them, in their future concerns and connections, to the blessing of God. It was usual, when some of them entered on the ministry together, and also when they were removing to their respective stations, to have some time spent in public prayer, to recommend them to the grace of God, and en
gage his blessing on their studies and labours. The elders of his church, together with himself and his assistant, conducted these religious exercises; and sometimes he had the concurrence of his brethren in the neighbourhood. He interested himself in their comfortable settlements, corresponded with many of them, and was ready to advise any of them in cases of difficulty, in which they desired his assistance. He employed his interest with his friends for their benefit, and was glad to serve them in their temporal, spiritual or ministerial concerns. When they had an opportunity of visiting him at Northampton, his house and his heart were always open for their receptoin: He desired them to consider it as a father's house, and he treated them there, as a good father would a beloved child, who came from a distance to visit him. He had the pleasure to see many of them unanimously and affectionately chosen by large congregations as their pastors; amongst whom they laboured with great acceptance and success. Since his decease, three of them have been chosen to preside over seminaries of this kind, and are widely diffusing the benefits they received from his instructions and example.
So great was his reputation as a tutor, that the number of his pupils was large; communibus annis, thirty four, and generally increasing. He had sustained this office about twenty two years, and during that time had about two hundred young men under his care; of whom, one hundred and twenty, as far as I can learn, entered upon the ministry, and several intended for it died, while under his instructions. He had several pupils from Scotland and Holland. One person, that was intended for the ministry in the church of England, chose to spend a year or two under his instructions, before he went to the university; others, whose parents were of that church, were placed in his family, and they were readily admitted as pupils and allowed to attend the established worship; for the constitution of his academy was perfectly catholic. Some young divines from Scotland, who had studied and taken the usual degrees, in the universities there, and had begun to preach, came to attend his divinity lectures, and receive his instructions, before they settled with parishes in their native country. During their residence with him, they preached occasionally in the dissenting congregations in that town and neighbourhood, and two of them were ordained there.
When he had published some hints of his method of education, in his short memoirs of Mr. Steffe's life, he received letters from some eminent divines of the church of England, expressing
their high approbation of his plan, as affording students, intended for the ministry, superior advantages for appearing with honour in the ministerial character, than were enjoyed in some more public seminaries.
Before I conclude this chapter, it may be proper to observe that the account here given of the Doctor's lectures and plan of education is taken from what they were between twenty and thirty years ago. He might, in some circumstances, change his method afterwards; but I believe in no material point. I mention this, lest any, who have been under his care since that period, should perceive that my account does not exactly correspond with their knowledge of his academy, while they belonged to it.
Thus have I endeavoured to give some idea of the manner in which this excellent person filled up this difficult and honourable station; and I am persuaded the pious reader will, from this survey, be inclined to join with me in acknowledging the wisdom and goodness of providence, which gradually prepared him for, and, by the several steps already pointed out, led him into, so large a sphere of usefulness. May the same divine hand, that so richly endowed him with those gifts, which qualified him for this important service, raise up, through every succeeding period of the church, others, who may discover a like spirit; and who may be honoured as the instruments of forming the minds of their younger brethren, and, by this means, of transmitting the knowledge and power of religion through the most distant ages!
Dr. Doddridge's Genius, Learning and Writings. THOUGH I am chiefly solicitous, in this work, to represent Dr. Doddridge under the character of a christian and a minister, as an example worthy the imitation of others; yet I cannot, without great injustice, pass over in silence his character as a man of genius and a scholar*. Nor will this view of him be foreign
* I do not know that genius can be ascribed to Dr. Doddridge, taking that word in its highest signification, as implying either a great inventive faculty in science, or that boldness of imagination which is productive of original imagery and combinations.
to my main design; as it will tend, in the opinion of many, to set his other qualities in a more striking light; and will prove, if indeed it needs any proof, that very high attainments in piety and devotion are no way inconsistent with great eminency in learning and knowledge.
The Doctor was possessed, in a very high degree, of two qualities, which are rarely united, viz. a natural activity and ardour of mind, joined to invincible resolution and perseverance. The one led him to form an acquaintance with the various branches of science; while the other secured him from the evils attending a boundless curiosity, and kept him steady to those pursuits, which he thought deserved his principal attention. His uncommon application, even with moderate abilities, would have enabled him to lay up a large stock of knowledge: It is no wonder therefore, that, when it was joined with great natural quickness of apprehension and strength of memory, it should enable him to make distinguished advances in the several parts of useful learning. His acquaintance with books was very extensive. There were few of any importance on the general subjects of literature, which he had not read with attention; and he could both retain and easily recollect, what was most remarkable in them. As he cautioned his pupils against that indolent and superficial way of reading, which many students fall into, so he took care that his own example should enforce his precepts. His usual method was, to read with a pen in his hand, and to mark in the margin particular passages, which struck him. Besides which he often took down hints of what was most important, or made references to them in a blank leaf of the book, adding his own reflections on the author's sentiments. Thus he could easily turn to particular passages, and enriched his lectures with references to what was most curious and valuable in the course of his reading.But he was not one of those who content themselves with treasuring up other men's thoughts. He knew, and often reminded his pupils, that the true end of reading is only to furnish the mind with materials to exercise its own powers; and few men knew better, how to make use of the knowledge they had gained, and apply it to the most valuable purposes. His mind was indeed
In a lower and more popular sense of the term, he might be said to have been a man of genius; for he had a quick conception and lively fancy. He had a comprehension of mind, that enabled him to proceed with celerity and vigour in the acquisition of knowledge and that activity of his mental frame, which put it into his power to learn much in a little time, was happily accompanied with an invincible resolution and perseverance in the prosecution of his studies.-K.
a rich treasury, out of which he could, on every proper occasion, produce a variety of the most important instruction. This qualified him for lecturing to his pupils in those several branches of science, of which his course consisted; it enriched his public writings, and rendered his private conversation highly instructive and entertaining.
In the younger part of life he took pains to cultivate a taste for polite literature, which produced a remarkable case and elegance in his letters; and the marks of it appear in all his writings. And, considering the natural warmth of his imagination, which must have rendered these kind of studies peculiarly pleasing to him, it was a great instance of his resolution and self-denial, that he did not suffer them to ingross a disproportionate share of his time and attention, but made them subservient to the more serious and important ends he had in view.—— With regard to the learned languages, though he could not be called a profound linguist, he was sufficiently acquainted with them to read the most valuable pieces of antiquity with taste and pleasure†, and to enter into the spirit of the sacred writings. Of this, the world has had a proof in his Paraphrase and Notes on the New Testament, in which he has often illustrated the force and beauty of the original with great judgment and in the true spirit of criticism. He had also nearly completed a New Translation of the Minor Prophets, in which he has shewn his critical knowledge of the Hebrew language.-Though he seemed formed by nature for cultivating the more polite, rather than the abstruser parts of science, yet he was no stranger to mathematical and philosophical studies. He thought it inconsistent with his principal business to devote any considerable part of his time to them; yet it appeared from some essays, which he drew up for the use of his pupils t, that he could
* Mr. Doddridge in younger life, afforded various proofs of a poetical turn, most of which are in the possession of the present biographer.-K.
+ Dr. Doddridge was well acquainted with the greek philosophers and orators, among the last of whom he was particularly devoted to Demosthenes. To the poets of grace he was far from being a stranger; but he was not, I think, deeply conversant with its tragedians. I remember, while I resided with him, his having read Pindar with much admiration. With the latin classics he was largely acquainted. As became a divine and a theological tutor, he diligently studied the ancient fathers, especially of the three first centuries. He paid particular regard to the apologists for christianity, and was a great master of Origen and Eusebius. Beyond the fourth century his knowledge of this species of literature did not, I believe, widely extend, though it did not wholly stop there.-K.
In this number was a Treatise of Algebra, in which the rules both of numeral and universal arithmetic were demonstrated with great conciseness and