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Niger, Portugal and Spain. Neither did their fortune or ambition stop here, till they had added also a great part of Italy, as far as to the gates of Rome ; moreover Sicily, Candia, Cyprus, and the other islands of the Mediterranean Sea. Good God! how great a tract of land ! how many crowns were here! Whence also it is worthy of obfervation, that mention is not made here, as in other trumpets, of the third part; forasmuch as this plague fell no less without the bounds of the Roman Empire than within it, and extended itself even to the remotest Indies.”

Their faces were as the faces of menco they had a bold and manly countenancebut they wore their hair in an effeminate manner. They had their hair as the hair of women.-The Saracens let their hair grow to a great length, and wore it plaited, and in treffes. It was observed by Pliny, that the Arabians wore a kind of turbans, or mitres on their heads; that they dressed

and twisted their hair in a particular man· 'ner ; so that one part of the Saracens was

distinguished by it from another. Their teeth were as the teeth of lions. They were as well furnished with the instruments of destruction, as if nature had given them the teeth of the strongest animals.- And they had breaft-plates, as it were of ironWell furnished with the means of destruction, they were equally well equipped with defensive armour. As the locust is defended by a hard shell of the colour of iron, so the Saracens were guarded by coats of mail calculated to repel the darts and other weapons of their enemies Y. Their formidable and clamorous onset, when hastening forward to engage their enemies, was as the found of chariots of many horses running to battle.

* Lowman, p. 121.


The exact season of the year, during which the Saracens made their most remarkable ravages and conquests, is repeatedly pointed out. The men whom they affailed, were tormented five months?. The locusts infest the countries of the East for the five warmest months, and they are in

y « The Sound of their wings denotes the swiftness and rapidity of their conquests; and it is indeed aftonishing, that in less than a century they erected an empire, which extended from India to Spain.” Newton. z Lowman, p. 122. VOL. II.



active and torpid for the rest of the year. It is well known, that the manner in which the Arabs invaded their neighbours, was by sudden incursions during the summer months ; retiring again and dispersing during the winter, and gathering together the next spring, for a new summer's invafion. According to the military laws and conftitutions of the Mahometans, war was forbid during the sacred months, which were the two first and the two last. The prophetical description is not less exact in a figurative, than in a literal sense. The

hat constitute the months, in which men were tormented, may be reckoned as equivalent to 150 years, according to the usual mode of prophetical computation a. Within the space of these 150 years, the Saracens made their greatest conquest b.


a Newton, vol. iii. p. 109.

6 The number being repeated twice, the sums may be thought to be doubled, and amount in prophetic computation to 300 years : then, according to Sir I. Newton, “ The whole time that the Caliphs of the Saracens reigned with a temporal dominion at Damafcus and Bagdad together, was 300 years, viz. from the year 637 to the year 936, inclusive;" when their empire was broken and divided into several principalities, or kingdonis. So that let these five months be taken in


Mahomet emerged from the cave of the abyss, and began to propagate his religion in the year 612; and Bagdad, or the city of peace, was built by the Caliph Almansor, in the year 762.” This was the first fixed establishment of the Caliphs, where they enjoyed the fruits of their conquests, and funk in luxury and repose. “ In this city of peace, amidst the riches of the East, the Abassides soon disdained the abstinence and frugality of the first Caliphs, and alpired to emulate the magnificence of the Persian kings. After his wars and buildings, Almansor left behind him in gold and silver about thirty millions sterling, and this treasure was exhausted in a few years, by the vices or virtues of his children.” After the period destined for the ravages of the locusts, the rage of the Saracens for conquest and plunder began to subside, the torments inflicted by these fatal Scorpions began to abate, and the distress and desolation, which they had spread over so considerable a portion of the earth, received an extraordinary check from their own intestine disputes, and the settlement of established monarchies in Persia, Africa, and Spain. “The sovereignty of Arabia was lost by the extent and the rapidity, of conquest. The colonies of the nation were fcattered over the East and the West, and their blood was mingled with the blood of their converts and captives. After the reign of three. Çaliphs, the throne was transported from Medina to the valley of Damascus, and the banks of the Tigris; the holy cities were violated by impious war; Arabia was ruled by the rod of a subject, perhaps of a stranger; and the Bedoweens of the desart, awakening from their dream of dominion, resumed their old and solitary independence",".

any possible construction, the event will still answer, and the Prophecy will still be fulfilled.” Newton, vol. iii. p. 110, 111. Gibbon, c. 52. : . G2


Notwithstanding such great and signal punishments were inflicted upon the Chriftians of the East, and of the South, and of the West, by the propagation of the false religion of Mahomet, and by the opprefsions exercised over them by the Saracen locusts, yet no general reformation was produced either in the establishment or the

• Gibbon, c. 50.


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