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it shall be to attend the House during its sittings;* to execute the commands of the House from time to time; together with all such process, issued by authority thereof, as shall be directed to him by the Speaker.
R. 68. The symbol of his office (the mace) shall be borne by the Sergeant-at-arms when in the execution of his office.
R. 69. The fees of the Sergeant-at-arms shall be, for every arrest, the sum of two dollars; for each day's custody and releasement, one dollar; and for travelling expenses for himself or a special messenger, going and returning, one-tenth of a dollar per mile.
R. 70. It shall be the duty of the Sergeant-at-arms to keep the accounts for pay and mileage of members, to prepare checks, and, if required to do so, to draw the money on such checks for the members, (the same being previously signed by the Speaker, and endorsed by the
April 4, 1838
* In the rules established November 13, 1794, the Sergeant was empowered to appoint a “ special messenger” to execute the commands of the House. This authority was stricken from the rules established on the 14th December, 1795.
† At the time this rule was adopted, “ a proper symbol of office” for the Sergeant-at-arms was directed to be provided, “ of such form and device as the Speaker should direct.”
In pursuance of this order, a mace or “ symbol” was procured, which represented the Roman fasces, made of ebony sticks, bound transversely with a thin silver band, terminating in a double tie or beau-knot near the top; at each end a silver band an inch deep, and on the top of each of the rods a small silver spear. A stem of silver of an inch in diameter, and 2 inches long, from the centre of the fasces, supported a globe of silver, about 21 inches in diameter, upon which was an eagle, his claws grasping the globe, and just in the act of fight, his wings somewhat more than half extended. The eagle was massive silver, richly carved. The design was fine, and its whole execution beautiful; the entire height about three feet. The mace was destroyed at the conflagration of the Capitol on the 24th August, 1814, and was not replaced until recently. A temporary one was hastily gotten up (of common pine, and painted) for the then next session of Congress, and was tolerated till the session of 1841–42, when the splendid one now in use was procured.
member,) and pay over the same to the member entitled thereto.
R. 71. The Sergeant-at-arms shall give bond, with April 4, surety, to the United States, in a sum not less than five nor more than ten thousand dollars, at the discretion of the Speaker, and with such surety as the Speaker may approve, faithfully to account for the money coming into his hands for the pay of members.
R. 72. The Sergeant-at-arms shall be sworn to keep Dec. 23, the secrets of the House.
R. 73. A Doorkeeper shall be appointed for the service | April 2, of the House. *
R. 74. The Doorkeeper shall be sworn to keep the secrets of the House,
R. 75. The Postmaster, to superintend the Post Office | April 4, kept in the Capitol for the accommodation of the members shall be appointed by the House.t
R. 76. Twenty-eight standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of each session, viz:
Nov. 13, A Committee of Elections.
To consist of A Committee of Ways and Means.
January 7 A Committee of Claims.
* The rule of 1789 provided for the appointment of an assistant doorkeeper, and so continued until Colonel John W. Hunter, the incumbent, died, in December, 1841, and the House, on the 13th of that month, abolished the office.
t Immediately after the organization of the Government under the present Constitution, a room was set apart in the Capitol for the reception and distribution of letters and packets to and from members of the House, without an order for that purpose, and was called the Post Office. It was superin
tended by the Doorkeeper and his assistants. On the 9th of April, 1814, a special allowance was made to the Doorkeeper to meet the expenses of this office, and he was authorized to appoint a Postmaster. The office continued on this footing till April 4, 1838, when an order was passed, as above, for the appointment of the Postmaster by the House itself.
Originally, the Committee of Claims was charged with revolutionary and land claims, and all sorts of pensions. On the 22d December, 1813, the duties of that committee were divided, and a committee was appointed, called.
1795. Dec. 17,
1805. Nov.9,1808 Jan'y 27,
1808. June 3,
1813. Le. 22,1813 Febr'y 26,
1814. April 29,
1816. Dec.8, 1819 May 3,1820 Tec. 17,
A Committee on Commerce.*
To consist of
nine members each.
the Committee on Pensions and Revolutionary Claims. On the 9th of December, 1825, a separate committee on Revolutionary Pensions was created, leaving the business of Invalid Pensions to the committee created on the 22d December, 1813. On the 13th December, 1825, four days after its institution, the designation of the Committee on Revolutionary Pensions was changed to the Committee on Military Pensions, and it was charged with both Revolutionary and Invalid Pensions. On the 10th January, 1831, the Committee on Military Pensions became the present Committee on Revolutionary Pensions, and an additional committee was created, called the Committee on Invalid Pensions ; and the pension business was apportioned to the two committees, as set out in the duties assigned to the committees.
* This committee was originally a Committee on Commerce and Manufactures. On the 8th December, 1819, a Committee on Manufactures was constituted, but no duties have been assigned to that committee in the rules.
† The 3d of January, 1805, was the first time at which it was proposed to appoint a Committee on Public Lands. The proposition was then made by Mr. John Boyle, of Kentucky, and was rejected. On the 17th December, 1805, the committee was constituted for the first time. Previous to that day the business relating to the lands of the United States was sent either to the Committee of Claims or to a select committee, and frequently, in parts, to both.
# From the earliest stages of the Government, a select committee was annually raised upon the subject of “ the Post Office and Post Roads,” and was always composed of a member from each State. A standing committee was instituted on the 9th November, 1808, and, like the select committees, was directed to be composed of a member from each State. On the 230 December, 1811, it was directed to be composed of the same number of members as the other standing committees.
§ See note (#) page 87.
| When the Committee on Private Land Claims was first constituted, it was composed of five members, two less than the other committees. On the 19th December, 1817, it was directed to be composed of seven members.
( There are no duties assigned to the Committees on Manufactures, Agri
ADOPTED. March 13,
12:22 De, 10,1835 March 13,
1831. De.15, 1831
Nov'r 7, 1801.
A Committee on Military Affairs.
To consist of March 13, A Committee on Foreign Affairs.
nine memA Committee on the Territories.
bers each. A Committee on Revolutionary Pensions.*
Dec. 9,1825 A Committee on Invalid Pensions.
Jan'y 10, A Committee on Roads and Canals.
Sept. 15, A Committee on Patents. A Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds.
To consist of | Sept. 15, A Committee of Revisal and Unfinished Business.
five mem- De.14, 1795 A Committee of Accounts.t
bers each. A Committee on Mileage.
Sept. 15, A Committee on Engraving, to consist of three members.
March 16, R. 77. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Elec- Nov'r 11,
1789; Nov. tions to examine and report upon the certificates of elec-13, 1794. tion, or other credentials, of the members returned to serve in this House; and to take into their consideration all such petitions and other matters touching elections and returns as shall or may be presented or come into question, and be referred to them by the House.
R. 78. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Ways Jan'y 7, and Means to take into consideration all such reports of the Treasury Department, and all such propositions relative to the revenue, as may be referred to them by the House; to ir.quire into the state of the public debt or the revenue, and of the expenditure: and to report, from time to time, their opinion thereon ; [to examine into the state of the several public departments, and particularly into the laws making appropriations of moneys, and to report whether the moneys have been disbursed conformably with such laws; and also to report, from time to
culture, and Indian Affairs, in the rules, but these committees consider whatever is referred to them in their respective spheres by the House.
* See note (+) page 87.
+ The Committee of Accounts was first constituted as a select committee on the 7th November, 1804; it was made a standing committee December 17, 1805.
time, such provisions and arrangements as may be neces-
In preparing bills of appropriations for other objects,
for other objects.
Ways and Means, within thirty days after their appoint-
R. 80. General appropriation bills shall be in order in
otherwise ordered by a majority of the House. Sept. 14, R. 81. No appropriation shall be reported in such gene
ral appropriation bills, or be in order as an amendment
thereto, for any expenditure not previously authorized March 13, by law, (unless in continuation of appropriations for such
* That portion of the duty of the Committee of Ways and Means which is printed within brackets was originally adopted on the 7th January, 1802. On 26th February, 1814, the Committee on Public Expenditures was created, and added to the list of standing committees; the duties of this latter committee are exactly those contained in that portion of the duties of the Committee of Ways and Means which is referred to in this note as within brackets.See rule 89. The words ought to be stricken from the specification of the duties of the Committee of Ways and Means.