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mandates of imprisonment or confiscation, of banishment or death' They will reply to you, A Roman Cònsul.' 'Ques tion them, What haughty conqueror lead through his city, their nobles and kings in chàins; and exhibited their countrymen, by thousands, in gladiators' shows for the amusement of his fellow citizens' They will tell you: A Roman Gèneral.' Require of them, 'What tyrants imposed the heaviest yòke¿-enforced the most rigorous exàctions ¿ -inflicted the most savage punishments, and showed the greatest gust for blood and torture' They will exclaim to you, The Roman pèople.'

4. Let us now consider the principal point, whether the place where they encountered was most favorable to Milo, or to Clodius. Were the affair to be represented only by painting, instead of being expressed by words, it would even then learly appear which was the traitor, and which was free from all mischievous designs. When the one was sitting in his chariot, muffled up in his cloak, and his wife along with him; which of these circumstances was not a very great incùmbrance the dress, the chariot, or the companion How could he be worse equipped for engagement, when he was wrapt up in a clòak, embarrassed with a chàriot, and almost fettered by his wife Observe the other now, in the first place, sallying out on a sudden from his seat; for what reason¿—in the evening; what ùrged him¿-làte; to what purpose, especially at that season¿-He calls at Pompey's seat; with what view To see Pompey? He knew he was at Alsium.—To see his house? He had been in it a thousand times-What then could be the reason of this loitering and shifting about He wanted to be upon the spot when Milo came up.

5. Wherefore cèase we then ¿

Say they who counsel war, we are decrèed,
Reserved, and destin'd to eternal woe;
Whatever doing, what can we suffer more,
5 What can we suffer wòrse¿ Is this then worst,
Thus sitting, thus consulting, thus in arms?
What! when we fled amain, pursued and struck
With heav'n's afflicting thunder, and besought
The deep to shelter us-this Hell then seem'd
10 A refuge from those wounds: or when we lay

Chain'd on the burning lake,-that sùre was worse. What, if the breath, that kindled those grim fires, Awak'd, should blow them into sev'nfold rage, And plunge us in the flames¿ or from above 15 Should intermitted vengeance arm again

His red right-hand to plàgue us what if all
Her stores were open'd, and this firmament
Of Hell should spout her cataracts of fire,
Impendent horrors, threat'ning hideous fall
20 One day upon our heads; while we perhaps,
Designing or exhorting glorious war,
Caught in a fiery tempest, shall be hurl'd,
Each on his rock transfix'd, the sport and prey
Of wracking whirlwinds; or forever sunk
25 Under yon boiling ocean, wrapt in chàins;
There to converse with everlasting groans,
Unrèspited, unpitied, unrepríev'd,

Ages of hopeless end! This would be worse.

Milton.

6. But, first, whom shall we send

In search of the new world whom shall we find
Sufficient who shall tempt with wand'ring feet
The dark unbottom'd infinite abyss,

5 And through the palpable obscure find out
His uncouth way, or spread his airy flight,
Upborne with indefatigable wings,
Over the vast abrupt, ere he arrive

The happy isle; what strength, what art, can then 10 Suffice, or what evasion bear him safe

Through the strict senteries and stations thick
Of Angels watching round Here he had need
All circumspection, and we now no less

Choice in our suffrage; for on whom we send, 15 The weight of all, and our last hòpe, relies.

Milton.

EXERCISE 8.

Page 34. Language of authority, of surprise, and of distress, commonly requires the falling inflection. Denunciation, reprehension, &c. come under this head. 1. Go to the ànt, thou sluggard; consider her

ways, and

be wise:—which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest. How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard? when wilt thou arise out of thy sleep?-Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep:-So shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth, and thy want as an armed man.

2. And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man that had not on a wedding-garment:-And he saith unto him, friend, how camest thou in hither, not haying a wedding-garment? And he was speechless.-Then said the king to the servants, bind him, hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

3. Then he which had received the one talent came, and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art a hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strewed:-And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo there thou hast that is thine.-His lord answered and said unto him, thou wicked and slothful servant,―thou knewest that I reap where I sowed nòt,* and gather where I have not strèwed:-Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury. Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents.—And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

4. Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not.Wò unto thee, Chorazin! wò unto thee Bethsaida! for if the mighty works which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon,† they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.-But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgement than for you. And thou, Capèrnaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shall be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works which have been done in thee, had been done in

*This clause uttered with a high note and the falling slide, expresses censure better with the common punctuation, than if it were marked with the interrogation.

Even in Tyre and Sidon, is the paraphrase of the emphasis.

Sòdom it would have remained until this day. But I say unto you, That it shall be more tòlerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgement, than for thee.

5. Such, sir, was once the disposition of a people, who now surround your throne with reproaches and complaints. Do justice to yourself. Banish from your mind those unworthy opinions, with which some interested persons have labored to possess you. Distrust the men who tell you that the English are naturally light and incònstant; that they complain without a cause. Withdraw your confidence equally from all parties; from ministers, favorites, and relations; and let there be one moment in your life, in which you have consulted your own understanding.

6. You have done that, you should be sorry for.
There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats;
For I am arm'd so strong in honesty,
That they pass by me as the idle wind,
5 Which I respect not. I did send to you
For certain sums of gòld, which you
For I can raise no money by vile means;
-I had rather coin my heart,

denied me,

And drop my bloòd for drachmas, than to wring

10 From the hard hands of peasants their vile trash,
By any indirection. I did send
To you for gold to pay my lègions,

Which you denied me: Was that done like Cassius?
Should I have answer'd Caius Cassius só?

15 When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous,
To lock such rascal counters from his friends,
* Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts,
Dash him to pieces!

7. The war, that for a space did fail, Now trebly thundering swell'd the gale, And-Stanley! was the cry;

A light on Marmion's visage spread.
And fired his glazing eye:

Shakspeare.

*The reader will observe, that the notation is more various, as the examples become longer, including more variety of rhetorical principles.

With dying hand, above his head,
He shook the fragment of his blade,
And shouted-Victory!

Charge, Chester, Charge! òn, Stanly, on!"
Were the last words of Marmion!

8. So judge thou still, presumptuous!-till the wrath, Which thou incurr'st by flying, meet thy flight, Sev'nfold, and scourge that wisdom back to Hèll, Which taught thee yet no better, that no pain 5 Can equal anger infinite provok'd.

But wherefore thou alone? wherefore with thee
Came not all Hèll broke loose? is pain to them
Less pain, less to be fléd? or thou than they
Less hardy to endúre? Courageous Chief!
10 The first in flight from pain!-hadst thou allèg'd
To thy deserted host this cause of flight,
Thou surely hadst not come sòle fugitive.

Milton.

spy,

9. To whom the warrior Angel soon reply'd. To say, and straight unsay, pretending first Wise to fly pain, professing next the Argues no léader, but a lìar, trac'd, 5 Satan!-and couldst thou faithful add? O name, O sacred name of faithfulness profan'd! Faithful to whòm? to thy rebellious créw? Army of Fiends!-fit body to fit head! Was this your discipline and faith engag'd, 10 Your military obedience, to dissolve

Allegiance to th' acknowledg'd Pow'r supreme?
And thou, sly hypocrite, who now wouldst seem
Patron of liberty, who more than thou

Once fàwn'd, and crìng'd, and servilely ador'd
15 Heav'n's awful Monarch? wherefore, but in hope
To dispossess him, and thyself to reign.
But mark what I arreed thee now;-Avaùnt:
Fly thither whence thou flèd'st: if from this hour,
Within these hallow'd limits thou appear,
20 Back to th' infernal pīt I drag thee chained.
And seal thee so, as henceforth not to scorn
The facile gates of Hell, too slightly barr'd.

Milton.

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