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BAPTISM IS NOT POT7BINO.
With a few more words, we conclude our review of Mr. Boardman's tract—" Baptism by Pouring."
At pp. 10-11 we read—" Having been immersed "myself, I know the arguments quite well about "death and resurrection. (Rom. vi.; Col. ii.)" And this is all the use which Mr. Boardman makes of these Scriptures which, to a simple-minded Christian, completely put an end to every difficulty! He says he knows, and then quietly shuts out the light. The passages in the above chapters which tell us plainly the meaning of Baptism, demolish at once all sophistry about pouring! In the first-named Scripture, believers are thus addressed—
"Know ye not that be many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death?" (Rom. vi. 3.)
Here it is not water-baptism, as the context shows. Allusion is made to the reality of the accomplished work, which the ordinance of baptism sets forth in a figure. By faith in Jesus Christ, we understand how that our union with Him immerses us into His death. It puts an end to us, as respects the flesh. We are baptized into the death of Jesus Christ as a fact, in the sight of God. Now see what follows—" Therefore we are buried with Him by baptism into death." Because, by faith, we are immersed into His death, therefore we are buried with Him (by water). Christ died, we died; Christ was buried, we are buried. By the figure of burial in water, the Lord has given us to see how completely our old standing is put an end to, by fellowship in His death, through faith.
I " is now; putting the bodies into caves, rocks, and "sides of hills was the usual mode." The answer to this is simple; there can be no objection to the immersion of a believer in water after that fashion. That is to say, if you can pile water up in a heap, like a rock or a hill, you may so baptize him; there can be no objection to burial in that fashion, but bury the convert you must, if you would fulfil the Lord's command.
THE LORD JESUS CHRIST,
IN HIS VARIED CHARACTERS IN THE FOUR GOSPELS.
(Continuance of Extract from " The Evangelists.")
Without the death of the Lord Jesus, all his virtues and his ministry would be to us as nothing. In the "place that is called Calvary," or onward to that place from the garden of Gethsemane, we- see the great crisis, as we may surely call it, where all are engaged in their several characters, and all disposed of, answered or satisfied, exposed, or revealed or glorified, according to their several deserving. What a place, what a moment, presented to us and recorded for us, by each of the Evangelists, in their different ways!
"Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also of his resurrection." (Rom. vi. 4, S.)
Now look at the Epistle to the Colossians—
"In whom [Christ] ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh [all that was under judgment) by the circumcision Tdeath of] Christ." (Col. ii. 1L) L
Here, again, we have union with Christ in death, and thereby the oomplete cutting off (circumcision) of the flesh—carnal nature, the (entire) body of the sins of the flesh. Therefore this Scripture also brings in burial. "Buried with Him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with (Him) through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised Him from the dead." (Col. ii. 12.)
Can anything be more evident than the truth here taught in the inspired Word? In water-baptism we see the believer buried, as dead, and also raised up again, as risen with Christ. The reality of both, ie "through the faith of the operation of God." Without faith, water-baptism is an empty shadow, or something worse. But immersion, performed in faith, is a sweet showing forth of the work of Christ in the believer—namely, fellowship in his death, burial, and resurrection. And, as an act of obedience, it is precious in the sight of God, . In a footnote, Mr. Boardman says—" Burial of •• old was not so much by laying under ground, as it
Man is seen there, taking his place and acting his part, wretched and worthless as he is. He is there in all variety of conditions; in the Jew and in the Gentile; as rude and as cultivated; in the civil and in^the ecclesiastical place; as brought nigh or as left in the distance; as privileged, I mean, or left to himself. But whatever this variety may be, all are exposed to their shame.
The Gentile Pilate is there, occupying the seat of civil authority. But if we look there for righteousness, it is oppression we find. Pilate bore the sword not merely in vain, but for the punishment of those who did well. He condemned the One whom he owned to be " just," and of whom he had said, " I find no fault in Him: " and the soldiers, who served under him, shared or exceeded his iniquity.
The Jewish scribes and priests, the ecclesiastical thing of that hour, seek for false witness—and the multitude who wait on them are one with them, and cry out against the One who had been ministering to their need and sorrow all His days.
They who passed by, mere travellers along the road, (men left in the distance as to themselves,) revile, venting impotent hatred, as so many Shimeis in the day of David. And disciples, a people brought nigh and privileged, betray the common corruption, and take part in this scene of shame to man, heartlessly forsaking their Lord in the hour of danger, and when He had looked for some to stand by Him.
All is, thus, worthless. Exposed in all this variety, Man is put to shame as in the face of creation, at this crisis, this solemn moment of weighing him and testing him, as for the last time. The woman with her box of ointment makes no exception. Her faith was of the operation of God; and beautiful as it was, to be had in remembrance through the whole world, it is God's praise and His alone, through the Spirit.
Satan, as well as man, shews himself in this great crisis. He deceives and then destroys. He makes his captive his victim, destroying by the very snare by which he had tempted. The bait becomes the hook, as it always does in his hand. Tho sin we perpetrate loses its charm tho moment it is accomplished, and then becomes the worm that dies not. The gold and silver is cankered, and its rust eats the flesh as if it were fire. The thirty pieces of silver does this with Judas, the captive and the victim of Satan.
Jesus is here in His virtues and His victories; virtues in all relationships, and victories over all that stood in His way. What patience in bearing with His weak, selfish disciples! what dignity and calmness in answering His adversaries! what selfconsecration, and surrender to the will of His Father! These were His virtues, as we track Him on this path, from His sitting at the table to His expiring on the cross. And then, His victories. The Captive is the Conqueror, like the ark in the land of the Philistines. He put away sin and abolished death.
"His be the Victor's name
Who fought our fight alone."
God is here, God Himself and in the highest. He enters the scene, as I may express it, when darkness covers all the land. That was His acceptance of the offer of the Lamb, who said, "Lo, I come." And such offer being accepted, God could show no mercy. If Jesus made Himself sin for us, it is unrelieved, unmitigated judgment He must have to sustain. The darkness was the expression of this; God was accepting the offer, and dealing with the Victim accordingly, abating nothing of the demands of righteousness.
And then, when the offer has been fulfilled, and the sacrifice rendered, and Jesus has given up His life, when the blood of the Victim has flowed, and all is finished, God, by another figure, owns the accomplishment of every thing, the fulness of the atonement, and the perfection of the reconciliation. The veil of the temple is rent from the top to the bottom. He that sits on the throne, that judges right, and weighs all claims and their answers, sin and its judgment, peace and its price and its purchase, gives out that wondrous witness of the deep, ineffable satisfaction He took in the deed that was then perfected "in the place that is called Calvary."
What a part for the blessed God Himself to take in this great crisis, this greatest of all solemnities, when every thing was taking its place for eternity!
And further still. Angels are here also, and heaven, earth, and hell, sin also and death, yea, and the world too.
Angels are here, witnessing these things, and learning new wonders. Christ is seen of them.
Heaven, earth, and hell are here, waiting on this moment; rocks and graves, the earthquake, and the darkness of the sky, bespeaking this.
Sin and death are disposed of, set aside and overthrown ; the rent veil and the empty sepulchre publishing these mysteries.
The world learns its judgment in the sealed stone being rolled away, and the keepers of it forced to take the sentence of death in themselves.
Surely we may call this "thegreat crisis"—the most solemn moment in the history of God's dealings with His creatures. Wondrous assemblage of actors and of actings, God and Jesus, man and Satan, angels, heaven, earth and hell, Bin and death, and the world, all occupy their place, whothor of shame, or of defeat, or of judgment, of virtues and of triumphs, of manifestations and of glory. This is the record of each of the Evangelists in his several way, or according to his own method, under the Spirit. Our specidationB can find no place. We have but to take up tho lessons which they teach us, lessons for an ascertained and well-understood eternity.
EXPEDIENCY PAVES THE PATH TO FAILURE.
Whether this principle had an exemplification in the latter part of the career of John the Baptist, we leave our readers to judge. We can only say, the following considerations have led us to a conclusion which deeply impresses upon us the above important lesson.
The Baptist's mission was twofold—to preach repentance, in preparation for the appearing of the Messiah, and to point out the August One when He had appeared. God's chosen people, sunk in sin, especially formalism (or a mere outward seeming to be godly), had to be roused, not to a belief in Christ's coming, but to the need of being spiritually prepared for His searching presence. "That He should be "made manifest unto Israel, therefore am I come," said John, "baptizing with water."
Suddenly, therefore, a voice—a loud, urgent, piercing voice, is heard in the wilderness of Judea, —Repent! Repent ! Hecometh ! behold, He cometh! But though John began preaching in the wilderness of Judea, (which extended along the shores of the Dead Sea,) and though he produced a deep and wide impression, he did not begin to baptize till he had travelled up to and crossed over the Jordan.
"Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan, and were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins."
There was deep significance in John's thus baptizing in the Jordan, which means, the River of Death or Judgment. His mission was, as we have seen, to convict of sin, to lead to repentance and to administer the baptism of repentance. Now, because of sin, death had "passed upon all;" that is, all mankind had been baptized into death because of sinBaptism in the Jordan was a confession of the deserts of sin—Death. Confession of sin and Repentance are not, and cannot be, Salvation, or deliverance from Death, though they may lead to it, or prepare the way for the Coming One—the Saviour. Confession of sin and Repentance could not, therefore, take further than the "River of Death." This was the true character of John's ministry. The Jordan, therefore, with its wilderness banks, was, it would seem, the Baptist's place—and nowhere else.
What led John to leave the Jordan is not stated;
and we therefore acknowledge that to speak dogmati
cally on this branch of our subject would be wrong. Whatever the motive, the act was clearly a failure. "We cannot but think—"judge ye what we say"— that it was caused by thoughts of Expediency!! John ought to have kept to his post till told to remove by Him who had sent him there. Without seeking or awaiting that guidance, he seems to have yielded to the guidance of Expediency. Deceitful Guide! readiest tool of the Arch-Antagonist.
John's baptism had not been received by the higher and professedly religious classes. His disciples were dispersed, exposed to the influence of these disbelieving teachers, and engaging with them in controversy. (See John iii. 25.) Bearers were becoming scarce. What should the zealous man of God do? To remain there, was to spend his breath upon a contracted and still contracting audience. If hearers would not come to him, could he not go to them?
Satan might have led him through some such course of reasoning, as he has many other servants of God, inducing them to leave clear spheres of duty for those to which they were not called—spheres more tempting, but in which their testimony has been marred, and they have positively hindered the Lord's work! Satan's object was to mar John's testimony to Christ, and to induce him to take his eyes off the Son of God. And he succeeded; and what was the consequence ?—mistakes so grievous that John has speedily to be set aside!
In the first place, he leaves the Jordan, his only proper place for baptizing, and goes to "TEnon, near to Salim." Expediency might have justified this step; first, because "there was much water there," and, secondly, because, while it furnished equal facilities for immersion, it was in a thicklypeopled country.
But while Expediency seemed to approve of the step, look at its mistake. iEnon means Springs of the Dove,11, and is appropriately near Salim, Peace. These names indicate the wrongness of the ground on to which the Baptist had got. This baptizing at the " Springs of the Dove," near to "Peace," was trenching (in a figure) on the precious prerogative of Him who, as John himself declared, came to baptize with the Holy Ghost, that blessed Spirit who descended upon Him like a Love.
Though the Baptist is thus acting in accordance with his own thoughts, he is nevertheless graciously honoured by being permitted to give his most explicit and emphatic testimony concerning Jesus—but it was his last'. (John iii.) and mingling in it we see a premonition of himself being set aside—a commencement of that sad darkness of soul in which he doubted whether Jesus were "He that should come," or whether they were to look for another!
But the Baptist did not retrace his steps to the place of duty; a wrong step taken ever increases our danger of going further. And ho whom prophecy (as quoted by himself) declared was to be the Voice in the Wilderness, we find in cities—crowded, corrupt
cities; yea, in the court of a hypocrite! * Oteseuius,
Expediency, how much better to have and to sway large and applauding audiences! how much more good will bo done than by remaining out at the Jordan! See, Herod is hearing him gladly! and he is doing many things through his preaching!
Ah, but shall a servant reason, when he has a simple command before him? It was all very showy, but was John's work according to God's mind? We have seen that it was not; and what was its result? The reformed king becomes his murderer! showing that his labour was mere surface-work—a varnishing of a rotten thing. John's preaching of reformation in luxurious cities, God knew would only lead the hypocrite to increased hypocrisy; but his ministrations at the Jordan, to those who were sincere enough to go out to him, might still have been of continuous and decided service. While, therefore, he is zealously labouring to improve, an irremediably bad thing, and, consequently labouring for nought, what does his labour produce as regards himself? — Silence, in respect to testimony to Christ, neglect of the known duty of baptizing, and the loss of his head. Whereas his ministry had been full of most precious testimony, we now read of him no longer as pointing to the Lamb of God, or baptizing earnest repenting sinners and sending them to Jesus; anon, he who has been silenced by the subtleties of Satan, is further silenced by the stroke of the executioner. "To bear witness to The Light" was emphatically John's work: to go into cities and attempt to reform the wicked, was getting away, far away from his Special Duty and his Special place.
Moreover, it was setting up a ministry in antagonism to that of the Lord Himself. While John'sdisciples are discussing questions of purification with the Jews, the Lord is seeking to impress the, truth that men "must be Born Again," that they must spiritually eat of Himself and drink of Himself or they could have no life in them. Besides, the attempt to improve the authorities then ruling God's people was practically admitting that Herod might, if he were only good enough, divide the reins with Christ! Thus the Forerunner got to be a Hinderer; and what was the consequence? He had to be set aside. This is evident from various passages, which show that Jesus, having traversed Judas, is about to go into Galilee, where John was, but abode at Sychar until he heard that John was cast into prison, and then he went forth into the cities of Galilee. (Compare John iii. 24 ; iv, 1, 46; Matt. iv. 14; Marki. 14.) How gracious, then, of the Lord Jesus, to testify of John that there was "none greater born of woman," even while he was under a cloud of doubtfulness, and even though his failure had cost the Lord (speaking after the manner of men) a living Witness.
Beloved in the Lord, we have the same gracious Master, but let us take heed how we listen to ExpeDiency when his commands are in question. To obey only is to be safe. There is no safety in doing anything, for which we feel we have not clear Scripture warrant. Are we in doubt? let us seek
guidance, and. wait till we get it.
THE FOREGOING CONSIDERATIONS APPLIED TO MODERN PRACTICE.
Servants of the One Master, shall we not carefully and in the light of the Word, consider whether, like John the Baptist, we have not received a special duty and a special placo? Where has Our Lord placed us and what has He given us to do? Having saved us, He has placed us between the living and the dead—between his living, saving Self and a world under sentence of death. Having enlightened us, He has sent us into a dark world to show Himself as the Light of the World. Having been sin-bitton and healed ourselves, our special duty is to point to Him who was lifted up, like the brazen serpent in the wilderness; to direct the sin-cursed to Him who knew no sin, but was made sin for us, and endured the curse; to the Lamb that was slain, but is alive again, and liveth to die no more. "Tho words which thou hast given me," said the Lord Jesus Christ, "I have given them." And what are they?
"God so loved the world, that He gave His only-begotten Son, that whosoever bolioveth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life."
This is laid upon us among the Lord's last words on earth: —
"Go ye into all tho world; proach the Gospel to every creature. He that holievcth and is baptized shall be saved; he that believeth not shall be damned."
Side by side, in these passages, are seen condemnation and salvation. Every soul is in one condition or the other. Clearly, therefore, our primary duty is to urge men to flee from the wrath to come—the wrath soon to come, inevitably to come. John the Baptist spake of the fan being in the hands of God's Messiah, and that He would "throughly purge His floor." There is, therefore, a striking analogy between John's primary duty and ours.
Towards such as receive the truth in the love of it, another sphere of duty is opened up. But the duty of the evangelist is primary, in the order of time, and is (according to gift and opportunity) the duty of all Christians; "Let him that heareth say, Come:" and the Philippians are exhorted by Paul to hold forth the "word of life."
Not only is our duty of pointing to the blessed Lamb of God strikingly analogous to that of John the Baptist, but so is also our place. Twice in John xvii. does the Lord say of believers—" They are not of this world, even as I am not of this world." And why? Because the world, or human society, is under the rule of Satan: unwittingly the unregenerate obey his behests. He is the god of this world, and ruleth in the hearts of the children of disobedience. To have fellowship with the world in any of its pet schemes, is for those who represent Christ on earth, to have fellowship with Belial!
Jose yye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness': and what communion hath light with darkness r and what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believoth with an infidel [unbelievor]? and what agreement hath the templo of God with idols? for ye or* the temple of the living God;
as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore, como out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean; and I will receive you, and will be a Father unto you, and vo shall be my sons and daughters, saith tho Lord Almighty." " (2 Cor. vi. 14—18.)
Attempts at reformation, improvement, and social progress are favourite pursuits with the world. And Satan has no objection to any amount of civilisation and institutions by which the old nature, sinwrecked, may be patched up. If the world will not listen to our testimony, that the wrath of God abideth over it, notwithstanding all its attempts at keeping down vice, doing away with poverty, and elovating the general taste, and so forth, the fact remains that the whole world "liethinthe Wicked One." Considering that to-morrow we may be out of the scene, if the Lord come,—and that destruction will soon afterwards come down upon it,—it is preposterous for us to have fellowship with the world in its ways.
Our place is therefore, like John's, out in the wilderness, spiritually speaking; "come out, and be separate, and touch not the unclean." Not personally apart, but spiritually apart; in the world, but not of it.
Satan will say, appealing to Expediency, What is the use of your stopping out there in the wilderness, raising your voice? why not go among men, approve that which you find to be good, persuade them to be bettor, help them to make the best of this world, and they will be more likely to listen to 3rour testimony, especially if you give them something to do.
Beloved, it is a subtle snare ; how many do not see their way through it! Depend upon it, as sure as we find ourselves in fellowship with the world in any of its darling, self-elating projects, or preaching reformation of the old nature, so surely shall we find ourselves, like John the Baptist, silenced in testimony for Christ. As certainly as Christians follow their own thoughts of Expediency, and turn aside to try, as it is called, "to ameliorate the condition of society" and " elevate the masses," by arrangements of man's devising, so surely will their testimony be marred. Under such circumstances, they will find that bearing witness to the truth will be found often unsuited to the occasion, and that " Christ or hell?" would be an unwarrantable intrusion upon such good, well-meaning associates!!
Christians all around us are striking hands with the world in such things. We say it with great grief. For instance, many Christians think that, by giving evenings, more or less frequently, in union with worldly men, to serve the Temperance movement, they are indirectly furthering the Gospel.* Others,
* We do not wish to cast B slur on the practice of abstaining from the ordinary use of alcoholic drinks. Timothy was evidently an abstainer from wine as a beverage, and was only advised to " take a little wine" for his "stomach's sake" and his "often infirmities." Solongas we have no infirmities of the kind I indicated, we cannot appropriate the advice. For many reasons we wish abstinence from these drinks as beverages were general, and are glad to show by our personal practice that abstinence is best. But as a Swial Agitation, Christians cannot preside at or take part in worldly amusements and entertainments with the thought of impressing the people with the interest taken in their general welfare. Other instances will occur to our readers.
Let such Christians remember that the Word of God declares this friendship with the world is spiritual adultery: read what the Spirit says by James.
"Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever, therefore, will be a friend of the world is an enemy of God."
"Indirect furthering" is a process undiscoverablo in Scripture. By such subtle Expediency has Satan turned those who might give true testimony into— "dumb dogs which cannot bark." Oh, brethren beloved, be "not ignorant of his devices;" be not gagged by our wily Adversary. There is no safeguard in reasoning; therefore, do not begin to do that. Your Lord says—'' Abide in Me, and let my words abide in you." Let us, therefore, go nowhere, do no thing, in which we cannot realize his presence and scatter his words, urging men to accept Himself, declaring that unless they spiritually eat his flesh and drink his blood, there is no life in them.
THE SMITTEN BOCK. "They drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them : and that Rock was Christ." (1 Cor. x. 4).
We proceed to answer an enquiry printed in our last number, page 86. We are taught that the Smitten Rock was a type of Christ. Therefore, there could be but One Rock smitten by God's appointment.
"The Lord said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel ; and thy rod wherewith thou smotcst the river, take in thine hand and go. Behold, I will stand before thee upon The Rock in Horeb ; and thou shalt smite The Rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink." (Exod. xvii. 5-6.)
In Numbers xx., th9 word is,—
"Take the rod, and gather thou the assembly together, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and apeak ye unto Thk Rock before their eyes; and it shall give forth his water, and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of As Rock," &c.
Observe, the definite article, The, is always used. This is confirmed in all passages of holy writ, where reference is made to the Smitten Rock. So that, though this latter event took place in Kadesh and the former in Horeb, wo have a conviction that there wore at the two places two different peaks of the same rock or mountain chain, and reference to the map confirms this impression.
The Rock received no name. But the waters which flowed out are, on the second occasion, called Meribah (meaning Contention). Elsowhere, they are called '« The waters of strife'in Kadesh." (Ezek. xlviii. 28.) In the narrative given in Exodus, the place, not the
take part in that or any other movement. The confusion of thought and the self-righteousness, which the unholy alliance of the Church and the World has produced, are shocking, and are patent to any Scripturally-taught Christian on the lace of most Temperance publications.
water or the Rock, is named by Moses, Meribah, and also Massah (Temptation.) Thus the place of the Rock, when first presented to faith, is called "Temptation" and "Contention." Afterwards, the waters are called "Contention" also. Truth becomes contention when we do not receive it in God's way.
This helps to an understanding of what the Holy Spirit designs to teach us in recording these wonderful incidents of Israel's journeys in the wilderness. In I Cor. x. we are told that those who came out of Egypt were all baptized to Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink; and if we would profitably follow the course of their wanderings as narrated in the Scriptures, we, too, must eat and drink spiritual food. The ltock, then, is Christ. When smitten by command of the Lord, he is presented to us in Horeb (All Alone, or Forsaken) \, and God stood before the Smiter there, upon the Rock. Christ was thus smitten indeed. The place where he suffered, is well named Massah and Meribah (Temptation and Contention). Yet, notwithstanding, the waters of life flowed out, and his people drink of his lifegiving streams of truth. The Rock was to be smitten, and the results were all in pure and perfect grace. The Israelites murmured, contended, and tempted, in Rephidim, and there was no word of judgment for them; God ondured it all, and supplied all their needs! But afterwards, when The Rock has to be dealt with in Kadesh (Holiness or Sanctification), it is not seen from the place in which God had said, "Take thy rod and smite." It was enough that The Rock should be smitten once, for that Rock (in type) was Christ. In the place of holiness or sanctification (Kadesh1) the command to Moses was, "Speak ye unto the Rock." Alas! Moses transgressed the word of the Lord.
"Moses and Aaron gathered the congregation together before The Rock, and he said unto them, Hear, now, ye rebels ; must we fetch you water out of this Rock? And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the Rook twice: and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also."
Yes, grace flowed out, in spite of the irreverent act. But God will mark his sense of disobedience through lack of faith.
"And the Lord spoke unto Moses and Aaron, Became ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the Children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them." (Num. xx. 12.)
W. B. S., London.—Many thanks for your very gracious letter. We must, however, ask you to look again at our Scripture reference. You tell us that in quoting Eph. i. 12, 13, wo "Confound two very different things, viz. Faith the gift of God, and the gift, or sealing, of the Holy Spirit." We now append that Scripture ; let the Word of God speak. "That we should be to the praise of his «loiy, who first trusted in Christ. In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation : in whom also after that ye believed, ye were