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Marine Officers, W. G. Sawtell, Comdr. G. H. S.
Township Authority, Dar-es-Salaam. Municipal Secretary,. E. H. Helps, 7501. by 30l. to 8401.
Accountant, J. H. Willmott, 4801. by 20l. to 6001. Building Inspector, P. W. Morgan, 4801. by 20l. to 6601.
Clerk, R. A. J. Walton, 3721. to 480l. by 20l. to 5401.
Director, H. E. Hornby, O.B.E., 1,350.
Junior Entomologists, H. M. Lloyd, J. Y. Moggridge,
Botanist (vacant), 720l. to 8401.
Field Officers, V. A. C. Findlay, H. Harrison, R. K. J.
Field Assistants, A. Lombard, T. G. Brent, A. G. H. du Frayer, J. R. Poole, F. E. Kirk, S. G. Matthews, E. F. Whiteside, 300l. to 4801. Mechanical Assistant, G. Rosch, 300l. to 4801. Laboratory Assistant (vacant), 300l. to 480l.
Director of Veterinary Services, (vacant).
Botanist, R. R. Staples, M.A., Dip. Agric. (Cantab.),
720l. to 8401.
Chemist, M. H. French, M.A., Ph.D., Dip.Agric. (Cantab.), 600l. to 8401.
Chief Clerk, H. C. R. Formby, 480l. to 6001. Laboratory Assistants, E. S. E. Thompson, 3721. by 181. to 480l., 5001. by 20l. to 6007., C. A. Durkin, 3001. by 187. to 4801.
4 Senior Assistant Livestock Officers, J. T. Purvis,
by 181. to 4801., A. C. Robbie, J. S. Gillett. Pasture Assistant (vacant), 3007.
Situation and Area.
The island of Trinidad lies about 16 miles to the
eastward of Venezuela, between 10° 3′ and 10° 50' N. latitude, and 60° 55′ and 61° 56′ W. longitude from Greenwich. Its average length is 50 miles, its average breadth 37 miles, and its area 1,862 square miles. It is separated from S. America by the Gulf of Paria, into which fall the northern mouths of the Orinoco. The distance between Chacachacare, the most westerly of the Bocas Islands and Venezuela is only seven miles. The island of Tobago (formerly in the Windward Islands) was amalgamated with Trinidad by an Order in Council under the Act 50 & 51 Vict., c. 44. on 1st Jan., 1889.
Trinidad was discovered by Columbus, on his third voyage, on the 31st July, 1498; and taken possession of by him for the crown of Spain. No Governor was, however, appointed by the King of Spain until 1532, and even then, and for many years afterwards, the Spanish colonists had the greatest difficulty in maintaining a footing in the island. It was visited by Sir Robert Dudley, and by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1595, who signalised his visit by burning the newly-founded town of St. Joseph, and it was included in the Earl of Montgomery's grant, 1628. In 1640 it was raided by the Dutch, and again in 1677 and 1690 by the French. Towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries, cocoa was largely and successfully cultivated, but a blight fell upon the plantations about 1725, and Trinidad made scarcely any progress until 1783, when, in consequence of the representations made to the
For general map of West Indies, see under Windward Islands.
Court of Madrid by M. Roume de St. Laurent,, There are numerous rivers, but none of them a French planter of Grenada, who, when on a visit of any size or navigable, and all running east or to the island, had been struck by its extraordinary west. fertility, a Royal cedula or proclamation was issued, by which extraordinary advantages were offered to foreigners of all nations to settle in Trinidad, the sole condition imposed, and that not very strictly insisted upon, being that they should profess the Roman Catholic religion. The consequence of this proclamation was a large influx of population, which was soon augmented by many French families, who were driven from St. Domingo and elsewhere by the terrible events of the French Revolution, and to this cause is to be traced the preponderance of the French element in a colony which never belonged to France.
On the 12th February 1797, Great Britain being then at war with Spain, a British expedition sailed from Martinique for the reduction of Trinidad. The expedition resulted in the surrender of the island to His Majesty's forces, and on the 18th February, 1797, the articles of capitulation were signed by Sir R. Abercromby, Admiral Harvey, and Chacon, the Spanish Governor.
In 1802 Trinidad was finally ceded to the Crown of Great Britain by the Treaty of Amiens.
The population of Trinidad and Tobago at the census of 1931 was 412,783. The white population is chiefly composed of English, Portuguese, French, and Spanish. There is also a large number of East Indians, totalling 137,583. The French lower classes speak a patois peculiar to the West Indies.
The Government is administered by a Governor, with an Executive Council of seven members. The legislative body is the Legislative Council of Trinidad and Tobago, which was reconstituted by Letters Patent and an Order in Council which came into operation on 21st August, 1924. It now consists of the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, nine nominated official members, six nominated unofficial members and seven elected members. Trinidad is divided into six electoral districts, each returning one member. Tobago forms the seventh electoral district.
The north coast is rock bound through its whole extent, the east coast is so exposed to the surf as to be almost unapproachable, while the south coast is steep in most parts; only on the west coast is there a good natural harbour, at Chaguaramas. The whole Gulf of Paria, however, is so shut in and sheltered as to afford a most safe anchorage. The climate of Trinidad is tropical and may be divided into two seasons, a dry season from January to the middle of May, with an average rainfall of 2 to 3 inches per month, and a wet season from June to December, with an average of 8 inches per month. The coolest months of the year are December to April. The average temperature during the day is 84 and during the night 74. The total rainfall in 1937, from records taken at 121 stations, was 58:00 ins. The climate is healthy and by no means hurtful to Europeans, provided reasonable precautions are taken.
There are three ranges of hills running roughly east and west, the most northerly fringing the north coast, and rising to 3,085 feet; the central range runs south-west from Man. zanilla point to San Fernando, and the southern runs parallel and near to the south coast.
The soil is varied, extremely fertile, and excellently adapted to the growth of tropical products, more particularly of sugar, cacao, and coconuts, which are its staples.
The chief town and principal port is Port of Spain (population by the census of 1931, 70,334), situated on a gently inclined plane near the It is a north-east angle of the Gulf of Paria. port of registry, and had, on 31st Dec., 1937, 32 vessels registered. Fifteen miles of electric tramway and 22,040 miles of telephone have been constructed in Port of Spain and its environs. The latter also extends to some of the country districts.
Production and Industry, Trade and Customs. The quantity and value of the principal products exported during the year 1937 were :
Oil, Petroleum, Crude
Value. $ 90,872 tons 1,194,914 12,870 galls. 112,977 26,258,288 lbs. 3,086,995
Sugar. The sugar crop yielded 154,285 tons in 1937. In 1937 cane farmers sold 629,881 tons of canes to the factories, for which they received $1,662,883. In 1936 the tonnage sold was 594,176, and the value $1,568,624. The sugar manufacturers again voluntarily maintained a basic price of $2.64 per ton. Coconuts.-The value of the exports of coconuts, copra and coconut oil in 1937 was $652,747 compared with $324,832 in 1936.
The factories established in 1930 continued to manufacture copra products, and as a result the sum of $13,384 was distributed by copra producers by way of bonus, while 475,408 gallons edible oil, and 1,420,825 lbs. lard substitute were manufactured, Excise duty collected during 1937 on edible oil, lard of which 3,558 gallons of edible oil were exported. substitute locally manufactured and consumed amounted to $52,999.
Asphalt.-The asphalt lake, 114 acres in extent, situated in the Ward of La Brea, was first leased as a whole in 1888 for 21 years. The lease was renewed for a further period of 21 years from the 1st February, 1909. In February, 1925, a fresh lease of the lake comprising 109 acres was made to the Trinidad Lake Asphalt, Limited, for 21 years, from the 1st February, 1930, on payment of the following Royalties and Export Duties:
For each ton of Crude Pitch or Asphaltum a Royalty of 60c. and an Export Duty of $1.20.
For each ton of Dried Pitch or Asphaltum a Royalty of 84c. and an Export Duty of $1.66.
The quantity of asphalt produced during 1937 was 145,904 tons as against 111,965 tons in 1936.
The quantity of Asphalt exported during 1937 was 90,872 tons to the value of $1,194,914, as compared with 70,543 tons exported in 1936 of a value of $959,759.
Petroleum.-At the close of 1937 there were 18 Companies actively engaged in the exploitation of oil in the Colony. These Companies, having a total share capital of approximately $40,800,000, held over 417,483 acres of Crown Lands under licenses and leases, of which approximately 176,753 acres were held under mining lease. In addition, appreciable areas of private lands are held. Up to 30th January, 1902, oil rights were not reserved by the Government when disposing of Crown Land, but after that year all Crown grants reserved the oil rights to the Crown. There are, consequently, three categories of oil lands, viz., lands disposed of prior to 1902 in which the oil rights rest in the surface owner; land sold since that date in which the oil rights are reserved to the Crown, and lands where both the surface and the underlying oil remain the property of the Crown.
In addition to the above, the Marine areas applied for within territorial waters cover, 389,500 acres.
The principal oil producing companies are the Trinidad Leaseholds, Limited, from Crown and private lands at Fyzabad, Barrackpore, etc.; the United British Oilfields of Trinidad, Limited, from Crown and private lands at Point Fortin, Parry Lands, etc.; the Trinidad Lake Petroleum Company. Limited, from their own lands at Brighton; the Apex (Trinidad) Oilfields, Limited, from Crown and private lands at Fyzabad, Siparia; the Trinidad Central Oilfields, Limited, from Crown Lands at Tabaquite and Guapo; the Kern (Trinidad) Oilfields, Limited from Crown and private lands at Guapo; the Trinidad Oilfields Operating Co., Ltd., from Crown and private lands at Palo Seco, Fyzabad and San Francique; the Trinidad Petroleum Development Co., Ltd., from Crown and private lands at Palo Seco ; New Dome Oilfields from private lands at Fyzabad; the Siparia Trinidad Oilfields, Ltd. from Crown lands at Palo Seco; the Trinidad Investments Ltd., from Crown and private lands at Oropouche. The Palo Seco Oilfields (C.C. Stollmeyer) from Crown lands at Palo Seco; The Petroleum Options (1925) Ltd. from private lands at San Francique; Coldan Co., Ltd. from private lands at Fyzabad; Antilles Petroleum Co. (Tdad) Ltd. private lands at Brighton; Mitchell, F. W., private lands at Point Fortin; Scottish Trinidad Oilfields, private lands at Rio Claro ; and the Trinidad Consolidated oilfields, Crown oil rights under lease and private lands at Fyzabad. There are refineries at Pointe-à-Pierre, Point Fortin, Brighton, Tabaquite, La Brea and San Francique, and all grades of petroleum products from petrol to road oil are produced. The total quantity of oil produced during 1937 was 15,502,989 barrels, an increase of 2,265,959 barrels as compared with the production for 1936. Of this total 9,743,292 barrels were from Crown Lands or lands in which the oil rights belonged to the Crown. The royalty paid by operating companies on oil, won from Crown rights during the year 1937, amounted to $720,857, as against $617,885 in 1936 and wayleaves to $1,760 as against $1,878 in 1936. The quantity of crude oil and products exported amounted to 14,124,056 barrels valued at $18,896,422 as against 12,405,222 barrels valued at $15,910,638 in 1936.
Grape Fruit.-Large areas have been planted, and the area under cultivation amounted in 1937 to 2,800 acres. The exports during the year 1937 amounted to 4,062,033 fruit, valued at $187,579.