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to religious profession is warmly opposed by the Dissenters-Agitation on this question-Mr. Baines moves the omission of this clause in the BillSpeech of Sir George Lewis —The Government protest against the objection, but concede the pointThe Bill is passed-NATIONAL EDUCATION IN IRELAND—Mr. Isaac Butt moves an Address praying for inquiry-Speeches of Mr. Whiteside, Mr. Cardwell (Secretary for Ireland), Mr. Lefroy, and Mr. HenesseyThe motion is negatived by 196 to 62—TENURE AND IMPROVEMENT OF LAND IN IRELAND—Mr. Cardwell brings in a Bill to settle the much-disputed land question - After much debate and some modification it is passed into a law— POSTPONED MEASURES—REFORM OF THE CORPORATION OF LONDON -The Bill introduced by Sir George Lewis passes a second reading, and is then suspended-REFORM OF THE LAWS OF BANKRUPTCY AND INSOLVENCY-An extended and comprehensive measure for this purpose is submitted to the House of Commons by the Attorney-General It is received with much favour, and a great part of the Bill passes through Committee, but on account of the pressure of business is postponed to another Session--- MASSACRE OF CHRISTIANS IN SYRIA- This subject is brought before the House of Lords by Lord Stratford de RedcliffeHis speech - Speeches of Lord Wodehouse, Marquis of Clanricarde, Earl Granville, and other peers—CONCLUSION OF THE Session-Its great length and severe labour-It is terminated by the prorogation of Parliament by Commission on the 28th of AugustThe Royal Speech delivered by the Lord Chancellor-Review of the operations of the Session.

STPetobal chisels ons huis me against the abolition of the rate tempt to abolish Church-rates. founded upon its legal incidents, The Bill for this purpose was contending that it was not, as brought in on an early day, and sometimes alleged, a charge upon the second reading was moved on

the land, and adverting to special the 8th of February, the mo- reasons why the House ought to tion being preceded by the pre- deal with the question at this sentation of a mass of petitions time. The decision of the House for and against the measure, the of Lords in the “ Braintree case " latter much preponderating in had made an entire alteration in number. Among these was one the law of Church-rate, and the signed by no less than sixty-four amount of rate now levied had archdeacons, which was read at been already reduced to 253,0001, length at the table of the House be- and was reducible still further by fore the debate began. In proposing the exclusion of illegal charges, his motion, Sir John Trelawny ad- while the exemption of Dissenters mitted that the subject was one of from the compulsory payment of great difficulty, and proceeded to the rate (which the opponents of notice some of the details which the Bill were prepared to conwere essential to the proper con- cede) and making no distinction sideration of it. He referred to between them and Churchmen, the weight of authorities in favour would have the effect of augmentof a settlement of the question, ing the amount of voluntary contributions towards the repair of by Mr. R. Long, who dwelt upon churches. He pointed out other the injustice of sweeping away a resources for the diminution of fund appropriated by law to the charges, and asked the advocates sustentation of churches, without of the rate whether, in assenting providing any equivalent or comto its abolition, they, upon the pensation. whole, gave up much for an object Sir G. Lewis, after defending so desirable as the final adjustment Lord J. Russell (who was absent) of this texed question.

against some strong remarks made The motion was seconded by upon his change of opinion regardSir C. Douglas.

ing this question by Mr. Long, obLord R. Montagu moved, as án served that he was not one of those amendment, to defer the second who took extreme views upon it, reading for six months. After differing in some points from both noticing some of the arguments of sides, and be proceeded to explain Sir J. Trelawny, he observed that the reasons which had led him he had looked at this question in reluctantly to the conclusion that, the old point of view, whereas, in the present state of the quessince the evidence adduced before tion, the only course for him to the Lords' Committee last year, take was to vote in favour of the which Sir John seemed not to Bill. He pointed out what he have read, the question had en- considered as fallacies on either tered an entirely new phase, and side, and, looking at the proposal assumed a different character. It to substitute pew-rents for Churchwas formerly supposed that this rates, he remarked that he could was a question of conscience ; but not understand the objection to it now appeared, from the evidence resorting to a system of pew-rents, of Dissenters, that the conscien- which were Church-rates under tious objection had nothing to do another name, and in which he was with the matter; that it was merely convinced an equivalent could be a political objection or a factious found. agitation, the ultimate aim of which Mr. K. Seymer, considering the was the severance of the Church present position of the Churchfrom the State. He read portions rate question, thought the House of the evidence taken by the Com- had a right to complain that a ques mittee in support of his position, tion of so much importance should observing that the ulterior object, be left in the hands of a private to which end a victory over Church- member, and cited the opinions rates would be used as a means, expressed by members of the preshowed that more would be given sent Government, which he conup by the surrender of the rates trasted with the course they had than Sir John Trelawny wished pursued upon this question. Sugthe House to suppose. He in- gesting practical objections to the sisted that the evidence and the working of the measure before the number of petitions proved that House, he contended that in rural the desire for the abolition of districts there was no real opposiChurch-rates was not general, and tion to ('hurch-rates, and that the that a feeling was growing up in opposition of Dissenters, as it was favour of their continuance. now avowed, was not founded upon

This amendment was seconded 1 conscientious objection. With reference to pew-rents, he believed in Ireland-it would remove conthat members of the Church of tests and heart-burnings, and the England in the rural districts were Church of England would be universally opposed to them. stronger than before.

Mr. Bristow said he thought Mr. Packe and Mr. Hubbard that, both for the interests of the spoke in opposition to the Bill, Church of England and the peace and Mr. Thompson in its favour. of the country, it would be wise Sir J. Trelawny then replied, and and prudent to pass this Bill abo- the House having divided, the lishing a compulsory Church-rate, amendment was negatived by 263 which was an annually-recurring to 234, giving a majority of 29 in cause of strife and ill-will.

favour of the Bill, which was then Mr. Disraeli wished to put be- read a second time. fore the House a view of this ques- Some further discussion took tion which had not been at all con- place on going into Committee on sidered — namely, the extremely the Bill, on the 28th of March. centralizing character of the mea- Mr. Packe urged various objecsure, which called upon a central tions to the measure, which he authority to interfere with the pa- considered to be unnecessarily rochial constitution, at least ten large, and with reference to the per cent. of the parishes not wish- amount of public opinion in faing to be interfered with. He vour of it, he observed that, in looked, he said, with great jealousy some of the most populous towns upon a central authority interfer- and boroughs whence petitions ing with a constitution that had had been presented upon this existed for centuries, and had been question, which he contended was productive of beneficial results. a purely religious one, upwards of The object was no longer to re- one half of the inhabitants atdress a practical grievance, but to tended no place of worship whatadopt a speculative theory. Here- ever. tofore legislation upon this ques- Mr. Newdegate moved, as an tion was proposed to be based upon amendment, à Resolution,—the a conscientious scruple; but that same he had brought forward in basis was now abandoned, and the 1859,- that “this House will, toreal question was whether there morrow, resolve itself into a Comshould be an Established Church. mittee to consider the propriety Although this issue was not neces- of establishing, in lieu of Church sarily put before the House upon rates, thenceforth to be abolished, this occasion, they had it in clear a charge on all hereditaments in evidence that it was the real issue; respect of the occupancy of which and, believing that this measure Church-rates have been paid within would revolutionize the parochial the last seven years, to be levied constitution of the country, he with the county rate at a uniform should give it his hearty opposi. rate of poundage, the occupier tion.

being entitled to deduct the Lord Fermoy denied that the amount of charge levied on his abolition of Church-rates would occupation." He insisted that interfere with the connection of Church-rates were a charge upon Church and State. This measure property, and by proposing to could only do what had been done assess owners instead of occu

piers he had, he said, followed a He could not, however, support principle adopted by the House of the amendment. Lords.

Mr. Evans supported the Bill The amendment was seconded for the sake of putting an end to by Mr. Cross.

a vexatious conflict and agitation. Mr. Horsman observed that the Lord J. Manners said, retaining House had admitted that a settle- all his objections to the principle ment of this question was desira- and details of the Bill, he must ble, and that it could only be oppose, though reluctantly, the effected by a Government mea. amendment, considering that, as sure ; why, then, he asked, should that House had assented to the it be allowed to go into the hands principle of the Bill, it would be of a private member? While better that it should be sent up to some regarded this as a question the House of Lords as they found of principle, others looked upon it. He should prefer the Bill in it as rather & political clap-trap. its naked simplicity to taking it The time, however, had come with the amendment proposed by when some settlement ought to be Sir G. Grey, to substitute pewmade, and he thought Sir J. Tre- rents for Church-rates, which would lawny ought to appeal to the Go- affect the rights of the poor. vernment to bring in a measure Sir George Grey said he should for that purpose, it being a loss of be prepared in the Committee to time to leave the matter in the demonstrate to Lord J. Manners hands of a private member. that his fears in relation to his

Sir J. Trelawny said he had proposal were unfouuded. from the beginning urged the Go- Mr. Mellor denied that Churchvernment to deal with the subject, rates were a charge upon property but their measures would not have in the correct sense of the term. settled the question, nor would The amendment would never saMr. Newdegate's proposition, his tisfy the scruples of Dissenters. objections to which he stated. He thought the Church would

The amendment was supported sustain no injury from the aboli. by Mr. Henley, and opposed by tion of Church-rates. Lord Henley, who considered that Mr. A. Mills supported the total abolition was the only satis- amendment. factory mode of settling the ques- Mr. Walter thought there were tion.

but two alternatives open, viz., to Mr. Philips, though deeming repeal the law as settled by the Mr. Newdegate's plan open to Braintree decision, or to abolish some objections, in the absence of the rate. The former measure any preferable amendment would would be impracticable. The vote for it.

amendment was founded on a Sir S. M. Peto said that nothing principle inapplicable to Churchshort of total repeal of the rate rates. He did not see why a would remove the conscientious limited recourse should not be had objections of the Dissenters. to pew-rents.

Mr. Worthington said that the À division took place, when the Bill, while it give relief to a few, amendment was negative would inflict injustice on the many. to 49.


The clauses then passed through signed by women and by children Committee, upon which Sir George under 10 years of age. Active Grey moved three new provisions, agents in a parish worried the authorizing the charging of appro- Minister, and excited the minority priated pews with rents, to be ap- against the majority; it was plied to the repairs of the fabric avowed that the ultimate object of the church, and to other pur- was the separation of the Church poses to which Church-rates would from the State ; tithes were to folbe applicable.

low Church-rates, and even the edi. These propositions encountered fices were to be treated as public a strong opposition from Mr. Est- property. The House, therefore, court, Mr. Walpole, Lord John had to determine a different quesManners, Mr. Horsman, and other tion from what had been brought members, and the first clause being before it at first, now that the innegatived, the others fell with it. stigators of this movement had

On the third reading of the Bill disclosed their real views and probeing moved, the opponents as- jects. He opposed the Bill besembled in great force and made cause it involved the question a vigorous effort to reject the mea- whether or not an Established sure.

Church should continue to exist Mr. Whiteside began the debate in this country. with a motion to postpone the Bill Mr. Bright said he felt indebted for six months. After examining to Mr. Whiteside for having inthe evidence respecting the origin fused some new life into this of Church-rates, which showed, he question ; but he had not done said, the antiquity of the custom, much to satisfy that great portion springing out of the old common of the people who objected to law, and the manner in which the Church-rates, that they ought to rates were enforced by the will of be permanently maintained. Mr. the majority, he asked whether Whiteside had attached extraorSir J. Trelawny, who professed dinary importance to the opinions himself a member of the Esta- of the Wesleyan séct on this quesblished Church, in proceeding tion; but the large majority of against Church-rates, intended to Wesleyans ünited with the great break up the parochial system, body of Dissenters in opposition which, he insisted, was at the to Church-rates. Moreover, no foundation of the social system of inconsiderable number of regular the country. He cited the testi- attendants upon the Church of mony of Mr. Bunting, a Wes- England joined the Dissenters in leyan, on the subject of Church- the endeavour to put an end to rates, who stated that there was a them. He wished Mr. Whiteside misapprehension as to the number had told them why, year by year, of Nonconformists who objected to there had been a growing power in their payment from conscientious that House in opposition to Churchscruples. The opposition to the rates, and why there was a secesrates, Mr. Whiteside contended, sion from their advocates throughrested not upon religious but poli- out the country. There were only tical grounds; the petitions were two courses with reference to this got up by an organized body, and most mischievous impost, - either

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