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pose; and these new dispositions thus formulated relative to the peasants and domestics of the proprietors have been examined in the Council of the Empire. “Having invoked the Divine assistance, we have resolved to carry this work into execution. “In virtue of the new dispositions above mentioned, the peasants attached to the soil will be invested within a term fixed by the law with all the rights of free cultivators. “The proprietors retaining their rights of property on all the land belonging to them, grant to the peasants for a fixed regulated rental the full enjoyment of their close; and, moreover, to assure their livelihood and to guarantee the fulfilment of their obligations towards the Government, the quantity of arable land is fixed by the said dispositions, as well as other rural appurtenances. “But, in the enjoyment of these territorial allotments, the peasants are obliged, in return, to acquit the rentals fixed by the same dispositions to the profit of the proprietors. In this state, which must be a transitory one, the peasants shall be designated as “temporarily bound.' “At the same time, they are granted the right of purchasing their close, and, with the consent of the proprietors, they may acquire in full property the arable lands and other appurtenances which are allotted to them as a permanent holding. By the acquisition in full property of the quantity of land fixed, the peasants are free from their obligations towards the proprietors for land thus purchased, and they enter definitively into the conWol. CIII.

dition of free peasants—landholders. “By a special disposition concerning the domestics, a transitory state is fixed for them, adapted to their occupations and the exigencies of their position. On the expiration of a term of two years, dating from the day of the promulgation of these dispositions, they shall receive their full enfranchisement and some temporary immunities. “It is according to these fundamental principles that the dispositions have been formulated which define the future organization of the peasants and of the domestics, which establish the order of the general administration of this class, and specify in all their details the rights given to the peasants and to the domestics, as well as the obligations imposed upon them towards the Government and towards the proprietors. “Although these dispositions, general as well as local, and the special supplementary rules for some particular localities, for the lands of small proprietors, and for the peasants who work in the manufactories and establishments of the proprietors, have been, as far as was possible, adapted to economical necessities and local customs, nevertheless, to preserve the existing state where it presents reciprocal advantages, we leave it to the proprietors to come to amicable terms with the peasants, and to conclude transactions relative to the extent of the territorial allotment and to the amount of rental to be fixed in consequence, observing, at the same time, the established rules to guarantee the inviolability of such agreements. “As the new organization, in

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consequence of the inevitable complexity of the changes which it necessitates, cannot be immediately put into execution, as a lapse of time is necessary, which cannot be less than two years or thereabouts; to avoid all misunderstanding and to protect public and private interests during this interval, the system actually existing on the properties of landowners will be maintained up to the moment when a new system shall have been instituted by the completion of the required preparatory measures. “For which end, we have deemed it advisable to ordain— “1. To establish in each district a special Court for the question of the peasants; it will have to investigate the affairs of the rural communes established on the land of the lords of the soil. “2. To appoint in each district justices of the peace to investigate on the spot all misunderstandings and disputes which may arise on the occasion of the introduction of the new regulation, and to form district assemblies with these justices of, the peace. “3. To organize in the seigneurial properties communal administrations, and to this end to leave the rural communes in their actual composition, and to open in the large villages district administrations (provincial boards) by uniting the small communes under one of these district administrations. “4. To formulate, verify, and confirm in each rural district or estate a charter of rules in which shall be enumerated, on the basis of the local Statute, the amount of land reserved to the peasants in permanent enjoyment, and the

extent of the charges which may be exacted from them for the benefit of the proprietor as well for the land as for other advantages granted by him. “5. To put these charters of rules into execution as they are gradually confirmed in each estate, and to introduce their definite execution within the term of two years, dating from the day of publication of the present manifesto. “6. Up to the expiration of this term, the peasants and domestics are to remain in the same obedience towards their proprietors, and to fulfil their former obligations without scrule. “7. The proprietors will continue to watch over the maintenance of order on their estates, with the right of jurisdiction and of police, until the organization of the districts and of the district tribunals has been ef. fected. “Aware of all the difficulties of the reform we have undertaken, we place above all things our confidence in the goodness of Divine Providence, who watches over the destinies of Russia. “We also count upon the generous devotion of our faithful nobility, and we are happy to testify to that body the gratitude it has deserved from us, as well as from the country, for the disinterested support it has given to the accomplishment of our designs. Russia will not forget that the nobility, acting solely upon its respect for the dignity of man and its love for its neighbour, has spontaneously renounced rights given to it by serfdom actually abolished, and laid the foundation of a new future, which is thrown open to the peasants. We also entertain the firm hope that it will also nobly exert its ulterior efforts to carry out the new regulation by maintaining good order, in a spirit of peace and benevolence, and that each proprietor will complete, within the limits of his property, the great civic act accomplished by the whole body, by organizing the existence of the peasants domiciliated on his estates, and of his domestics, under mutual advantageous conditions, thereby giving to the country population the example of a faithful and conscientious execution of the regulations of the State. “The numerous examples of the generous solicitude of the proprietors for the welfare of their peasants, and of the gratitude of the latter for the benevolent solicitude of their lords, give us the hope that a mutual understanding will settle the majority of complications, in some cases inevitable, in the partial application;of general rules to the different conditions under which isolated estates are placed; that in this manner the transition from the ancient order of things to the new will be facilitated; and that the future will strengthen definitively mutual confidence, a good understanding, and the unanimous impulsion towards public utility. “To render the transactions between the proprietors and the peasants more easy, in virtue of which the latter may acquire in full property their close (homestead) and the land they occupy, the Government will advance assistance, according to a special

regulation, by means of loans or a transfer of debts encumbering an estate. “We thus confidently rely upon the upright feeling of the nation. “When the first news of this great reform meditated by the Government became diffused among the rural populations, who were scarcely prepared for it, it gave rise, in some instances, to misunderstandings among individuals more intent upon liberty than mindful of the duties which it imposes. But, generally, the good sense of the country has not been wanting. It has not misunderstood either the inspirations of natural reason, which says that every man who accepts freely the benefits of society owes it in return the fulfilment of certain positive obligations; nor the teachings of the Christian law, which enjoins that “every one be subject unto the higher powers' (St. Paul to the Romans, xiii. 1); and to “render to all their dues,’ and, above all, to whomsoever it belongs, tribute, custom, respect, and honour (Ibid., xiii. 7). It has understood that the proprietors would not be deprived of rights legally acquired, except for a fit and sufficient indemnity, or by a voluntary concession on their part; that it would be contrary to all equity to accept this enjoyment of the lands conceded by the proprietors without accepting also towards them equivalent charges. “And now we hope with confi. dence that the freed serfs, in the presence of the new future which is opened before them, will appreciate and recognize the considerable sacrifices which the nobility have made on their behalf. They will understand that the blessing of an existence supported upon the base of guaranteed property, as well as a greater liberty in the administration of their goods, entails upon them, with new duties towards society and themselves, the obligation of justifying the protecting designs of the law by a loyal and judicious use of the rights which are now accorded to them. For if men do not labour themselves to insure their own well-being under the shield of the laws, the best of those laws cannot guarantee it to them. “It is only by assiduous la: bour, a rational employment of their strength and their resources, a strict economy, and, above all, by an honest life, a life constantly inspired by the fear of the Lord, that they can arrive at prosperity and insure its developIment. “The authorities intrusted with the duty of preparing by preliminary measures the execution of the new organization, and

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CHAPTER X.

MEXICO.-Withdrawal of the British Legation from Mexico --Causes

which led to this --Sir C. Wyke sent on a Special Mission to the Merican Government --Deplorable State of the Country-Convention between Great Britain, France, and Spain, for a Military Expedition to Merico -- Arrival of the Spanish Squadron at Vera Cruz, and Surrender of the Torn - Despatches of Earl Russell on the subject of

the Internal Government of Mexico. Civil WAR IN AMERICA.-Causes which led to the Secession of the

South Mr. Crittenden's Proposal for a Compromise-South Carolina declares her Independence-Seizure of the United States Arsenals Message of President Buchanan to Congress --Firing of the First Shot - Population according to the Census-Fort Sumpter and its Garrison-Mr. Cobb elected President of the Confederats CongressMr. Jefferson Daris elected President of the Confederate States --His Address Inaugural Address of President Lincoln--Attack upon, and Surrender of, Fort Sumpter-Proclamations of President Lincoln and President Daris-Opposition of Maryland to the March of Federal Troops through its Territory- Message of President Daris to the Confederate Congress --- Actire measures taken by the Contending Parties -Kentucky declares for Neutrality Resolution of the South not to allou ('otton to be Exported from the Northern Ports --Proclamations of the Queen of Great Britain and Emperor of the French enforcing Neutrality-- Position of the Federal Army - Question of Runaway Slares.

A LONG series of injuries to was made the excuse for not A British subjects and property complying with the demands in Mexico, for which no redress from time to time made by the could be obtained, notwithstand. British Government to obtain ing repeated promises from the satisfaction for the wrongs of Government to that effect, led to which its subjects settled there the withdrawal of the British had to complain. The withdrawal Legation from the city of Mexico. of the Legation * was." to use A civil war had been raging there the words of Earl Russell, “forced for three Vears, carried on by upon Her Majesty's Government Generals Zulonya and Miramon, by continual disregard of the against the Constitutional Go. rights of British subjects, and of vernment, at the head of which the obligations of international was President Juarez; and this engagements, which rendered it

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