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Agrigentum declared against the "A handful of brave men, who Government. Guerilla bands tra- have followed me in battles for versed the interior, and the move- our country, are advancing with ments of the insurgents were me to the rescue. Italy knows directed by a secret revolutionary them; they always appear at the committee, the names and locality hour of danger. Brave and geneof which were unknown to the rous companions, they have deRoyalists. Frequent contests took voted their lives to their country; place with the Neapolitan troops they will shed their last drop of with various success, but the result blood for it, seeking no other rewas generally in favour of the in. ward than that of a pure consurgents, and for a month the revo- science. lution raged in the island without "• Italy and Victor Emmanuel!' any direct assistance from Italy. —that was our battle-cry when we

But in the meantime Garibaldi crossed the Ticino; it will resound was collecting volunteers to take into the very depths of Ætna. part in the insurrection. He all “As this prophetic battle-cry but openly organized an expedi- re-echoes from the hills of Italy tion to Sicily in the dominions of to the Tarpeian Mount, the totSardinia, and at length, on the tering throne of tyranny will fall night of the 5th of May, sailed to pieces, and the whole country from Genoa with a body of about will rise like one man.” 2000 men.

With reference to the important On their voyage Garibaldi and question of how far the Sardinian his volunteers lay for a day or two Government was privy to and imoff the fortress of Talamona on plicated in the hostile expedition the Roman frontier, and there he of Garibaldi, we will quote and issued a proclamation to the Ita- place in contrast two statements, lians, in which he said :

which will enable our readers to "Italians - The Sicilians are judge of the sincerity of the disfighting against the enemies of avowal by that Government of any Italy and for Italy. To help them connivance in the matter. On the with money, arms, and especially 18th of May, the official journal, men, is the duty of every Italian. the Piedmontese Gazette, de

• Let the Marches, Umbria, Sa. clared, bine, the Roman Campagna, and “ The Government has disapthe Neapolitan territory rise, so as proved the expedition, and atto divide the enemy's forces. tempted to prevent its departure

* If the cities do not offer a by such means as prudence and sufficient basis for insurrection, the laws would permit

. The Sarlet the more resolute throw them- dinian ships of war had orders to selves into the open country. prevent a landing, but could do

“A brave man can always find no more than the Neapolitan ves. a weapon. In the name of Heaven, sels which were cruising in the hearken not to the voice of those Sicilian waters. Europe knows who cram themselves at well-served that the Government of the King tables.

does not conceal its solicitude for - Let us arm. Let us fight for the common country, but, at the our brothers; to-morrow we can same time, it understands and refight for ourselves.

spects the principles of international law, and believes its duty to of drawing the Neapolitan troops be to make that principle respected out of the city, in order, by a flank in the State for the safety of which movement, to enter it, while they it is responsible.”

had marched to meet him at some After the expedition had been distance from Palermo. This successful, King Victor Emmanuel, plan, however, only partially sucin an address to the people of ceeded. The Royalists did conSouthern Italy from Ancona on the centrate a force outside the town, 9th of October, said—“It was and advanced towards Corleone, quite natural that the events which but they afterwards fell back, and had taken place in Central Italy it was necessary for the insurgents should have more or less excited to attempt to surprise the city by the minds of the people of South a coup de main. Italy. In Sicily this disposition of At daybreak on the morning of the people found vent in open the 27th of May (Whit Sunday), revolt. The people were fighting Garibaldi, at the head of his for liberty in Sicily, when a brave volunteers, attacked Palermo, and warrior, devoted to Italy and me- after an obstinate struggle, drove General Garibaldi--sprang to their the Neapolitan troops out of the assistance. They were Italians; streets into the citadel, from which I could not, I ought not to restrain they kept up a heavy bombardthem."

ment for many hours, aided by the Garibaldi and his volunteers Royalist fleet in the harbour. At effected a landing at Marsala on last, on the proposal of General the 10th of May, with four pieces Lanza, the Neapolitan commander, of artillery; and on the 14th had an armistice was concluded, to advanced to Salemi, where the continue for three days from the insurrectionary forces were con- 31st of May, and it was afterwards centrated to the number of 4000 prolonged by a convention, under men. Here he assumed the title the terms of which the Royalist of Dictator of Sicily, “in the troops were to evacuate Palermo, name of Victor Emmanuel in with the exception of Fort CastelItaly," declaring that he did so on lamare, and embark without mo. the invitation of the principal lestation. Garibaldi now formed citizens and on the deliberation of a ministry, consisting of Pisano, the free communes of the island. Crispi, Orsini, and the Abbé CoNext day he marched to Calata ligni, and remained for some time Fimi at Monte di Pianto Romano, at Palermo, occupied in the orgawhere he engaged in a sharp en. nization of the new Government. counter with about 3500 Neapoli- On the 20th of June, a battle tan troops, under General Landi ; was fought at Melazzo, between and, after an obstinate struggle, the insurgents and the Neapolitans, completely defeated them, driving in which Garibaldi was completely them from all their positions, ană victorious. Melazzo lies on the forcing them to abandon Calata north, about twenty-five miles Fimi, which Garibaldi occupied from Messina, and near the main with his troops. He then advanced road which runs along the seatowards Palermo, and for some shore from that town to Palermo. time manæuvred in the neighbour. The Royalists, under General hood of Monreale, with the view Bosco, advanced out of Melazzo, and were attacked at daybreak by lage. The losses on both sides Garibaldi's troops, when a fierce were heavy, and Garibaldi him. struggle ensued, which lasted the self was personally engaged in an whole day. At last the Neapo. encounter with the enemy, and litans gave way, and retreated narrowly escaped death. Next fighting to the fort, while the morning General Bosco capituinsurgents rushed into Melazzo, lated, and he and his troops were and after a severe contest in the allowed to leave Melazzo, but streets, took possession of the vil. without their arms.

CHAPTER IX.

ITALY CONTINUED — Attempts of the King of Naples to conciliate his

subjectsProclamation of a Constitution Letter of the French Emperor to Count Persigny-Proclamation of Garibaldi from MessinaHe effects a landing on the Mainland-Capture of Reggio -Surrender of Royalist Troops at San Giovanni, and Terror of the Government at Naples-Flight of the King and Entry of Garibaldi into the Capital-Insurrectionary movements in the Papal TerritoryGeneral Lamoricière takes the command of the Papal Army-Diffi. culties of his positionLetter from Count Cavour to Cardinal Antonelli, threatening invasion of the States of the ChurchThe Cardinal's Reply-Campaign of Generals Fanti and Cialdini in the Marches and UmbriaBattle of Castel Fidardo-Flight of General Lamoricière-Siege and Capture of AnconaLetter of Lord John Russell to Sir James Hudson, deprecating an attack by Sardinia on Venetin --His second letter with reference to the invasion of the Neapolitan territory by the King of Sardinia-Conference at Warsaw-Meeting of the Sardinian Chambers-Count Cavour's statement with respect to Venetia and Rome-Account of Garibaldi's Dictatorship at Naples

Battle of the Volturno and defeat of the Royalist Army by Garibaldi. THI THE King of the Two Sicilies pile, in the shortest possible time,

now endeavoured, but in vain, the articles of the Statuto, or conto appease the discontent of his stitution, on the basis of represensubjects by concessions. S. Ajossa, tative Italian and national instituwho had made himself hated and tions; and that an agreement would infamous as Minister of Police, be established with the King of was dismissed from his post, and Sardinia, for the common interests was succeeded, first, by the Duke of the two crowns in Italy. “As of San Vito, and afterwards by S. regards Sicily,” the King said, “ we Caracciolo. Other officers of State will grant it analogous representawere also obliged to resign. tive institutions, such as to satisfy

On the 28th of June a new the wants of the island; and one Ministry was formed, of a liberal of the Princes of our Royal House complexion, at the head of which shall be our Viceroy.” was Commander Spinelli, and the On the 1st of July the King tricolor flag was hoisted at the issued a decree, in which he deCastle of St. Elmo, and saluted by clared that the Constitution of the all the forts. The King also an- 10th of February, 1848, granted nounced by a “Sovereign Act” by bis father, Ferdinand II., was that the new Ministry should com- called into force; and the national Parliament was convoked to meet mont alone caused me to resume in Naples on the 10th of Sep. the desire to see re-united to France tember following. Provisions were provinces essentially French. But, also made to regulate the liberty it will be objected, 'You wish for of the press, and a Commission was peace, and you increase, immo. appointed to prepare projects of derately, the military forces of 1, the Electoral Law; 2, the law France. I deny the fact in every for the National Guard ; 3, the sense. My army and my fleet law for the organization of the have in them nothiug of a threatenAdministration; 4, the law for the ing character. My steam navy is Council of State ; 5, the law for even far from being adequate to the responsibility of Ministers. our requirements, and the number

Op the 25th of July the French of steamers does not nearly equul Emperor, conscious of the uneasi- that of sailing ships deemed necesness felt in England on account of sary in the time of King Louis the policy and conduct of France, Philippe. I have 400,000 men addressed a remarkable letter to under arms; but deduct from this Count Persigny, the French Am- amount 60,000 in Algeria, 6000 at bassador in this country, which is Rome, 8000 in China, 20,000 of sufficient interest to be quoted gendarmes, the sick, and the new in extenso. Whether the explana- conscripts, and you will see-what tions given were satisfactory or not, is the truth-that my regiments it is impossible not to be struck are of smaller effective strength with the air of frankness and sin- than during the preceding reign. cerity which pervades it; and such The only addition to the Army a familiar epistle from a crowned List has been made by the creation head, in defence of his Goveroment, of the Imperial Guard. Moreover, has, at least, the merit of novelty. while wishing for peace, I desire

also to organize the forces of the " St. Cloud, 25th July, 1860. country on the best possible foot ** My dear Persigny,--Affairs ing, for, if foreigners have only appear to me to be so complicated seen the bright side of the last --thanks to the mistrust excited war, I myself, close at hand, have everywhere since the war in Italy witnessed the defects, and I wish to --that I write to you in the hope remedy them. Having said thus that a conversation, in perfect frank much, I have, since Villafranca, ness, with Lord Palmerston, will neither done, nor even thought, remedy the existing evil. Lord anything which could alarm any Palmerston knows me, and when I one. When Lavalette started for affirm a thing he will believe me. Constantinople, the instructions Well, you can tell him from me, which I gave him were confined in the most explicit manner, that to this-—. Use every effort to mainsince the peace of Villafranca, I tain the status quo; the interest of have had but one thought, one France is that Turkey should live object--to inaugurate a new era of as long as possible.' peace, and to live on the best“ Now, then, occur the massacres terms with all my neighbours, and in Syria, and it is asserted that I especially with England. I had am very glad to find a new occasion renounced Savoy and Nice; the of making a little war, or of play. extraordinary additions to Pied. ing a new part. Really, people VoL. CIL.

(Q)

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