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WAR WITH CHINA.-Expedition fitted out by England and France to
proceed to China-Lord Elgin and Baron Gros appointed Plenipotentiaries - British Ultimatum addressed to the Chinese GovernmentIts Reply - Lord Elgin and Baron Gros wrecked at Ceylon Rendezvous in the Bay of Tah-tien-kuan-Peh-tang-Chinese Rebels repelled by the British at Shanghai- March from Peh-tang to Tangku -Capture of the Taku Forts-Abortive attempts at negotiation--Occupation of Tien-tsin- Duplicity of the Chinese Commissioners— The Aũied Forces advance from Tien-tsin - Treacherous conduct of the Tartar General-Engagement with the enemy at Tangchow --Seizure of Messrs. Parkes, Loch, Brabazon, and others, by the Chinese_Fate of the Prisoners-Narrative of the Captivity and Release of Messrs. Parkes and Loch-Advance upon Pekin-Capture and Plunder of the Emperor's Summer Palace-Surrender of Pekin to the Allies--Destruction of the Summer Palace-Convention with the Chinese Go
vernment, and Ratification of the Treaty of Tien-tsin. UNITED STATES.-Danger to the Union from the Question of Slavery
The Missouri Compromise—The Nebraska Bill-Question of Election of a President in 1856 - Mr. Buchanan's conduct -The Kansas BillŘesolutions of the House of Representatives hostile to Mr. BuchananHis Protest — Contest for the Election of a new President—The Candidates - Mr. Abraham Lincoln becomes President elect—His previous
history-Meeting of Congress-Message of the President. Topics.--Questions of Slavery and Secession-Relations with Great Britain-Kansas- African Slave Trade--Filibustering. AR WITH CHINA.—In Embassy on its way to Pekin with our last volume we related a mission of
peace. the disastrous repulse we met with Lord Elgin, who had already in attempting to ascend the Peiho acted with such distinction as river, when Mr. Bruce, the British British Plenipotentiary in China, Minister, appointed to obtain the was again invested with that office, ratification of the Treaty of Tien- and a powerful expedition was tsin, was compelled to return, and fitted out to proceed without delay our forces suffered severely from to the Chinese seas, for the purthe fire which the Chinese or Tar- pose of forcing upon the Emperor tar garrison treacherously opened the execution of the Treaty of Tienfrom the forts at the mouth of the tsin, and obtaining reparation for river. The French also were in the outrage of the preceding year. volved in the same failure, and General Sir Hope Grant, then both countries lost no time in in India, was appointed to the avenging the insult offered to an chief command, and several Sikh
regiments volunteered to serve, and “3. That full effect be given to proved to be most efficient soldiers. the provisions of the said Treaty, The French Emperor also zealously including a satisfactory arrangeco-operated, and dispatched a strong ment to be made for prompt pay. body of troops, under Generalment of the indemnity of 4,000,000 Montauban, to China with the same taels, as stipulated in the Treaty, object. Baron Gros was appointed for losses and military expenses the French Plenipotentiary to ac- entailed on the British Goveracompany Lord Elgin, and they ment, by the misconduct of the proceeded on board an English Canton authorities." frigate, the Malabar, to China, It was also added, that in consebut, stopping on their way out at quence of the attempt made to obPoint de Galle, in Ceylon, the ship struct the passage of the British ran upon a reef of sunken rocks Embassy to Pekia last year, the in the harbour, and became a total understanding entered into bewreck. So sudden and unexpected tween the Earl of Elgin and the was the catastropbe, that the lives Imperial Commissioners in Oe. of the Ambassadors were in immi- tober, 145*, with respect to the nent danger, and many important residence of the British Minister papers, besides much valuable pro- in China, was at an end, and that perty, were lost.
it rested, henceforward, exclusively In the meantime an ultimatum, with Her Britannic Majesty, in alon the part of the British Govern- cordance with the terms of Ar. ment, had been addressed, on the ticle II. of the Treaty of Tien-isin, 8th of March, from Shanghai, by to decide whether or not she should Mr. Bruce, to the Chinese Govern- instruct her Minister to take up ment, requiring the immediate and his abode permanently at Pekin. unconditional acceptance of the The French Government joined following terms :
in similar demands. - 1. That an ample and satis- To this despatch an answer was factory apology be made for the returned by the Chinese · Great act of the troops who fired on the Council," stating that its contents ships of Her Britannie Majesty had occasioned them the greatest from the forts of Taku in June last, astonishment. They said that the and that all guns and material, as defences at Taku could not possibly well as the ships abandoned on be removed, and that the demand that occasion, be restored.
for indemnity and restitution was " 2. That the ratifications of the “get more against decorum." The Treaty of Tien-tsin be exchanged war expenses of China had been without delay at Pekin; that when enormous, and “were she to de. the Minister of Her Britanniemand repayment of England, Eng. Majesty proceeds to Pekin for that land would find that her expenses purpose, he be permitted to pro- did not amount to the half of those ceed up the river by Taku to the of China." city Tien-tsin in a British vessel ; The proposition with regard to and that provision be made by the the possible residence of a Bripich Chinese authorities for the con- Minister at Pekin was prour veyance of himself and of his suite to be even more unreason with due honour from that city to any of the other deman Pekin.
effect the ultimatum was
rejected. The answer concluded and water, destitute of tree, plant, as follows:
shrub, or grass, amidst a scene “ The despatch written on this of utter misery and desolation." occasion (by the British Minister) We may mention as a curious is, in much of its language, too illustration of our anomalous posiinsubordinate and extravagant (for tion with respect to this strange the Council) to discuss its pro- empire, that on the 18th of August positions more than superficially. a large body of the Taiping rebels, For the future he must not be so who have for many years kept up wanting in decorum.
a war with the Chinese Govern“ The above remarks will have ment with considerable success, atto be communicated by the Com- tacked Shanghai, in which a British missioner to the British Minis- garrison had been left by General ter, whom it will behove not to Sir Hope Grant when he proadhere obstinately to his own ceeded to the north. The attack opinion, as, so doing, he will was, of course, repulsed ; and no give cause to much trouble here- further attempt was made. But it after.”
was a singular fact, that we should Lord Elgin and Baron Gros left at the same moment have to conCeylon in the Pekin, and arrrived tend against the Chinese Governat Hong Kong on the 21st of June. ment, and a body of men, who like They proceeded without delay to ourselves were in arms against that Shanghai, which General Sir Hope Government, and who, therefore, Grant and Admiral Hope, the mi- ought naturally to have been our litary and naval commanders of allies in the enterprise. While the British forces had reached on tighting against the Emperor, we the 16th previously. The place of defended Shanghai against the rendezvous for the English was enemies of the Emperor ! the bay of Tah-lien-hwan, in the The following extract from a gulf of Pecheli. This bay lies despatch written by General Sir open to the south-east, being com- Hope Grant to the Secretary at pletely land-locked on every other War, under date August 24, will side, and it afforded excellent an- show the operations of the allied chorage for the ships, which, in- forces after leaving the village of cluding gunboats and transports, Pehtang on the morning of the amounted to about 200 in number. 12th of August; an earlier march The French expedition was at having been rendered impossible Chefow, on the north side of the on account of the heavy rains, promontory of Shantung, where which flooded the country, and Baron Gros joined it. The Eng- made the roads impracticable : lish forces left Tah-lien-hwan bay, “ The troops marched according and the French Chefow, on the to the following dispositions--viz., 26th of July, to meet near the the second division of Infantry, mouth of the Peiho river. They an Armstrong battery, a rocket proceeded to Pehtang, twelve battery, Madras Sappers, and the miles to the north of the Peiho, Cavalry Brigade, with three sixwhere they disembarked, and where pounders. The whole, under Mathey remained encamped until the jor - General Sir Robert Napier, 12th of August. Pehtang is de- struck off to the right of the road scribed as "a wilderness of mud leading from Pehtang to Sinho, for the purpose of turning the left who had cut up a good number of of the Tartar position. This the Tartar horsemen. column experienced the greatest * The loss of the Chinese was difficulty in getting through the about 100 men. deep heavy ground, which extend- "On the 13th I reconnoitred ed for more than two miles out of the ground along the banks of the Pehtang, and considerably delayed Peiho leading to Tangku, and the departure of the main column found it tolerably firm, though under Sir John Michel, which intersected with creeks and ditches. moved along the causeway leading I ordered these to be bridged directly from Pehtang to Sinho, during the night, and on the mornand which was composed as fol. ing of the 14th an allied force lows-viz., the 1st Infantry Bri- moved from Sinho towards Tanggade, a company of Royal Engi- ku, keeping their right flank on neers, an Armstrong battery, 1000 the bank of the river. French Infantry, and a French "On arriving within a mile of battery, all under Brigadier Stave. Tangku, a battery and some junks ley. This was followed by the on the right bank were silenced by 2nd Infantry Brigade, two 9. two Armstrong and two 9-pounder pounder batteries, and a rocket- guns; and a party of sailors, who battery, succeeded by the main had been brought up for the purcolumn of the French.
pose, crossed the river and burned "On approaching the intrenched the junks. camp the Tartar cavalry moved The whole of the artillery rapidly down to attack Sir Robert was then advanced to within 600 Napier, who was at this time about yards of the entrenchment, and two miles and a half off, on my right opened a heavy fire on the walls ; flank. His report of that part of two French batteries deployed on the engagement I beg to enclose. our left, the enemy replying with
“ Sir John Michel's division de- ten or twelve guns, and a brisk ployed at the same time in front of fire of giogals and matcblocks. ihe enemy's works, and opened The artillery gradually advanced fire with Lieutenant-Colonel Bar- to within 350 yards, and, the ry's Armstrong battery and Cap. enemy's guns being silenced, a tain Desborough's 9-pounders, a breach was commenced, when a French battery being on the left, passage across the double wet together with a French and an ditch was discovered at the river's English rocket battery. These edge by the 60th Rifles, and an guns kept up such a heavy fire entrance was effected, the Chinese that the Tartars were unable to retiring with great precipitancy. resist long, and they abandoned At the same time the French ad. their works, being closely followed vanced with great gallantry, and into their second entrenched line entered by the main gate, which at Sinho, which they were unable had been partially broken in by to defend, and fled to Tangku. the artillery fire. The garrison
* The enemy's force was com- of Tangku retreated, some into posed principally of cavalry, and the North Forts and some across numbered about 4000 men. At the river to Tangku. Sinho I was joined by Sir R. Na- * I am happy to say that our piei's division, and the cavalry, losses in these two engagements were very slight, owing to the tempted to escalade the walls, but enemy being completely paralysed failed, owing to the vigorous resistby the superior fire of our artil- ance of the Chinese. Their fire lery.
was so effective that our sappers * Forty-five guns were captured were unable to lay down the pon. in Tangku."
toon bridge, and fifteen mienenThe Allied forces then proceeded gaged in carrying it were, by one to attack the Taku forts. The discharge, knocked down, and a first against which the operations pontoon was destroyed. of the British troops commenced At this juncture Sir R. Napier was the uppermost fort on the left caused two howitzers to be brought bank of the Peiho, distant about up to within fifty yards of the gate, two miles from Tangku. On the in order more speedily to create a 20th of August the road was made breach, and a space sufficient to practicable to within 800 yards of admit one man had just been made, ihe fort, batteries were traced, and when our storming party, who had the heavy guns were brought out partly crossed by the French bridge ready to place in position by day- and partly swam over, forced their break of the following day. The way in by single file in the most Chinese opened fire during the gallant manner. · At the same day, and were replied to by Arm- moment," says Sir Hope Grant, strong guns at 2000 yards' range, “the French effected their enwith good effect, and the firing trance, and the garrison was driven gradually ceased.
back step by step, and hurled pell. During the night, batteries were mell through the embrasures on constructed for the heavy guns and the opposite side. "* mortars and for one field battery, The General proceeds :also for two 8-inch guns, and the whole were placed in position by
* The following spirited account of the daybreak of the 21st.
mode in which the fort was first entered
is taken from The Times newspaper. It It had been arranged with the is from the pen of an eye-witness. “A!! admirals that the gunboats should this time the fire of the enemy continued cross the bar that morning, and incessant. Cold shot,' hand.grenades, should engage the outer North stink pots, and vases of lime were show. Fort and the fank of the outer ered on the crowd of besiegers who stood
upon the berme. The ladders placed South Fort, at the same time that against the wall were pulled into the the attack on the inner North fort fort, or thrown over, and in vain did was commenced by the land forces. man after man attempt to swarm through At 5 A.m , however, the Chinese the embrasures. If the defence was des
perate, nothing could exceed the gallantry opened fire upon the troops from of the assailants. Between English and all their forts within range, and French there was nothing to choose. A the guns of the allies were forced to Frenchman climbed to the top of the reply an hour earlier than had parapet, where for some time he stood
alone. One rifle after another was handed been intended.
to bim, which he fired against the enemy. A storming party was formed, But his courage was unavailing, and he and the field guns were advanced fell back, speared through the eye. An10 within 500 yards of the up- other, pickaxe in hand, attempted to cut permost fort, while the French away the top of the wall
. He was shot,
and Lieutenant Burslem, of the 67th, pushed on to the salient point, caught hold of his pick and continued crossed the wet ditches, and at the work. Lieutenant Rogers attempted