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declaring that it would take many years | Grub Street could scarcely caricature. to repair the waste which had been When Lent began, the plunderers wrought in a few weeks by the armed generally ceased to devour, but conpeasantry.* Some of the Saxon aris- tinued to destroy. A peasant would tocracy had mansions richly furnished, kill a cow merely in order to get a pair and sideboards gorgeous with silver of brogues. Often a whole flock of bowls and chargers. All this wealth sheep, often a herd of fifty or sixty disappeared. One house, in which kine, was slaughtered: the beasts were there had been three thousand pounds' flayed; the fleeces and hides were worth of plate, was left without a carried away; and the bodies were left spoon. But the chief riches of Ire- to poison the air. The French amland consisted in cattle. Innumerable bassador reported to his master that, flocks and herds covered that vast ex- in six weeks, fifty thousand horned panse of emerald meadow, saturated cattle had been slain in this manner, with the moisture of the Atlantic. and were rotting on the ground all over More than one gentleman possessed the country. The number of sheep twenty thousand sheep and four thou- that were butchered during the same sand oxen. The freebooters who now time was popularly said to have been overspread the country belonged to a three or four hundred thousand.* class which was accustomed to live on Any estimate which can now be potatoes and sour whey, and which had | framed of the value of the property always regarded meat as a luxury re- destroyed during this fearful conflict served for the rich. These men at first of races must necessarily be very inexrevelled in beef and mutton, as the act. We are not however absolutely savage invaders, who of old poured without materials for such an estimate. down from the forests of the north on The Quakers were neither a very Italy, revelled in Massic and Falernian numerous nor a very opulent class. We wines. The Protestants described with can hardly suppose that they were contemptuous disgust the strange gluttony of their newly liberated slaves. I * King, iii. 10.; The Sad Estate and ConCarcasses, half raw and half burned to from a Worthy Person who was in Dublin on
dition of Ireland, as represented in a Letter cinders, sometimes still bleeding, some- Friday last, March 4. 1689 ; Short View by s times in a state of loathsome decay, Clergyman, 1689;, Lament
Clergyman, 1689; Lamentation of Ireland, were torn to pieces, and swallowed
1689; Compleat History of the Life and Ac tions of Richard, Earl of Tyrconnel, 1689;
The Royal Voyage, acted in 1689 and 1690. marauders who preferred boiled meat, | This drama, which, I believe, was performed
at Bartholomew Fair, is one of the most being often in want of kettles, con
curious of a curious class of compositions,
utterly destitute of literary merit, but valu. skin. An absurd tragicomedy is still able as showing what were then the most extant, which was acted in this and Sco
successful claptraps for an audience composed
of the common people. “The end of this the following year at some low theatre play,” says the author in his preface, " is for the amusement of the English po- | chiefly to expose the perfidions, base, cowardly,
and bloody nature of the Irish." The account
which the fugitive Protestants give of the sav
wanton destruction of cattle is confirmed by a Celtic song and dancing round an Avaux in a letter to Lewis, dated April ox. They then proceeded to cut steaks 1689, and by Desgrigny in a letter to Louvois, out of the animal while still alive, and dated May . 1690. Most of the despatches to fling the bleeding flesh on the written by Avaux during his mission to Ire
land are contained in a volume of which & coals. In truth the barbarity and
very few copies were printed some years ago filthiness of the banquets of the Rap- at the English Foreign Office. of many I parees was such as the dramatists of have also copies made at the French Foreign
Office. The letters of Desgrigny, who was
employed in the Commissariat, I found in the * Ten years, says the French ambassador;
Library of the French War Office. I cannot twenty years, says a Protestant fugitive. † Animadversions on the proposal for
too strongly express my sense of the liberality sending back the nobility and gentry of Ire
and courtesy with which the immense and sud
mirably arranged storehouses of curious inforland, 1689
mation at Paris were thrown open to me.
more than a fiftieth part of the Pro-I was the fate of the towns, it was eviestant population of Ireland, or that dent that the country seats which the hey possessed more than a fiftieth part Protestant landowners had recently if the Protestant wealth of Ireland. fortified in the three southern provinces Chey were undoubtedly better treated could no longer be defended. Many han any other Protestant sect. James families submitted, delivered up their iad always been partial to them: they arms, and thought themselves happy in >wn that Tyrconnel did his best to escaping with life. But many resolute protect them; and they seem to have and highspirited gentlemen and yeomen
ound favour even in the sight of the were determined to perish rather than Rapparees.* Yet the Quakers com- yield. They packed up such valuable puted their pecuniary losses at a hun- property as could easily be carried ired thousand pounds.
away, burned whatever they could not In Leinster, Munster, and Con- remove, and, well armed and mounted,
naught, it was utterly impossi- set out for those spots in Ulster which The Protestants in ble for the English settlers, were the strongholds of their race and unable to few as they were and dispersed, of their faith. The flower of the Pro
to offer any effectual resistance testant population of Munster and Conto this terrible outbreak of the aborigi- naught found shelter at Enniskillen. nal population. Charleville, Mallow, Whatever was bravest and most trueSligo, fell into the hands of the natives. I hearted in Leinster took the road to Bandon, where the Protestants had Londonderry.* mustered in considerable force, was re- The spirit of Enniskillen and Londuced by Lieutenant General Macarthy, donderry rose higher and higher
Enniskil. an Irish officer who was descended to meet the danger. At both len and from one of the most illustrious Celtic places the tidings of what had der hold houses, and who had long served, under been done by the Convention out. a feigned name, in the French army.I at Westminster were received with The people of Kenmare held out in transports of joy. William and Mary their little fastness till they were were proclaimed at Enniskillen with attacked by three thousand regular unanimous enthusiasm, and with such soldiers, and till it was known that pomp as the little town could furnish. several pieces of ordnance were coming Lundy, who commanded at Londonto batter down the turf wall which derry, could not venture to oppose himsurrounded the agent's house. Then self to the general sentiment of the at length a capitulation was concluded. citizens and of his own soldiers. He The colonists were suffered to embark therefore gave in his adhesion to the in a small vessel scantily supplied with new government, and signed a declarafood and water. They had no experi- tion by which he bound himself to enced navigator on board: but after a stand by that government, on pain of voyage of a fortnight, during which being considered a coward and a traitor. they were crowded together like slaves A vessel from England soon brought a in a Guinea ship, and suffered the ex- commission from William and Mary tremity of thirst and hunger, they which confirmed him in his office. I reached Bristol in safety. When such To reduce the Protestants of Ulster
*"A remarkable thing never to be for- / to submission before aid could arrive gotten was that they that were in government then "--at the end of 1688-" seemed to favour beries and Losses sustained by the Protestants us and endeavour to preserve Friends." His- of Killmare in Ireland, 1689. tory of the Rise and Progress of the People * A true Representation to the King and called Quakers in Ireland, by Wight and People of England how Matters were carried Rutty, Dublin, 1751. King indeed (iii. 17.) re-l on all along in Ireland by the late King James, proaches the Quakers as allies and tools of the licensed Aug. 16. 1689; A true Account of the Papists.
Present State of Ireland by a Person that f Wight and Rutty.
with Great Difficulty left Dublin, licensed | Life of James, 'ii. 327. Orig. Mem. Ma- June 8. 1689. carthy and his feigned name are repeatedly | Hamilton's Actions of the Inniskilling mentioned by Dangeau.
Men, 1689. § Exact Relation of the Persecutions, Rob- I Walker's Account, 1689.
to go to
from England was now the chief objects and, as the foes drew nearer, all Lis. Richard of Tyrconnel. A great force | burn and Antrim together came pourHamilton was ordered to move north-ing into Londonderry. Thirty thouinto Ulster ward, under the command of sand Protestants, of both sexes and of army. Richard Hamilton. This man every age, were crowded behind the had violated all the obligations which bulwarks of the City of Refuge. There, are held most sacred by gentlemen and at length, on the verge of the ocean, soldiers, had broken faith with his hunted to the last asylum, and baited most intimate friends, had forfeited his into a mood in which men may be military parole, and was now not destroyed, but will not easily be subjuashamed to take the field as a general gated, the imperial race turned despeagainst the government to which he rately to bay.* was bound to render himself up as a Meanwhile Mountjoy and Rice had prisoner. His march left on the face of arrived in France. Mountjoy James dethe country traces which the most care- was instantly put under arrest ter
termines less eye could not during many years and thrown into the Bastile. Ireland fail to discern. His army was accom- James determined to comply with the panied by a rabble, such as Keating invitation which Rice had brought, and had well compared to the unclean birds applied to Lewis for the help of a of prey which swarm wherever the French army. But Lewis, though he scent of carrion is strong. The gene- showed, as to all things which conral professed himself anxious to save cerned the personal dignity and comfrom ruin and outrage all Protestants fort of his royal guests, a delicacy eren who remained quietly at their homes; romantic, and a liberality approaching and he most readily gave them protec- to profusion, was unwilling to send a tions under his hand. But these pro- large body of troops to Ireland. He tections proved of no avail; and he saw that France would have to mainwas forced to own that, whatever power tain a long war on the Continent against he might be able to exercise over his a formidable coalition: her expenditure soldiers, he could not keep order among must be immense; and great as were the mob of campfollowers. The coun- her resources, he felt it to be important try behind him was a wilderness; and that nothing should be wasted. He soon the country before him became doubtless regarded with sincere comequally desolate. For, at the fame of miseration and good will the unfortuhis approach, the colonists burned their nate exiles to whom he had given so furniture, pulled down their houses, princely a welcome. Yet neither comand retreated northward. Some of miseration nor good will could prevent them attempted to make a stand at him from speedily discovering that his Dromore, but were broken and scat- brother of England was the dullest and tered. Then the flight became wild and most perverse of human beings. The tumultuous. The fugitives broke down folly of James, his incapacity to read the bridges and burned the ferryboats. the characters of men and the signs of Whole towns, the seats of the Protest the times, his obstinacy, always most ant population, were left in ruins offensively displayed when wisdom enwithout one inhabitant. The people of joined concession, his vacillation, alOmagh destroyed their own dwellings ways exhibited most pitiably in emerso utterly that no roof was left to shel- gencies which required firmness, had ter the enemy from the rain and wind. made him an outcast from England and The people of Cavan migrated in one might, if his counsels were blindly folbody to Enniskillen. The day was wet lowed, bring great calamities on France. and stormy. The road was deep in mire. It was a piteous sight to see, * Mackenzie's Narrative; Mac Cormack's
Further Impartial Account; Storey's Impar
tial History of the Affairs of Ireland, 1691 ; wome
Apology for the Protestants of Ireland: Letand toiling through the mud up to their ter from Dublin of Feb. 25, 1689; Avaux to knees. All Lisburn fled to Antrim; Lewis, April 1. 1689.
As a legitimate sovereign expelled byAn army was therefore for the prerebels, as a confessor of the true faith sent refused: but every thing persecuted by heretics, as a near kins- else was granted. The Brest furuished man of the House of Bourbon, who had fleet was ordered to be in by Lewis seated himself on the hearth of that readiness to sail. Arms for House, he was entitled to hospitality, ten thousand men and great quantities to tenderness, to respect. It was fit of ammunition were put on board, that he should have a stately palace About four hundred captains, lieuand a spacious forest, that the house- tenants, cadets, and gunners were hold troops should salute him with the selected for the important service of highest military honours, that he should organising and disciplining the Irish have at his command all the hounds of levies. The chief command was held the Grand Huntsman and all the hawks by a veteran warrior, the Count of of the Grand Falconer. But, when a Rosen. Under him were Maumont, prince, who, at the head of a great fleet who held the rank of lieutenant general, and army, had lost an empire without and a brigadier named Pusignan. Five striking a blow, undertook to furnish hundred thousand crowns in gold, plans for naval and military expeditions; equivalent to about a hundred and when a prince, who had been undone twelve thousand pounds sterling, were by his profound ignorance of the temper sent to Brest.* For James's personal of his own countrymen, of his own solo comforts provision was made with diers, of his own domestics, of his own anxiety resembling that of a tender children, undertook to answer for the mother equipping her son for a first zeal and fidelity of the Irish people, campaign. The cabin furniture, the whose tongue he could not speak, and camp furniture, the tents, the bedding, on whose land he had never set his the plate, were luxurious and superb. foot; it was necessary to receive his Nothing which could be agreeable or suggestions with caution. Such were useful to the exile was too costly for the sentiments of Lewis; and in these the munificence, or too trifling for the sentiments he was confirmed by his attention, of his gracious and splendid Minister of War, Louvois, who, on pri- host. On the fifteenth of February, vate as well as on public grounds, was James paid a farewell visit to Versailles. unwilling that James should be accom- He was conducted round the buildings panied by a large military force. and plantations with every mark of Lourois hated Lauzun. Lauzun was a respect and kindness. The fountains favourite at Saint Germains. He wore played in his honour. It was the seathe garter, a badge of honour which son of the Carnival; and never had the has very seldom been conferred on vast palace and the sumptuous gardens aliens, who were not sovereign princes. presented a gayer aspect. In the evenIt was believed indeed at the French ing the two kings, after a long and Court that, in order to distinguish him earnest conference in private, made from the other knights of the most their appearance before a splendid illustrious of European orders, he had circle of lords and ladies. “I hope,” been decorated with that very George said Lewis, in his noblest and most which Charles the First had, on the winning manner, “ that we are about scaffold, put into the hands of Juxon.* to part, never to meet again in this Lauzun had been encouraged to hope world. That is the best wish I can that, if French forces were sent to form for you. But, if any evil chance Ireland, he should command them; and should force you to return, be assured this ambitious hope Louvois was bent that you will find me to the last such on disappointing.t
as you have found me hitherto." On
the seventeenth, Lewis paid in return * Mémoires de Madame de la Fayette; Ma- a farewell visit to Saint Germains. At dame de Sévigné to Madame de Grignan, Feb. the moment of the parting embrace, 28. 1689. + Burnet, ii. 17.; Life of James, ii. 320,
ames 290 he said, with his most amiable smile : * 321, 322.
* Maumont's Instructions, VOL. II.
“We have forgotten one thing, a cui- | career, though it had brought great rass for yourself. You shall have calamities both on the House of Stuart mine.” The cuirass was brought, and and on the House of Bourbon, had been suggested to the wits of the Court by no means unprofitable to himself. ingenious allusions to the Vulcanian He was old, he said : he was fat: he panoply which Achilles lent to his did not envy younger men the honour feebler friend. James set out for Brest; of living on potatoes and whiskey among and his wife, overcome with sickness the Irish bogs : he would try to console and sorrow, shut herself up with her himself with partridges, with chamchild to weep and pray.*
pagne, and with the society of the James was accompanied or speedily wittiest men and prettiest women of followed by several of his own subjects, Paris. It was rumoured, however, that among whom the most distinguished he was tortured by painful emotions were his son Berwick, Cartwright Bi- which he was studious to conceal: his shop of Chester, Powis, Dover, and health and spirits failed; and he tried Melfort. Of all the retinue, none was to find consolation in religious duties. so odious to the people of Great Britain Some people were much edified by the as Melfort. He was an apostate: he piety of the old voluptuary: but others was believed by many to be an in-attributed his death, which took place sincere apostate; and the insolent, not long after his retreat from public arbitrary, and menacing language of life, to shame and vexation.* his state papers disgusted even the The Count of Avaux, whose sagacity Jacobites. He was therefore a favourite had detected all the plans of the Conne with his master: for to James unpopu- William, and who had in vain of Avaux. larity, obstinacy, and implacability were recommended a policy which would the greatest recommendations that a probably have frustrated them, was minister could have.
the man on whom the choice of What Frenchman should attend the Lewis fell. In abilities Avaux had Choice of King of England in the cha- no superior among the numerous able a French racter of ambassador had been diplomatists whom his country then dor to ac- the subject of grave delibera- possessed. His demeanour was singuJames. tion at Versailles. Barillon larly pleasing, his person handsome, could not be passed over without a his temper bland. His manners and marked slight. But his self-indulgent conversation were those of a gentleman habits, his want of energy, and, above who had been bred in the most polite all, the credulity with which he had and magnificent of all Courts, who had listened to the professions of Sunder- represented that Court both in Roland, had made an unfavourable impres. man Catholic and in Protestant counsion on the mind of Lewis. What was tries, and who had acquired in his to be done in Ireland was not work for wanderings the art of catching the a trifler or a dupe. The agent of France | tone of any society into which chance in that kingdom must be equal to much might throw him. He was eminently more than the ordinary functions of an vigilant and adroit, fertile in resources, envoy. It would be his right and his and skilful in discovering the weak duty to offer advice touching every part parts of a character. His own characof the political and military adminis- ter, however, was not without its weak tration of the country in which he parts. The consciousness that he was would represent the most powerful and of plebeian origin was the torment of the most beneficent of allies. Barillon his life. He pined for nobility with a was therefore suffered to retire into pining at once pitiable and ludicrous. privacy. He affected to bear his disgrace with composure. His political
* Memoirs of La Fare and Saint Simon; Note of Renaudot on English affairs, 1697, in
the French Archives ; Madame de Sévigné, * Dangean, Feb. 1689; Madame de
March 2 March 21. 1689 ; Letter of Madame Sévigné, Feb. 28. 12. 20; Mémoires de Ma
de Coulanges to M. de Coulanges, July 23. dame de la Fayette.