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every stitch length exactly. D is a vertical spindle moved by the band passing round the pulley below. This spindle drives the shuttle and operates the needle. On its top under the crown-plate, there is a pinion gearing into the pinion, N, on the needle spindle, H. M is the spool of thread on the fixed bracket; I is the needle arm, and K is the needle head. The thread will be observed passing down and through the eye of the needle, which is near the point, being thereby different from common needles; the needle is a peculiar and improved one; it has a vertical groove on both sides, running to the point, whereby the thread lies close, and forms a round needle altogether. There is a cam groove on the top of the spindle H. It will therefore be observed that, as the said spindle revolves, the groove will guide the end of the needle arm to give the needle a reciprocating up and down motion. E is the shuttle disc; the shuttle is a crooked instrument, represented by 0, fig. 2; it has a spool of thread, P, in it, like a weaver's shuttle; it moves round in the outside circle, but is moved by the inside disc, E, which revolves, and there are two side springs and notches, which enable the said disc to hold on, as it were, and carry round the shuttle. When the needle goes through the cloth it carries its thread double along with it, which is slightly held by the cloth in return, and forms a loop inside, then the shuttle comes under it at that instant, passes through the loop, and thus the two threads are locked; and when the shuttle is on the opposite of the circle of its course, the needle is farthest drawn up, and this action tightens the stitch, which is then drawn tight, nearly like a saddler's. The laced work seen in figures 1 and 2 is a piece of cloth sewn on a projection for slightly resisting the motion of the shuttle thread underneath, to make it draw tight across the circle while the shuttle is passing around. It will be observed that the great space between the needle and the back spindle, allows large folds of cloth to be sewed with great facility.
APPLEGATE's VERTICAL Printing Machine, which was at work during the exhibition, received a Prize Medal. This machine printed 5,000 impressions per hour. But one by the same gentleman, made for the London Times, prints 10,000 sheets per
hour. From an examination of Hoe's press in this country, it is I think, decidedly superior in work to Applegate's. Claussen's Circular Loom for Hosiery received a medal. By this loom, Hosiery and other stuffs may be woven without a seam. It was operated by very small power, and performed its work with great rapidity. It was a very ingenious invention, and certainly entitled to the award which was given.
Class 7.—Civil Engineering, Architectural and Building Contrivances.—This class was not very extensive. His Royal Highness Prince Albert, for his model cottage already noticed ; Messrs. Fox and Henderson, and Sir Joseph Paxton for the execution and design of the Palace, were honored with Council Medals. Models of bridges were exhibited, for which medals were awarded; one for the Brittania bridge, and one for the Iron bridge Co., New-York, for a model of Ryder's patént Iron bridge. Models of ships and railways were also noticed.
In Class 8.-Naval Slrchitecture and Military Engineering, Ordnance, &c.-A large number of prizes were awarded. The United States had awarded one Prize Medal to the National Institute at Washington, for models of ships of war and large merchant vessels.
A considerable number of Prize Medals were awarded for guns, rifles, &c., but strange to say, Colt's celebrated Revolvers, were only favored with an Honorable Mention, as appears from the returns I have. This is the more singular, when it is recollected, that the English press without an exception, so far as I am informed, gave great prominence to this most important and invaluable improvement of Mr. Colt, which has found great favor in England, and his rifles and pistols have been largely ordered for the use of the British army. There was an attempt made during the exhibition, to show, that Colt was not the inventor of the revolvers, one having been found in Paris, I believe of very ancient date. That may be so, for aught I know, but it is not the less true that so far as giving efficiency and practicability to the invention,
the world is indebted to him, and he is as truly and justly entitled to the credit of the invention, as if it had never before entered into the mind of another. Honorable Mention was also given to W. R. Palmer, for a Target Ritle, and to Robbins & Lawrence for Military Rifles.
There was awarded a Prize Medal, for specimens showing the advantages of Marine glue, as a substitute for pitch, and for other purposes connected with ship building, the invention of an English exhibitor. This appeared a very valuable invention. There was exhibited the piece of a mast of a vessel, which had been joined by this glue, which was inseparable by the wedge, driven with all the power that could be applied. Another piece tested by the Hydraulic press, 22 tons power required to move one splinter, but the joints remained perfect, giving an additional strength, dispersed over the surface of the main-mast of a first rate man of war, of 3,000 tons and upwards. Its use also for securing the joints between the planks forming the floors and decks of ships, is invaluable. The advantages over pitch were fully illustrated, by the exhibition of two seams, one payed with glue, the other with pitch, exposed to the same temperature in a tropical climate. There were a variety of samples in various forms where this had been used, which showed clearly its great value.
Yachts. In this class were exhibited models of the Yachts belonging to the Royal Thames Yatch Club--and others, by the builders and designers. It would have added greatly to the interest and usefulness of the exhibition in this class, if the model of Steers “America” had been exhibited, especially after the match at Cowes had attracted so much attention, and caused multitudes to visit her for the purpose of ascertaining the peculiarities which had enabled her to vanquish the most celebrated Yachts of the Kingdom.
The designs of Life Boats which had been procured by the Duke of Northumberland, showed some very excellent ones--and in the severe gales which have prevailed on the English coast during the
winter, the prize boats, it is said, have fully sustained the propriety of their selections.
CLASS 9. Agricultural Implements and Tools.—There was probably no department in the Exhibition which illustrated, in a more striking manner, its true object “that of showing the point of developments which the nations of the world have reached, in the great task of subduing nature to their use," than that devoted to the display of Agricultural Implements. The bringing together of the Agricultural Implements and products of all countries cannot be otherwise than productive of mutual benefit to all, enabling a comparison to be made of those adapted to each particular location, and thus the careful examiner was placed in a position to ascertain and learn, during the exhibition, that which would require years of travel to obtain as satisfactorily. In the English department, there was a most perfect exhibition of implements of husbandry. “But in passing from this area, filled with the results of human ingenuity and the skill of the mechanician and engineer, to the compartments of India and other less favored countries, contrasting their rude implements of husbandry, with theirs-and perhaps in no department of the exhibition will a more striking lesson be conveyed, or the progress of the human race more completely demonstrated."
"In the Indian compartment are to be seen models of the old plow, fashioned in the same rude manner as it was centuries since, with the driver standing upon the frame work; the oxen are yoked in the same ancient style as when Elisha was seen " plowing with twelve yoke of oxen," or as when, in the time of Samuel, “an half acre” was considered as much as a pair of oxen could plow in a day.
We there see the model of a squalid and wretched looking sower scattering and wasting the seed; and the hoofs of oxen tread out the grain after the same fashion as existed centuries ago— while in England and the United States, the steam engines, improved drills, horse hoes, and thrashing machines perform the
work which is badly and tardily accomplished by the Indian peasant. The exhibition shows that, in matters of husbandry, the vast majority of the natives of the Indian empire are stationary, while Great Britain and the United States of America, on the other hand, indicate the most striking improvement in this respect. “ The same remark applies, but in a more qualified manner, to most of the continental states of Europe; they have advanced beyond the rude and earlier stages, but it is not too much to say, judging from their display at the exhibition, that they are still much in arrear. There is probably no implement which has received a greater amount of attention on the part of the implement makers, than the plow. During the last twenty or thirty years, the improvements which have taken place, have been of the most extensive and practical character; a circumstance which is no doubt mainly attributable to the impulse which has been given by the practical tests to which they have been frequently submitted, before practical judges at Agricultural exhibitions, for the purpose of ascertaining which peculiar construction of plow did its work in the best manner, and at the least expenditure of labor and money. To the solution of these questions the most eminent agricultural engineers have devoted their time and attention, and, as the display of this kind of instrument proves, with very great
The English Plows which received the prizes from the Jurors were made principally of wrought iron, and did excellent work. They were most of them, however, complicated and very expensive, and one of the greatest merits claimed for some of them on exhibition was, that they were now so constructed that a plowman“could remove or replace the irons, subject to wear and breakage in the field, without the assistance of a mechanic.” Nothing can, more forcibly than this, show the main objections to the English Implements. They were most admirably got up, highly finished, well calculated to do their work, but were in most cases too complicated to be managed by an ordinary laborer; and connected with this was, the price of most of them, far beyond the means of ordinary farmers. The outlay for a complete sett of