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would treat its rights with much to that failure as many cirréspect, or that its own rebellious cumstaffees as possible of contempo

and disgrace. During the whole

the work of November, amid her re-iterated of insurrection the work ášsurances that nothing further Spain. But Spain, with an in- needed to be dreaded from the res fatuation for which it would be fugees of Portugal, a 'net, and far difficult to account,

were it necesa

more serious, invasion of that counsary to account for any measure of try was actually preparing. To a government in which brutal, una the rebels themselves were now ad. calculating bigotry bccupies the ded Spanish lancers and guerillas place of foresight, prudence, and Spanish arms distributed honesty, was determined to persist among the tanks, and sent across in her career, till she should

put it the frontier to be distributed among most thoroughly out of the power the peasantry; and a park of arof any sensible man in Europe to tillery was ready at Badajoz to say a single word 'in her behalf.

acconipány the division which was Eveh' now she might have retraced to enter the province of Alentejo. her steps without much humilia- Longa and St. Juan, the captains tion, she would only have been general of Valladolid and Estremathe last to acknowledge a govern- dura, who again and again had ment, whose principles she thought been pointed out to the governdangerous to herself, and her ment by name, as the deliberate hatred to whose institutions she and obstinatè violators of neutrality, did not think it necessary to con- and who, probably for that very céal'; the inroads made upon Por- reason, had been studiously contugal in October niight have afford- tinued in their commands, aled her as favorable an opportunity lowed and encouraged all this as she could now expect, to come bustle of preparation under their off without open disgrace, as if own eyes, where the lowest whisthat'unblushing and regular inva- per of discontent could not have sión had for the first time forced escaped the snarès and spies of the upon her the unwilling btlief that police. On the 23rd of November her good-nature had been abused. the rebels entered Portugal, peneShe might still have yielded with- trated from the north across the out appearing to yield to force; Douro, as far as Viseu, threw England had not yet láid her hand Oporto into consternation, pillaged upon the sword; France had not town and country, proclaimed Don yet treated her with contempt; Migiel king, established juntas of Russia had not yet read to her a lec- régency in his 'nanie; and, for six ture of grave disapprobation; the weeks, kept the fate of Portugal

;

, semblance of good faith now would turning almost upon a point. The have covered all the faults and follies whole of this was the work of of the past. But Spain, besides being Spain; she seemned about to derive depriveil of the exercise of sound from her obstinacy and åeceit the reason, seemed to have lost every advantage of a momentary triumph; feeling of national pride and regard and, but for one cabinet, she might for nationalcharacter, and to reckon have been successful. So soon as it nothing that she failed in her the invasion was known, the object, unless she could contrive Spanish minister at Lisbon was

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308) ANNUAL REGISTER, 1826.

] to it boog init", bei? JUST costat bine On Todt to suspended from his functions ; at conduct were all, more or less, Madrid, the Portuguese envoy in- expressions of censure, but none of stantly demanded his passports, and them presented any impediment departed; the British minister, to Ferdinand prosecuting his own hastened off the intelligence to schemes, in his own way, and with "England,--and absented himself his own means they gave him no from court. England had patiently aid, but they opposed to him no watched the progress of Spain, positive resistance. A British army, lanxious not to interfere fill the however, was an obstacle of a very -eonduet of that power I should different kind ; Portugal was now

justify interference to all the world. beyond the reach of attack; the Her advice and authority had often very rumour of the arrival of the restrained Portugal, when provoca- British troops had struck dismay tion might have led Portugal to into the rebels, and blasted all Imeasures of justifiable retaliation. their hopes ; retreat and defeat But, if Portugal had thus done lowed fast upon each other, and

, -violence to her sense of insult for within a few days they were Hai While, in order that her ally swept, with their Spanish allies,

night stand before Europe on im- from every corner of the kingdom, moveable ground, so much the seeking mercy in submission. Spain - more was that ally now bound to might arm the Haet in her defence with prompti- she dared, but they themselves 9tude and vigour. Within five days would never choose again, to, after the intelligence of the inva- : the frontiers with arms in t ision reached London, in the bea : hands. Like

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recreant bully, -ginning of December, the troops Ferdinand found it necessary to of Britain were on their march , disavow his pretensions, when he

to the assistance of her oldest had most surely reckoned on makIffriend, and, before the end of the ing them good. He e consented to - month, they were again landed on receive a minister from the Portuthe scene of their earlier glories. guese regency, a,

This energy and rapidity of deci- nition of the government, on his sion came upon Spain like a thun- own minister at Lisbon being reder-bolt: like her own Sancho, instated in his diplomatic funcwhen the imperious physician of tions. General Longa, and the Barataria snatched the favourite governor of Ciudad Rodrigo, who viands from his lips, she stood had again permitted a few miserstaring in stupid amazement. On able fugitives, from the last defeat an actual war with Britain she of the rebels, to re-enter Portugal, had never counted: for any thing probably because new instructions else she might have been prepared. had not yet reached them, were The recal of the French ambassa- suspended from their commands, dor who had encouraged her in and ordered to be tried by a milia her policy, in opposition to the sen- tary tribunal. Instead of all the timents of his government; the points, at which it was known that departure of the Swiss guards of the rebels were to leave Spain, France from Madrid which imme- being stripped of troops, the garridiately followed; and the disappro- sons on the frontiers were inbation which the autocrat of Rusa creased, and supported, by an army sia now formally bestowed upon her of eight thousand men, along the

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1208 line of the Tagus, to guard the stant and proverbial good faith of Spanish territory from violation the noble and elevated Spanish by either party, and prevent the character." Not a word of all this importation of the constitutional was liable to any doubt ; and every contagion measures, the honest syllable of it has been pressed adoption of which, two months upon the Spanish government for sooner, 'would have saved Spain months, with exemplary forbearfrom all the contumely to which ance, but it was extremely doubtshe was now exposed. The cap- fül how far these sentiments protains-general of the provinces, and ceeded from sincere conviction, or the inspector of the royalist volun- would be acted on longer than theneteers, were now informed by the cessity continued. The ministers minister of war, that'" his Majesty who had so misguided Spain still rehas the most lively desire to main- tained their places, and their influtain the relations of amity which ence; except that M. Calomarde unite him with his august allies, suffered a temporary disgrace, for and insure their inviolability by having, by some piece of bąd means calculated secure recipro- management, allowed a great numcal confidence that of all these ber of the original orders, which means, none is more indispensable had been sent to the captainsthan that of observing neutrality, general of the provinces on the Tema by abstaining from interfering by frontiers of Portugal, and memoany hostile acts or co-operation - randa of the rest of them, to fall against Portugal,

gal, so as not to com- into the hands of Mr. Lamb, the promise himself either with that - British ambassador, furnishing docountry or with its ally, England ; cumentary evidence upon which, that to suffer

any hostile force to if need were, to pronounce a verremain assembled in arms, on the dict of guilty against Spain, 1 as Spanish territory, would be acting having brought upon herself much

in a manner contrary to these humiliation by want of sense, want principles, and, consequently, ha- of prudence, and want of princizarding the dignity, and the con- ple.

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CHAP. XII.

PATUGAL Death of John VI.- Don Pedro's Resignation of the

Throne in favour of his Daughter ---Establishment of a RegencyVem Constitution of Portugal Promulgation of the Constitution State of Public Opinion-Discontent of the titra-Royalista, and Desertions from the Army Election of the Deputies to the Cortes Intrigues of Spain and the Marquis of Chares-Spain refuses to disuri the Deserters-- Conspiracy discovered in Lisbon-Decree against Emigrants-Demands of the Portuguese Enroy Revolts in Algarves and Tras os Montes---Meeting of the Cortes-Don Miguel takes the Oath to the Constitution-Renen ed Remonstrances of the Portuguese Envoy at Madrid –Preparations of the Reliels-They invade Portugal Spanish Minister at Lisbon suspended-Assurances given by Spain--Progress of the Rebels in Tras os Montes-Revolt in Lamego Insurrection in Beira-Progress of the Rebels under Magessi in the AlentejoMagessi is driven back into Spain--He re-enlers Portugal in the Province of Beira-Revolt in Almeida Mililary Movements of the Rebel Commanders and of the Constilufional Troopsm-Arrival of British Troops at Lisbou— The Rebels defçulęd ạt Coruches-They retreat into Spain,

J

a

OHN VL. king of Portugal, had declared that the House of

and titular emperor of Brazil, Braganza had ceased to reign, and died at Lisbon on the 10th of to prefer ruling over an inde March, 1826, at the age of fifty. pendent empire in America, to nine, after a reign of thirty-four wearing the crown of a vassal in years. ;, During twenty-five of Europe, was a singular step, and, these years, from 1792, he had perhaps, a wise one; but it exercised the sovereign power as was the result of foreign policy regent for his mother, who labour- and urgency, not of his own ed, under mental alienation. He voluntary deliberation. While he succeeded her upon her death in held his court at Rio Janeiro, and, 1817, and was crowned at Rio in Portugal, after his return to Janeiro, to which he had retired Europe, he still was guided in his with the court on the invasion of course by the circumstances which Portugal loy Napoleon, His cha- sprung up around him, seldom atruter wat marked neither by tempting, and still more seldom eminent virtues, nor debasing attempting successfully, to foresee,

, vices; and, though he had passed, to direct, or to control them. The during his reign, through many revolution of 1822 carried him vicissitudes of fortune, he did not before it, until it sunk beneath the display in them any sagacity of de- weight of its own vices and ab sign, or much stendiness of purpose. surdities, and left him, for the reTo leave Portugal when Napoleon mainder of his reign, the old, ,

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unlimited authority of his fathers. king, who were willing to hazard But neither was he bigottedly every risk to effect its recal, and obstinate in adhering to old pre, even venture upon the impossible judices, when opposed to plain task of bringing Brazil back by views of what was practicable force to a due obedience to the and proper. By submitting to mother country. They were supbe rationally advised, and recog-ported by the influence of the nizing with a good grace and in queen dowager, and the emperor good time, the independence of younger brother Don Miguel, both

9 Brazil, he preserved that empire of whom had shewn, in the preto his family: while Ferdinand of ceding year, how little they reSpain, blinded by bigotry and pre- garded the affection and the rejudice, and guided by a faction as spect due to a husband and a unthinking as himself, not only father, when it stood in the way lost his dominions in the new of their own wild and ambitious world, but lost them amid loud designs. This party itself, again, bravadoes and empty threats, which was in a great measure merely the rendered his weakness as creature of some foreign courts temptible as his obstinacy had which held the same general creed been ridiculous.

of political obedience, and more A vessel was immediately des- especially of the court of Madrid, patched to Rio Janeiro with the which was wedded to such princiintelligence of the king's decease, ples of policy by a community of and, in the mean time, the go- in

interest. It was the wish of this vernment

was administered party to induce Don Pedro to a regency, appointed by the temporize as long as possible belate king on the 6th of March, fore making his choice between a few days before his death, at the the crowns, and to prevent all head of which was the sister of representations to him which the new monarch, the princess might hasten that choice, in the Isabella Maria. There was only hope that, by evading and procrasone circumstance which could make tinating, expedients might be found the death of John VI. an occasion to restore the supremacy of Por for political intrigue. If Don Pedro tugal, and enable him to wiela accepted the throne of Portugal, both sceptres. The regeney had it was imperative upon him to lay the good faith, and the good sense down the crown of Brazil ; for the to follow better advice, and when constitution of Brazil, to guard they informed Don Pedro of the against the misgovernment which death of his father, they pressed had afflicted it when a colony, had upon him earnestly the necessity provided, in securing its independ- and expediency of a speedy deterence, that the two crowns should mination. Delay would have been never be united on the same head. dangerous to his authority in both It remained, therefore, to be seen, countries, for in both his authority whether Don Pedro would choose would have been uncertain ; and to be emperor of Brazil, or king of in fact, every act of government Portugal. But at home there was exercised by the regency of Pora strong party which had opposed tügal in the name of Don Pedro, to the last the recognition of Bra- after he should have learned his zilian independence by the late title to the crown, would have

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