« EdellinenJatka »
Police and Prisons Department. Oficer Commanding Armed Constabulary and Superintendent of Prisons, E. N. Turner, 4501. to 600l. Sub-Inspector of Constabulary and Gaoler, J. Beveridge, 340l. to 400l.
Commissioner of Lands and Crown Surveyor, S. G. C. Knibbs, 600l. to 7001. and 251. personal allowance.
Surveyor, A. H. Wilson, 500l. to 5501. Clerk, Lands and Works Department, C. E. Spencer, 2701. by 20l. to 3401.
Public Works Department.
Superintendent of Works (vacant), S. G. C. Knibbs (acting), allowance 60%.
Foreman of Works, J. S. Mutch, 300l. to 3751.
Native Labour Department.
Inspector of Labour, S. G. Masterman, 340l. to 400l.
Entomologist (vacant), 500l. to 6001.
Wireless Department. Engineer Operator in Charge, Wireless Station, Tulagi, A. E. Osborne, 350l. to 450l., and personal allowance 401.
Wireless Operator, R. S. Taylor, 300l. to 400.
The above all receive free quarters and 50%. local allowance. Local allowance, however, is not payable to Native Medical Practitioners.
THE TONGAN, OR FRIENDLY ISLANDS, with an area of about 250 square miles, are situated between the 18th and 22nd degrees of south latitude. They were discovered by Tasman in 1643. Most of the islands are of coral formation, but some are volcanic, notably Tofua, Kao, and Niuafoou (Good Hope Island). The natives belong to the Polynesian race, and are closely allied to the natives of New Zealand and Samoa. The islands are very rich in coconuts; and copra forms the principal export. There is monthly communication by steamer with Auckland. During the dry season, i.e., from April to December, steamers call at regular intervals for copra freights. Census of Population, April, 1937 :
Of the rest of the imports during 1937 the United Kingdom supplied 15.51 per cent., New Zealand 22 per cent., Australia 26-77 per cent. and other British possessions 9.75 per cent.
The climate may be considered a healthy one. The thermometer ranges between 53 and 93 degrees Fahrenheit.
There are seven churches in Tonga, viz., the Wesleyan Free Church of Tonga, with about 18,053 adherents; the Free Church of Tonga, and the Church of Tonga, with about 9,029; the Roman Catholic Mission, with about 4,230; the Church of England, 479; the Church of Latter Day Saints, C41; and the Seventh Day Adventist Mission, with about 256 adherents.
The Wesleyan Mission was first founded in Tonga in the year 1826, and a few years later the chiefs and people embraced Christianity and became members of the Church. The control and management of the Mission in Tonga were entrusted about the year 1857 to the Australasian Conference and continued until the year 1885, when King George Tubou I, after trying unsuccessfully to obtain local autonomy for the Church in Tonga, seceded, with a large majority of his chiefs and people and, with the assistance of the Rev. Shirley Baker, established the Wesleyan Free Church of Tonga as a separate and independent body though retaining the same doctrines, discipline, and form of worship as the Wesleyan Church. In January, 1887, an attempt was made by some escaped native convicts on the life of Mr. Shirley Baker, the Premier. The attempt was made the pretext for increased persecution of the "Fakaogos," or members of the Wesleyan Mission Church. About 100, whom no ill-usage could induce to abandon the Mission Church, were ordered to be deported to Pylstart Island, a barren islet south of Tonga, but they were finally allowed to go to Fiji. Shortly after an inquiry was made into the causes of the disturbances by Sir Charles Mitchell. At this inquiry the allegation that the attempt on Mr. Baker's life was due to a "Fakaogo" conspiracy was abandoned, and a letter written by Mr. Baker, purporting to be signed by the king, was addressed to Sir Charles Mitchell, promising an amnesty to political prisoners and freedom of worship. The services in the Mission Church at once recommenced.
In 1890 complaints were made that freedom of worship was still being interfered with; that persons were deprived of their lands and unjustly imprisoned on account of their adherence to the Wesleyan Church; and Tongan officials denied that the king had written to Sir Charles Mitchell promising to accord freedom of worship. Sir John Thurston therefore made a further inquiry, and finding that Mr. Baker was the principal cause of the wrongs endured by the Wesleyans, he issued an Order prohibiting Mr. Baker from being within the group for a term of two years from the 17th July, 1890. A few days before the issue of the Order, the king, on the request of the leading chiefs, had dismissed the Premier from office, and a fresh Government was formed with a native Premier (Tukuaho). Under the new Government the fullest freedom of worship was allowed, and the exiles were recalled from Fiji, the king having requested Sir John Thurston to make arrangements for their return.
In the year 1923 much dissatisfaction existed in the Wesleyan Free Church, and an enquiry that was held into the state of the finances disclosed a very lax state of affairs. As a result of this enquiry it was decided to approach the Wesleyan Church with a view to the union of the two bodies as a separate and independent Conference of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. At a joint conference of the two churches held in April, 1924, union was decided upon. A minority, under the leadership of the late Rev. J. A. Watkin, declined to join the united body and carried on under the title of the Free Church of Tonga. Protracted litigation ensued as a result of this division in respect of the ownership of the churches and property of the Wesleyan Free Church of Tonga established by King George I in 1885. It was finally decided on appeal in favour of the united Church, of which the present Queen is the head.
King George Tubou died on 18th February, 1893, and was succeeded by his great-grandson, George Taufaahau, under the title of George Tubou II. On the death of the latter on the 5th April, 1918, Princess Salote, his daughter by his first wife the late Queen Lavinia, succeeded to the throne. The young Queen, who was born on the 13th March, 1900, was married in 1917 to Prince Uiliami Tugi, the present Premier, and chief of highest rank in Tonga.
Early in 1900 Mr. Basil Thomson was sent out to Tonga by Her Majesty's Government, and concluded a Treaty with the king by which the latter placed himself and his territory under Her Majesty's protection. A protectorate was proclaimed on 18th May, 1900.
The present premier, Uiliame Tugi, is the Prince Consort, and was formerly Minister for Lands. The progress of Tonga since 1905 has been satisfactory.
Every Tongan is entitled to an allotment of land for cultivation, so that no unemployment exists. Primary education for Tongans between the ages of 6 and 14 is compulsory. There are two boys' colleges at which provision is made for secondary education. Secondary education of girls is entirely in the hands of the Christian missions. Medical work is well organised; and. unlike most native communities in the Pacific, the native population steadily increases in number. British and foreign nationals charged with any offence against the laws of Tonga, not including crimes punishable by death or by imprisonment exceeding two years, are subject to the juris. diction of the Tonga Courts. In other respects
o es patent datea 17th June, 1885, provided for the continuance of
length of time since the area was last cultivated. In the north, where the rainfall is less than that
'he capital, Freetown, lies about four miles the Sierra Leone River, at the foot of a chain of s rising 2,900 feet above the sea. In 1931 it tained 54,958 inhabitants. It possesses the t harbour in West Africa, and is an important ling station and a port of registry. The peninsula of Sierra Leone and the lands imdiately adjoining have a population (including eetown and its Districts) of 90,885. It yields ly a small quantity of exportable commodities, t ginger and coffee thrive if well looked after. e extent of the territory is, however, small 56 square miles), and the generally rocky soil not very well adapted for cultivation. Considerable quantities of palm kernels, palm ↳, piassava, with other articles of lesser imrtance are exported via Bonthe in the Southern ovince.
Many districts in the Protectorate are fertile id well adapted to the growth of oil palms, cocoits, beniseed, kola nuts, gum-producing trees, nger, cocoa, rice, and other tropical products. Alluvial platinum deposits occur near York, id are being worked on a small scale. Alluvial old in the Protectorate has attracted both mpanies and individuals. Gold mining is now eing actively pursued and is already of great alue to the country.
Chromite has been discovered in several parts the Protectorate and the most promising >posit occurs in the Kambui Hills near Hangha, rospecting operations are being carried out.
Diamonds are being mined in the Kono District nd now form a very important industry in this Juntry.
Two large deposits of iron ore occur and export n a large scale has commenced from Marampa. 'reliminary work is now being undertaken in conection with the second, known as the Tonkolili leposits.
The native population of the Protectorate is stimated at 1,672,057 and is composed of the ollowing tribes:
Temnes, Limbas, Susus,
Lokos, Fulas, Mandingos, Korankos, Yalunkas. Mendes, Sherbros, Konos, Krims, Gallinas, Golas, Vais, Kissis.
A Charter, issued on May 27th, 1863, created an Executive Council for the Colony composed of four members nominated by the Crown. The Legislative Council was to consist of the members of the Executive Council and nominated members.
A Charter, dated the 19th of February, 1866, established a Central Government of the settlements on the West Coast of Africa, with the seat of government at Sierra Leone.
A new Charter, dated the 24th of July, 1874, revoked so much of the Charter of the 19th of February, 1866, as provided for the government of the Gold Coast and Lagos under the Governorin-Chief of the West Africa Settlements, and those settlements were erected into a distinct government. A further Charter, dated 17th of December, 1874, erected a new government of the "West Africa Settlements," consisting of Sierra Leone and the Gambia, and created a Legislative Council in each settlement, consisting of the officer administering the government, and not less than two other persons, to be designated by roval instructions or warrant. New letters patent dated 17th June, 1885, provided for the continuance of
the government on the same lines, with some minor differences. By letters patent of 28th Nov., 1888, the Gambia was again made a separate government. By letters patent, dated 3rd April, 1913, and Royal Instructions, dated 4th May, 1922, there were constituted an Executive Council composed of the Officer in command of the troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Colonial Treasurer and the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, and a Legislative Council, composed of the members of the Executive Council and four unofficial members nominated by the Crown. On March 7, 1913, an Imperial Order-inCouncil was issued providing for the administration of the Protectorate of Sierra Leone. The Order applies to the territories, not being portions of the Colony of Sierra Leone, lying between the sixth and tenth degrees of north latitude and the tenth and fourteenth degrees of west longitude, and beginning at the extreme southerly point of the Colony on the Anglo-Liberian boundary, as delimited under the provisions of the AngloLiberian Conventions, November 11, 1885, and January 21, 1911.
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief for the time being of the Colony of Sierra Leone is also the Governor of the Protectorate. Authority is given to the Governor by Ordinances passed in the Legislative Council to exercise and provide for giving effect to the powers and jurisdiction acquired by the Crown in Sierra Leone.
Letters Patent, dated the 28th January, 1924, revoked those issued on the 3rd April, 1913, and made fresh provision for the appointment of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, and instructions issued under the Royal Sign Manual and Signet on the same date cancelled those of the 3rd April, 1913, and 4th May, 1922. An Order of the King in Council dated the 16th January, 1924, provided for a new and considerably enlarged Legislative Council, introducing an elective element and direct representation of Protectorate interests into the constitution of that Council for the first time in the history of Sierra Leone.
The seasons may be divided into wet and dry, the former commencing in May and lasting till October. The shade temperature varies during the year from about 62° to 97°. Tornadoes or violent thunderstorms occur at the commencement and close of the rainy season. They are accompanied by strong wind, but do not last long, and seldom do much damage. The atmosphere during the rainy season is excessively damp. The rainfall in Freetown for the year 1937 was 148.87 inches, but decreases inland to an average annual rainfall of about 93 inches at Kabala. Between the months of December and March the wind known as the "Harmattan is prevalent; it is very dry, and often brings with it a fine dust said to come from the Sahara. Its direction ranges from N.E. to S.E.
The climate of Sierra Leone, as elsewhere on the West Coast of Africa, is trying, but conditions have been greatly improved in recent years through the efforts of the Medical and Sanitary Services, and if ordinary precautions are taken the risk of contracting malarial fever can be much reduced.
Vegetation and Agriculture.
The greater part of the country is covered by bush growth, the height of the bush varying with the length of time since the area was last cultivated. In the north, where the rainfall is less than th•