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(lIanded in by Col. Hozier, Q. 1418.) Captains of vessels are most particularly requested, in case of any wreck, or v2888? in distress or overdue, becoming
known to them, to communicate tha fact to Lloyd's Agent immediately on arrival at the first port of call.
The Committee of Lloyd's will be grateful if you will be good enough to renort on this iorm any information of the following description, giving in each case the date and position :
I.-Vessels passed in distress.
N.B.- Please do not omit to insert the Date, Latitude and Longitu:le, and also any distinguishing name or mark on wrecks or wreckage.
The information thus received is published in “Lloyd's List” and “ Lloyd's Weekly Index,” for general information, and its source acknowledged. I need not point out to you the great value, to all concerned, of such intelligence.
Please post this report, without prepayment, as early as possible after you reach port, if you have not had the opportunity previously of communicating the information to a local Agent for Lloyd's.
I am, Sir,
N.B.—This fornı can be posted to L'oyl's without prepayment from any port or place the ship communicates with.
Captains of vessels bound to London are informed that the Customs boarding officers at Gravesend will be prepared to receive and forward to Lloyd's any Reports which Captains may tender to them on their boarding the vessel on arrival at Gravesend. Report of the
arriro at 189
N.B.—Please do not omit to insert the Date, Latitude and Longitude.
No. 107.-U. S. HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE,
WRECKS AND DERELICTS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN, 1887 To 1893, INCL: SIVE.
THEIR LOCATION, PUBLICATION, DESTRUCTION, Etc.
every available source, especially from shipmasters, and The Hydrographic Office, which is a branch of the are forwarded daily to the main office. Reports received Bureau of Navigation of the Navy Department, has for
at the main office are at once sent to the Meteorological 11 years taken cognizance of matters pertaining to
Division, which has charge of matters relating to ocean ocean wrecks and derelicts, and has published on its
meteorology, oceanography, and also to shipping intepilot charts and hydrographic bulletins information
rests, so far as nautical practice relates to the latter. relative to these menaces to navigation. The Hydro- In the Meteorological Division, the positions of these graphic Office has 11 branch offices, situated in the dansers are plotted upon charts, and attached also to a principal inaritime cities of the United States, for the large black board chart. The latter exhibits, always, purpose of collecting and distributing hydrographic the positions of wrecks and derelicts in the North and meteorological information, under direction from Atlantic Ocean according to the latest reports. The the main office. An important duty of the branch continuous drift of derelicts is shown upon the Pilot víñces is the collection and investigation of reports Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, a monthly publicarelative to wrecks and derelicts. Each office is in tion of the Hydrographic Office. Additional information charge of a naval officer, and is supplied with a very relative to wrecks and derelicts is given on a weekly complete outfit of charts, vaatical books, and nautical publication styled Hydrographic Bulletin. The Pilot instruments. Each in its own neighbourhood can Charts and Bulletins are circulated freely among readily form such counexions as will enable it to inves- master of vessels who are voluntary weather observers tigate reports thoroughly. Reports are received from for the office, and among those who are otherwise
actively interested in the work of the office. At short intervals, tabulated statements of the existence of wrecks and derelicts dangerous to commerce are sent by special messenger to the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, Nary Department. If the case is urgent, special reports are made. The Chief of the Bureau of Navigation then refers the reports to the Secretary of the Navy, who oftentimes directs that the wreck or derelict be destroyed by some available naval vessel. In a case of special urgency, the order for the destruction of a danger is sent by telegraph.
The Hydrograpbic Office has nearly 3,000 voluntary observers of the weather at sea. The majority of these are mariners who traverse the North Atlantic Ocean. They provide, therefore, an excellent patrol of the waters of that ocean, and are, in a sense, voluntarily under the control of the Hydrographic Office for that purpose,
From what has been said it is seen that the Navy Department of the United States has a fairly well organised system leading to the discovery and destruction of wrecks and derelicts in waters reasonably near the North Atlantic coast of the United States.
The subject of wrecks and derelicts came before the International Marine Conference organised in Wash. ington on October 16, 1889. The Conference adopted the following resolution :
That the different maritime powers interested in the navigation of that portion of the North Atlantic Ocean bordering the American coast, and situated westward from a line drawn from the Bermuda Islands to Cape Race, Newfoundland, be invited to come to an agreement respecting the removal of derelicts in these waters, under due official supervision. The following joint resolution, baving passed both Honses of Congress, was approved by the President on October 31, 1893 :
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatires of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States be, and he is nereby, authorised to make with the sereral Governments interested in the navigation of the North Atlantic Ocean, an international agreement providing for the reporting, marking, and removal of dangerons wrecks, derelicts, and other menaces to navigation in the North Atlantic Ocean, outside the coast waters of the respective countries bordering thereon.
This action by Congress has increased the interest felt in the question of wrecks and derelicts, as shown by the press and by the increased correspondence of the Hydrographic Office. With a view to satisfy this interest as far as possible, the statistical information contained in this book has been prepared.
C. D. SIGSBEE, Commander of the U.S. Navy, Hydrographer.
WRECKS AND DERELICTS.
1.-NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED OF WRECKS AND
DERELICTS. There are many reports received by this office of the same wreck, about the same time; in past years these reports were not preserved after publication in the weekly bulletins, and the duplicate reports have been invariably destroyed. Therefore, in order to ascertain the number of such reports, the reports for the year 1893 are taken as a general average. Average Number of Reports of Wrecks, Dangerous
312 + 106
Summary:--Identified derelicts in same period, 482. Grand total, 1,628 in seren years (1887–1893). This equals 232 annually, or 19 per month. Tor 1893 the average number per month was-
= 35 (about). These tables show that the months during which the greatest number of derelicts is reported are September, October, and November. They also indicate that during the past five years the number has been gradually increasing.
This increase is probably not so much the increased number of derelicts, but is due to the fact that this office has gradually increased the efficiency of its ccean patrol through its constantly increasing number of voluntary co-operating observers. This feature is exemplified by the fact that in 1893 there were 312 unidentified and 106 known derelicts, or a total of 418,
Average Number of Reports of Derelicte. Daily
and an average of 35 per month, instead of 19, the IV.-THE AVERAGE TINE A DERELICT IS A DRIFT. monthly average in the period of seven years. It has been shown that there were 1,628 derelicts
A fair estimate of the arerage time a derelict remains in seven years, or an average of 19 ercry month;
afloat may be obtained from the following tables of and since the average length of time a derelict identified derelicts by assuming that each derelict remains afloat is one' month, it is evident that
remained afloat one day after it was last reported, and there must be 19 derelicts constantly afloat on the
that those derelicts that were reported only once North Atlantic. Prior to 1893 this was estimated at
remained afloat three days each. On these assumptions, 16, but fuller reports are received now than in former
the average period of drift is found to be approximately
30 days. years.
V.--TRACKS OF DERELICTS.
These tracts are plotted on the Pilot Charts from
month to month. The most notable case is that of the The Pilot Charts show that most of the derelicts are three-masted schooner Fanny E. Wolston, abandoned sighted in the Gulf Stream off the United States coast, October 15, 1891, and last seen on February 20, 1894. north of 30° north latitude, and west of 60° west She has, therefore, been a derelict for 850 days, during longitude. The number gradually decreases to the which she drifted 7,025 miles, the longest track of eastward along the transatlantic steamer routes.
the kind on record; and, as she is supposed to be A number of those which remain afloat the longest afloat yet, her track will probably be still further time make the circuit of the Sargasso Sea.
extended The majority of the derelicts were vessels which All those known derelicts that were reported more were abandoned near the United States coasts.
than once are given in the following table :
Drift of Derelicts in the North Atlantic during the Seven Years, 1887-1893, inclusive,
Mattie W. Atwood, schooner
Drift of Derelicts in the North Atlantic during the Seren Yeurs, 1887-1893 inclusive - continued.
Biagio, bark Lady Rowena, bark Zouave, ship Omen, bark Clara, bark Gibraltar, bark Neva May, schooner T. A. Lamhert, schooner Golconda, brig Ethel M. Davis, schoorer David W. Hunt, schooner St. Albans, ship Petty, baik Lena Breed, schooner James B. Drury, schooner Proteus, brig Venus, bark Georgia B. McFarland, schooner Mary E. Bacon, schooner Alice Borda, schooner Gipsy Queen, brig Depmark, steamer Emilie, bark Palatka, chooner
13 Nov. 1888 52 06 13 Nov. 1888 | 46 00
Richarn W. Denham, sehooner
17 July 1889 42 00 10 Sept. 1889 38
11 Sept. 1883 37 16 -'11 Sept. 1889 49 13 9 Sept. 1889 33 00
1 12 Sept. 1989 36 49
27 Oct. 1889
Minnie Swift, bark
20 Oct. 1889
24 Oct. 1889
25 Oct. 1889
15 Nov, 1859
18 Dec. 1889
26 Jan. 1890
26 Jan. 1890
25 Jan. 1890
28 Jan. 1890
21 Jan. 1890
15 Feb. 1890
26 Feb. 1890
2 Mar. 1890
23 Feb. 1890
27 Feb. 1890
David Clarkson, tern
9 Feb. 1890
9 April 1990
Drift of Derelicts in the North Atlantic during the Seven Years, 1887–1893 inclusive-continued.
B. 1.. Burt, tern
1 Feb. 1892
22 Sept. 1892
7 Aug. 1892 19 July 1893
Ashore on Wells
21 Aug. 1802